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About this book

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mobile Web and Information Systems, MobiWIS 2014, held in Barcelona, Spain, in August 2014. The 24 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 75 submissions and cover topics such as: mobile software systems, middleware/SOA for mobile systems, context- and location-aware services, data management in the mobile web, mobile cloud services, mobile web of things, mobile web security, trust and privacy, mobile networks, protocols and applications, mobile commerce and business services, HCI in mobile applications, social media, and adaptive approaches for mobile computing.

Table of Contents


Mobile Services and Energy-Aware Applications

Online Change Detection for Energy-Efficient Mobile Crowdsensing

Mobile crowdsensing is power hungry since it requires continuously and simultaneously sensing, processing and uploading fused data from various sensor types including motion sensors and environment sensors. Realizing that being able to pinpoint change points of contexts enables energy-efficient mobile crowdsensing, we modify histogram-based techniques to efficiently detect changes, which has less computational complexity and performs better than the conventional techniques. To evaluate our proposed technique, we conducted experiments on real audio databases comprising 200 sound tracks. We also compare our change detection with multivariate normal distribution and one-class support vector machine. The results show that our proposed technique is more practical for mobile crowdsensing. For example, we show that it is possible to save 80% resource compared to standard continuous sensing while remaining detection sensitivity above 95%. This work enables energy-efficient mobile crowdsensing applications by adapting to contexts.
Viet-Duc Le, Hans Scholten, P. J. M Havinga

A Hybrid Approach to Web Service Composition Problem in the PlanICS Framework

The paper deals with the concrete planning problem – a stage of the Web Service Composition in the PlanICS framework. A novel (hybrid) planning technique based on a combination of a Genetic Algorithm and a Satisfiability Modulo Theories Solver is introduced. The experimental results of the hybrid algorithm are compared with these obtained using “pure” planning methods.
Artur Niewiadomski, Wojciech Penczek, Jaroslaw Skaruz

Analysis of Offloading as an Approach for Energy-Aware Applications on Android OS: A Case Study on Image Processing

Energy consumption on mobile devices has been studied with the objective of finding ways to extend the device’s autonomy, responding to a clear requirement from the end user. Computation offloading is an energy aware design technique that moves the execution of software routines outside the mobile device. In this paper, we illustrate a case study of an energy aware image processing application for Android mobile systems, which exercises process offloading to describe a quantitative outline of its actual contribution to save energy in a mobile device. We compared the battery consumption of local and remote executions of selected benchmarks, finding that even though in some cases it is actually more economical to offload the process, the expenses of overhead and network usage have a high impact on the energy required by the application.
Luis Corral, Anton B. Georgiev, Alberto Sillitti, Giancarlo Succi, Tihomir Vachkov

Optimizing QoS-Based Web Services Composition by Using Quantum Inspired Cuckoo Search Algorithm

Optimization of web services composition is one of the most interesting challenges at present, since the composition of web services become a promising technology in a variety of areas. In fact, on the internet many services provide the same functionality. So, for one user request a set of compositions is proposed. In order to have the best one, we propose in this paper an approach based on the use of the Quantum Inspired Cuckoo Search Algorithm with the QoS as optimization criteria, to satisfy the user’s queries. More precisely, we propose two contributions: In the first one, we define an appropriate quantum representation for solutions. While in the second one, we propose a new randomized heuristic generating solutions starting from the user’s request. And globally, with our approach we will optimize the QoS-based web services composition in order to satisfy the user query by capturing his constraints. To illustrate our approach, we have implemented it as a prototype of a system and applied it on a text translation case study. The results obtained from this illustration are encouraging and express the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach.
Serial Rayene Boussalia, Allaoua Chaoui

