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About this book

Embedded systems have long become essential in application areas in which human control is impossible or infeasible. The development of modern embedded systems is becoming increasingly difficult and challenging because of their overall system complexity, their tighter and cross-functional integration, the increasing requirements concerning safety and real-time behavior, and the need to reduce development and operation costs.

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the Software Platform Embedded Systems (SPES) modeling framework and demonstrates its applicability in embedded system development in various industry domains such as automation, automotive, avionics, energy, and healthcare. In SPES 2020, twenty-one partners from academia and industry have joined forces in order to develop and evaluate in different industrial domains a modeling framework that reflects the current state of the art in embedded systems engineering.

The content of this book is structured in four parts. Part I “Starting Point” discusses the status quo of embedded systems development and model-based engineering, and summarizes the key requirements faced when developing embedded systems in different application domains. Part II “The SPES Modeling Framework” describes the SPES modeling framework. Part III “Application and Evaluation of the SPES Modeling Framework” reports on the validation steps taken to ensure that the framework met the requirements discussed in Part I. Finally, Part IV “Impact of the SPES Modeling Framework” summarizes the results achieved and provides an outlook on future work.

The book is mainly aimed at professionals and practitioners who deal with the development of embedded systems on a daily basis. Researchers in academia and industry may use it as a compendium for the requirements and state-of-the-art solution concepts for embedded systems development.

Table of Contents


Starting Situation


1. Challenges in Engineering for Software-Intensive Embedded Systems

It is hard to find another market in information technology that shows similar steady growth to the market for embedded systems. As microcontrollers, they have taken over a variety of functions in multitudinous technical systems, for example, in manufacturing plants, medical equipment, power supply systems, aircraft, and cars, but also in home appliances such as washing machines and refrigerators.
Klaus Beetz, Wolfgang Böhm

2. Requirements from the Application Domains

Embedded systems are different in every application domain. These differences arise due to the contexts in which the embedded systems will be deployed. For example, while an engine control unit is embedded in a car, a pacemaker is embedded within a human being.
Ottmar Bender, Martin Hiller, Bastian Tenbergen, Thorsten Weyer

The SPES Modeling Framework


3. Introduction to the SPES Modeling Framework

The aim of model-based development is to use models as main development artifacts in all phases of the development process.
Manfred Broy, Werner Damm, Stefan Henkler, Klaus Pohl, Andreas Vogelsang, Thorsten Weyer

4. Requirements Viewpoint

The requirements viewpoint comprises the part of the SPES modeling framework that primarily deals with the accurate, complete, and consistent specification of system requirements.
Marian Daun, Bastian Tenbergen, Thorsten Weyer

5. Functional Viewpoint

The starting point for the functional viewpoint is a set of requirements for the behavior of the SUD provided by the models of the requirements viewpoint, especially the context model, the scenario models, and the behavioral requirements models.
Andreas Vogelsang, Sebastian Eder, Martin Feilkas, Daniel Ratiu

6. Logical Viewpoint

The logical viewpoint describes the logical structure and the distribution of responsibilities functionality of a system by means of a network of interacting logical components that are responsible for a set of functions.
Sebastian Eder, Jakob Mund, Andreas Vogelsang

7. Technical Viewpoint

The technical viewpoint is mostly concerned with the question of how to get from the platform-independent models.
Raphael Weber, Philipp Reinkemeier, Stefan Henkler, Ingo Stierand

8. Modeling Quality Aspects: Safety

Safety is typically defined as freedom from unacceptable risk (of harm) To ensure a certain level of quality, in most industrial domains the development of safety-critical systems is governed by standards.
Kai Höfig, Mario Trapp, Bastian Zimmer, Peter Liggesmeyer

9. Modeling Quality Aspects: Real-Time

The meaning of real-time computing is overloaded and ambiguous. Often it is associated with a quick and immediate system response to an external event or it is used to describe the performance of multimedia systems that achieve more than 25 frames per second.
Robert Hilbrich, J. Reinier van Kampenhout, Marian Daun, Thorsten Weyer, Dominik Sojer

Application and Evaluation of the SPES Modeling Framework


10. Overview of the SPES Evaluation Strategy

To assess the impact of a technology on certain objectives, such as the technology inherent benefit or efficiency, systematic evaluations based on scientifically sound criteria have to be planned and conducted.
Andreas Jedlitschka, Ulrich Löwen

11. Application and Evaluation in the Automation Domain

Whether in the manufacturing or processing industry, in mechanical engineering, in transportation, or in logistics automation engineering plays a key role in controlling and structuring complex systems.
Thomas Wagner, Jan Christoph Wehrstedt, Ulrich Löwen, Tobias Jäger, Alexander Fay, Peter Schuller

12. Application and Evaluation in the Automotive Domain

The necessary innovations are made possible by the enabling technology of embedded software systems. With regard to the total development effort, embedded systems make up between 30 and 40 percent of the value chain with an upward trend.
Markus Fockel, Peter Heidl, Jens Höfflinger, Harald Hönninger, Jörg Holtmann, Wilfried Horn, Jan Meyer, Matthias Meyer, Jörg Schäuffele

13. Application and Evaluation in the Avionics Domain

Avionics systems have to be certified by the airworthiness authorities before they can be installed and operated in an aircraft.
Ottmar Bender, Martin Hiller, Maurice Girod, Carsten Strobel, Martin Waßmuth, Laurent Dieudonné

14. Application and Evaluation in the Energy Domain

Energy providers in Germany, including grid operators, play an essential role in securing the value chain of almost all business sectors as well as supplying private households with energy.
Friedrich-W. Fasse, Christian Glomb, Johannes Grünbauer, André Heuer, Martin Klaus, Richard Kuntschke, Michael Laskowski, Thorsten Weyer

15. Application and Evaluation in the Healthcare Domain

The necessary innovations are made possible by the enabling technology of embedded software systems. With regard to the total development effort, embedded systems make up between 30 and 40 percent of the value chain with an upward trend.
Hendrik Heinze, Khalid Kallow, Harmut Lackner, Sadegh Sadeghipour, Holger Schlingloff, Salko Tahirbegovic, Hans-Werner Wiesbrock

16. Evaluation Summary

Decision makers in embedded system development require evidence about technologies to enable them to make an informed decision when new development technologies are to be introduced.
Andreas Jedlitschka, Jessica Jung, Constanza Lampasona

Impact of the SPES Modeling Framework


17. Lessons Learned

Consequently, novel development paradigms are necessary that meet individual demands of the embedded systems world.
Peter Heidl, Jens Höfflinger, Harald Hönninger, Bastian Tenbergen

18. Outlook

A major goal of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research(BMBF)is to support specific research endeavors in which academia and industry join forces to address challenges in the field and to provide a solid foundation for the engineering of software-intensive embedded systems in the future.
Manfred Broy


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