Context-Aware and Location-Aware Services

Towards a Context-Aware Mobile Recommendation Architecture

Nowadays, the huge amount of information available may easily overwhelm users when they need to take a decision that involves choosing among several options. On the one hand, it is necessary to identify which items are relevant for the user at a particular moment and place. On the other hand, some mechanism would be needed to rank the different alternatives. Recommendation systems, that offer relevant items to the users, have been proposed as a solution to these problems. However, they usually target very specific use cases (e.g., books, movies, music, etc.) and are not designed with mobile users in mind, where the context and the movements of the users may be important factors to consider when deciding which items should be recommended.
In this paper, we present a context-aware mobile recommendation architecture specifically designed to be used in mobile computing environments. The interest of context-aware recommendation systems has been already shown for certain application domains, indicating that they lead to a performance improvement over traditional recommenders. However, only very few studies have provided insights towards the development of a generic architecture that is able to exploit static and dynamic context information in mobile environments. We attempt to make a step in that direction and encourage further research in this area.
María del Carmen Rodríguez-Hernández, Sergio Ilarri

Beyond Responsive Design: Context-Dependent Multimodal Augmentation of Web Applications

Context-dependent adaptation is becoming a continuous necessity since we access our applications in more and more variegated contexts. Multimodality can be a significant support in such changing settings. We present a solution for obtaining automatic augmentation of Web applications in such a way as to enable them to exploit various combinations of graphical and vocal modalities. We report on the software architecture supporting such augmentations and its underlying context manager, as well as some example applications and first user tests.
Giuseppe Ghiani, Marco Manca, Fabio Paternò, Claudio Porta

Wherever You Go – Triggers of Location Disclosure for Check-in Services

Privacy concerns have been identified as a major barrier to location-based services (LBS) usage. As opposed to previous studies treating location data as a universal term, this work aims at opening the black box of location data by showing the impact of the different characteristics of a user’s location. Due to the exploratory nature, qualitative interviews and a focus group are applied. By investigating voluntary and proactive location disclosure for check-in services, this study reveals two major location characteristics triggering the associated disclosure intention: hedonism and perceived uniqueness. Finally, the practical and theoretical contribution of this study consists of an enriched understanding of location data in the context of LBS usage.
Stephanie Ryschka, Markus Bick

Mobile Networks and Applications

Stochastic Resource Allocation for Uplink Wireless Multi-cell OFDMA Networks

In this paper, we propose a (0-1) stochastic resource allocation model for uplink wireless multi-cell OFDMA Networks. The model maximizes the total signal to interference noise ratio produced in a multi-cell OFDMA network subject to user power and subcarrier assignment constraints. We transform the proposed stochastic model into a deterministic equivalent binary nonlinear optimization problem having quadratic terms and second order conic constraints. Subsequently, we use the deterministic model to derive an equivalent mixed integer linear programming formulation. Since the problem is NP-Hard, we propose a simple reduced variable neighborhood search (VNS for short) metaheuristic procedure [6,7]. Our preliminary numerical results indicate that VNS provides near optimal solutions for small and medium size instances when compared to the optimal solution of the problem. Moreover, it provides better feasible solutions than CPLEX when the instances dimensions increase. Finally, these results are obtained at a significantly less computational cost.
Pablo Adasme, Abdel Lisser, Chen Wang

Improving the Performance and Reliability of Mobile Commerce in Developing Countries

Mobile commerce (m-commerce) is currently more widely adapted in developed countries than the developing countries. Developing countries lag behind due to inappropriate technological infrastructure for the provisioning of m-commerce services. Though there exist various obstacles of adapting m-commerce services in developing countries, this paper addresses the performance and reliability issues. In particular, it considers the limited bandwidth of wireless networks and the capacity of underlying web servers involved in processing m-commerce requests. If m-commerce requests are not processed efficiently then they are more likely to be dropped wherever the network connection can be intermittent as in developing countries. This paper proposes an approach which is based on the class-based priority scheme that distinguishes m-commerce requests from other requests. The idea is to give high priority to the requests coming from mobile devices (over wireless networks) as compared to requests coming from standard PC/laptops (over standard Internet (wired) connections) as the later can tolerate longer delay and are less susceptible to connection failures. The proposed approach is formally specified and is implemented as a prototype tool. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach significantly improves the performance and reliability m-commerce requests.
Ibtehal Nafea, Muhammad Younas

A Selective Predictive Subscriber Mobility Using the Closest Criterion

Mobility support is among the most defying topics into publish/subscribe systems. In fact, the mobility of the subscriber causes message loss, an increase in the latency and in the overhead. We resort to the proactive caching by defining a procedure for selecting the candidates brokers for being the caching points. We define a metric named threshold, and we select the brokers which have the values of weight superior to this metric. Added to that, we extend our approach by the select closest criterion for minimizing the delay of transfer. So, we select the closest caching point for the transfer of messages in the cases of a handoff to a non caching point. Hence, we have succeed to minimize the buffering costs and the delay of transfer.
Fatma Abdennadher, Maher Ben Jemaa

Industrial and Practical Applications

Towards an Automated Safety Suit for Industrial Service

Wearable and mobile computing technologies enable new types of safety-related applications due to augmentation of sensing and computational devices, thus introducing new - non-intrusive interaction styles. Wearable sensor technologies provide the mobile worker with the opportunity to measure information about the environment as well as his own condition. Mobile devices enable accessing, processing, visualizing, alarming, and communicating information without being constrained to a single location. In this paper, we present an automated safety vest that follows an non-intrusive and modular design. It can sense various environmental and health conditions and is controlled by a mobile application running on a smart phone. The modular design of the wearable sensors makes it easy to integrate it with existing safety equipment, such as a high visibility vest.
Markus Aleksy, Thomas Scholl

SmartARM: Smartphone Based Activity Recognition and Monitoring System for Heart Failure Patients

With recent advancements in the medical field, activity monitoring applications that are proficient in measuring health-related data have become common. These devices are capable of transmitting information wirelessly and can be used in conjunction with smart phones to pass on data content to devices with similar operating capability. Motion sensor embedded smartphones provide users information about their own physical activity in an understandable format that may be used for a variety of applications. In this paper, I introduce the design and implementation of a health activity monitoring and diagnostic system suitable for heart failure patients. The main objective of this work is to collect data from external sensors that measure patient’s vital signs and predict future events by observing these physical readings of the heart patient.
Umer Fareed

SARA: Singapore’s Automated Responsive Assistant, A Multimodal Dialogue System for Touristic Information

In this paper we describe SARA, a multimodal dialogue system offering touristic assistance for visitors coming to Singapore. The system is implemented as an Android mobile phone application and provides information about local attractions, restaurants, sightseeing, direction and transportation services. SARA is able to detect the user’s location on a map by using a GPS integrated module and accordingly can provide real-time orientation and direction help. To communicate with SARA users can use speech, text or scanned QR code. Input/output modalities for SARA include natural language in form of speech or text. A short video about the main features of our Android application can be seen at: Currently, the system supports only English, but we are working towards a multi-lingual input/output support. For test purposes we also created a web version of SARA that can be tested for Chinese and English text input/output at:
Andreea I. Niculescu, Ridong Jiang, Seokhwan Kim, Kheng Hui Yeo, Luis F. D’Haro, Arthur Niswar, Rafael E. Banchs

Mobile Web Interfaces and Applications

mSWB: Towards a Mobile Semantic Web Browser

An enormous amount of information stored in semantic format has become available nowadays. In order to browse this huge data, the development of different browsers has become necessary. Today, many browsers available, but these are typically desktop applications. Vast knowledge bases have been created by means of linking the different public datasets. The efficient query of these data is a difficult problem. The currently available browsers typically do not allow browsing over the federated datasets, generally displaying only the information of a specified dataset. In this paper a mobile semantic web information system is presented, which allows smartphones to browse federated semantic datasets. In addition, the details of data integrator middleware and the Android-based client and the evaluation are described.
Tamás Matuszka, Gergő Gombos, Attila Kiss

Extending the Interaction Flow Modeling Language (IFML) for Model Driven Development of Mobile Applications Front End

Front-end design of mobile applications is a complex and multidisciplinary task, where many perspectives intersect and the user experience must be perfectly tailored to the application objectives. However, development of mobile user interactions is still largely a manual task, which yields to high risks of errors, inconsistencies and inefficiencies. In this paper we propose a model-driven approach to mobile application development based on the IFML standard. We propose an extension of the Interaction Flow Modeling Language tailored to mobile applications and we describe our implementation experience that comprises the development of automatic code generators for cross-platform mobile applications based on HTML5, CSS and JavaScript optimized for the Apache Cordova framework. We show the approach at work on a popular mobile application, we report on the application of the approach on an industrial application development project and we provide a productivity comparison with traditional approaches.
Marco Brambilla, Andrea Mauri, Eric Umuhoza

Software Quality Testing Model for Mobile Application

With the rapid development of the network technology, intelligent device and mobile applications has been the developed fastly. The mobile device will increasingly widely used even replace the traditional computer, the application test for mobile Internet was put on the agenda. From this paper, the characteristics of mobile applications are analyzed. The paper proposed quality model and quality attributes corresponding to testing requirements for mobile applications under mobile Internet. Also relevant properties testing techniques and methods is given to pay attention during the test from different test view, which indicating that the quality of the final model could be effective for mobile applications.
Zhenyu Liu, Yun Hu, Lizhi Cai

Mobile Apps and Smart Phones

Defining Relevant Software Quality Characteristics from Publishing Policies of Mobile App Stores

Publishing a product in a mobile app store implies a process that makes a software product accessible to millions of users. Developers require the means to evaluate the quality of the mobile software product from a viewpoint that considers the mobile business, users, target platforms and app stores. In this paper, we surveyed the publishing guidelines of six major app stores to identify the most important software quality requirements set upon mobile apps. We leveraged the ISO/IEC 25010 quality standard as a mechanism to assure the fulfillment of the quality requirements from the mobile app stores, and we defined an association between such requirements and the characteristics of the quality standard. Finally, we introduced a Mobile App Quality Model, which aims to provide a reference to assure the development of mobile-specific, marketcompliant mobile software applications.
Luis Corral, Alberto Sillitti, Giancarlo Succi

Securing Business Data on Android Smartphones

In this paper, we study the security of Enterprise Business data on Android Smartphone. The contribution of the paper is threefold: (1) identifying the main business case scenarios of using Smart phones for business activities and the associated security issues, (2) evaluating the risks associated with the identified scenarios under the current Android security architecture, and (3) in- vestigating academic and industrial efforts proposed to secure business solu- tions on Android Smart phones. The third contribution has been given special attention to identify the possible alternatives and discuss their viability.
Mohamed Ali El-Serngawy, Chamseddine Talhi

Simulation of the Best Ranking Algorithms for an App Store

The world of mobile applications is relatively young. However, it has already grown and will continue to expand in the future. Consequently, an increasing number of mobile application stores provide new ways for the users of downloading mobile applications and for the developers of submitting new applications. Millions of consumers look for mobile applications to download - i.e. games, maps, movie, e-mails and so on. This extraordinary new world represents an exceptional challenge for application developers who want to earn and obtain new business opportunities. Our research work focused on studying, analyzing and modeling the best strategies that should be adopted in a mobile application store in order to maximize efficiency and profit. We propose a model that simulates a complex system of mobile applications, developers, and users, all together interacting in an application mobile store. Here the developers build and upload mobile applications to the mobile applications store and the users browse the store and download only the mobile applications that arouse their attention.
Luisanna Cocco, Katiuscia Mannaro, Giulio Concas, Michele Marchesi

Evaluating Usability of Cross-Platform Smartphone Applications

The computing power of smartphones is increasing as time goes. However, the proliferation of multiple different types of operating platforms affected interoperable smartphone applications development. Thus, the cross-platform development tools are coined.
Literature showed that smartphone applications developed with the native platforms have better user experience than the cross-platform counterparts. However, comparative evaluation of usability of cross-platform applications on the deployment platforms is not studied yet.
In this work, we evaluated usability of a crossword puzzle developed with PhoneGap on Android, Windows Phone, and BlackBerry. The evaluation was conducted focusing on the developer’s adaptation effort to native platforms and the end users.
Thus, we observed that usability of the cross-platform crossword puzzle is unaffected on the respective native platforms and the SDKs require only minimal configuration effort. In addition, we observed the prospect of HTML5 and related web technologies as our future work towards evaluating and enhancing usability in composing REST-based services for smartphone applications.
Gebremariam Mesfin, Gheorghita Ghinea, Dida Midekso, Tor-Morten Grønli

Mobile Commerce and Social Media

Analysis of B2C Mobile Application Characteristics and Quality Factors Based on ISO 25010 Quality Model

The number of mobile applications in mobile market has rapidly increased as new technology and new devices are emerging at remarkable speed which shows mobile applications have an important role in every field of our life. Among those, even some of the mobile applications have a long time life as end-users use those effectively, some of them fail to do so that prevents the companies to reach from their aim. The main reason of that problem results from the quality of the mobile applications. Although there are some methods and metrics to analyze the quality of mobile applications, they have lack of criteria since they are mostly based on ISO 9126 quality model factors which are invalid anymore. This study aims to analyze both mobile commerce applications’ characteristics and quality factors and sub-factors based on ISO 25010 product quality model. Accordingly a quality model is proposed by analysis performed by a group of experts from the mobile software development area. The results of this study aims to help developing more qualified and effective mobile applications from developer perspective.
Ekrem Yildiz, Semih Bilgen, Gul Tokdemir, Nergiz E. Cagiltay, Y. Nasuh Erturan

An Investigation on User Preferences of Mobile Commerce Interface Design in Saudi Arabia

Mobile commerce user interface has different issues affecting overall attitude towards the participation in mobile commerce shopping. There is a lack in the literature that has identified problems, elements, and characteristics of user interface preferences in mobile commerce from the Saudi Arabian customers’ point of view. Although some research has proposed user interface frameworks and models, the problem is in the incompatibility of these current models to the new era of mobile technology especially in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the new platforms of smartphones have the ability to adapt with user’s needs which add a kind of challenge for mobile commerce developers. In this paper, we will present a framework consisting of basic elements for successful Mobile commerce interface design. Methodology used in collecting users’ requirements and preferences was conducted by distributing a questionnaire to a group of people from Saudi Arabia who are active mobile commerce shoppers.
Lulwah AlSuwaidan, Abdulrahman A. Mirza

Exploring Social Influence and Incremental Online Persuasion on Twitter: A Longitudinal Study

This paper outlines the second phase of an ongoing longitudinal research initiative aimed at exploring and describing why people use Twitter the way they do and what factors change their behaviors and attitudes over time. In a repeated online survey, 501 valid responses were collected from Twitter users. A comparative analysis of findings from both surveys verified persistent online persuasion patterns influencing both user behavior related to content generation and tweeting frequency, as well as user attitudes about Twitter being an influential tool to use in calling for action outside the virtual world. A comprehensive analysis of responses from 49 individuals who had participated in both surveys revealed underlying factors that had prompted changes in what they thought about Twitter, as well as their use behaviors. Further findings emphasized the role of social influence design principles and their capacity to explain changes that Twitter users had experienced over the period of two years.
Agnis Stibe

A Regional Exploration and Recommendation System Based on Georeferenced Images

Socially tagged images contain rich spatial information about the culture and environment that could exemplify the composition of regions and provide a useful geovisual assessment. Flickr is one of such prominent data sources capable of making sense of the geospatial world. In several spatial decision scenarios such as touring a new city, end-users are interested in the characterization and comparison of relevant geographic regions. But the current means of interfaces limit the end users on visual abstraction and comparison of relevant geographic regions. In this work we propose a system that generates the makeup of a region based on geospatial tagged images of the region. We can then use the relevant metadata to identify and compare other suitable regions which exhibit a similar fingerprint of images. The developed interface allows the user to get a good regional overview, and also to drill in and compare selected regions.
Chandan Kumar, Sebastian Barton, Wilko Heuten, Susanne Boll


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