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Model Tests and Numerical Simulations of Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading II

LEAP-ASIA-2019

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About this book

This open access book presents work collected through the Liquefaction Experiments and Analysis Projects (LEAP) in 2019 (LEAP-ASIA-2019) following the LEAP-UCD-2017 whose results have been published as a first volume. In addition to the research targets set in the previous one, such as the repeatability, variability, and sensitivity of lateral spreading on mildly sloping liquefiable sand, this volume includes research efforts to validate the generalized scaling law (hereafter “GSL”) for the identical prototype with the one employed in UCD-2017. In LEAP-ASIA-2019, 10 institutes around the world conducted 23 tests in total. It was the first multi-institutional attempts to investigate the validity of the generalized scaling law for the saturated sandy sloping deposit with wide range of initial conditions. The experimental data provided a unique basis for assessing the capabilities of six different simulation platforms for numerical simulation of soil liquefaction. The results of the experiments and the numerical simulations are presented and discussed in papers submitted by the project participants.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Part I

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 1. LEAP-ASIA-2019: Summary of Centrifuge Experiments on Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading – Application of the Generalized Scaling Law
Abstract
In the framework of Liquefaction Experiments and Analysis Projects (LEAP), round-robin centrifuge model tests were conducted in collaboration with ten international institutes on identical saturated sloping sand layers with a wide range of initial conditions. Two tests, one with a model following conventional centrifuge scaling law and the other with a model following the generalized scaling law (GSL), were assigned to each institute for two purposes: (1) validation of the generalized scaling law (GSL) and (2) development of additional experimental data sets to fill the gaps in the existing experimental data sets. The GSL may be validated when the ground deformation is small (less than 250 mm in the present study). The trend surface was updated with the new data sets, whose trend is consistent with the previous one.
Tetsuo Tobita, Koji Ichii, Kyohei Ueda, Ryosuke Uzuoka, Ruben R. Vargas, Mitsu Okamura, Asri Nurani Sjafruddin, Jiro Takemura, Lyu Hang, Susumu Iai, Jad Boksmati, Alessandro Fusco, Samy Torres-Garcia, Stuart Haigh, Gopal Madabhushi, Majid Manzari, Sandra Escoffier, Zheng Li, Dong Soo Kim, Satish Manandhar, Wen-Yi Hung, Jun-Xue Huang, Truong-Nhat-Phuong Pham, Mourad Zeghal, Tarek Abdoun, Evangelia Korre, Bruce L. Kutter, Trevor J. Carey, Nicholas Stone, Yan-Guo Zhou, Kai Liu, Qiang Ma

Open Access

Chapter 2. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Simulation Exercise: Calibration of Constitutive Models and Simulations of the Element Tests
Abstract
This chapter presents a summary of the calibration exercises (i.e., element test simulations) submitted by nine numerical simulation teams that participated in the LEAP-ASIA-2019 prediction campaign. The standard sand selected for the campaign is Ottawa F-65, and researchers have developed several efforts to increase the database of laboratory tests to characterize the physical and mechanical properties of this sand (Carey TJ, Stone N, Kutter BL, Grain Size Analysis and Maximum and Minimum Dry Density of Ottawa F-65 Sand for LEAP-UCD-2017. Model tests and numerical simulations of liquefaction and lateral spreading: LEAP-UCD-2017. Springer, 2019; El Ghoraiby MA, Park H, Manzari MT. Physical and mechanical properties of Ottawa F65 sand. In: Model tests and numerical simulations of liquefaction and lateral spreading: LEAP-UCD-2017, Springer, 2019; Ueda K, Vargas RR, Uemura K, LEAP-Asia-2018: Stress-strain response of Ottawa sand in Cyclic Torsional Shear Tests, DesignSafe-CI [publisher], Dataset, https://​doi.​org/​10.​17603/​DS2D40H, 2018; Vargas RR, Ueda K, Uemura K, Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 133:106111, 2020; Vargas RR, Ueda K, Uemura K, Dynamic torsional shear tests of Ottawa F-65 Sand for LEAP-ASIA-2019. Model tests and numerical simulations of liquefaction and lateral spreading: LEAP-ASIA-2019, Springer, 2023). The objective of this element test simulation exercise is to assess the performance of the constitutive models used by the simulation teams for simulating the experimental results of a series of undrained stress-controlled cyclic torsional shear tests on Ottawa F-65 sand for two different relative densities (Dr = 50% and 60%) (Ueda K, Vargas RR, Uemura K, LEAP-Asia-2018: Stress-strain response of Ottawa sand in Cyclic Torsional Shear Tests, DesignSafe-CI [publisher], Dataset, https://​doi.​org/​10.​17603/​DS2D40H, 2018; Vargas RR, Ueda K, Uemura K, Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 133:106111, 2020; Vargas RR, Ueda K, Uemura K, Dynamic torsional shear tests of Ottawa F-65 sand for LEAP-ASIA-2019. Model tests and numerical simulations of liquefaction and lateral spreading: LEAP-ASIA-2019, Springer, 2023). The simulated liquefaction strength curves demonstrate that majority of the constitutive models are capable of reasonably capturing the measured liquefaction strength curves both for Dr = 50% and 60%. However, the simulated stress paths and stress-strain relationships show some differences from the corresponding laboratory tests in some cases.
Kyohei Ueda, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Anurag Sahare, Ahmed Elgamal, Zhijian Qiu, Rui Wang, Tong Zhu, Chuang Zhou, Jian-Min Zhang, Andres Reyes Parra, Andres Barrero, Mahdi Taiebat, Waka Yuyama, Susumu Iai, Junichi Hyodo, Koji Ichii, Mohamed A. Elbadawy, Yan-Guo Zhou, Gianluca Fasano, Anna Chiaradonna, Emilio Bilotta, Pedro Arduino, Mourad Zeghal, Majid Manzari, Tetsuo Tobita

Open Access

Chapter 3. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Simulation Exercise: Comparison of the Type-B and Type-C Numerical Simulations with Centrifuge Test Results
Abstract
This chapter presents a summary of Type-B and Type-C numerical simulations submitted by nine numerical simulation teams that participated in the LEAP-ASIA-2019 prediction campaign, with the results of a selected set of centrifuge model tests on the seismic behavior of a uniform-density, 20-m-long, and 5-degree sandy slope. Time histories of response accelerations, excess pore water pressures, and lateral displacements at the ground surface are compared to the experimental results. A majority of Type-B and Type-C numerical simulations were capable of simulating well the experimental trends observed in the centrifuge tests; in particular, Type-C simulations were found to capture the measured responses more accurately by adjusting the model parameters. Although it is quite challenging to perfectly capture all measured responses (e.g., accelerations, pore pressures, and displacements), the simulation exercises demonstrate that the numerical simulations can be further improved by accumulating high-quality experimental results as a database.
Kyohei Ueda, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Anurag Sahare, Ahmed Elgamal, Zhijian Qiu, Rui Wang, Tong Zhu, Chuang Zhou, Jian-Min Zhang, Andres Reyes Parra, Andres Barrero, Mahdi Taiebat, Waka Yuyama, Susumu Iai, Junichi Hyodo, Koji Ichii, Mohamed A. Elbadawy, Yan-Guo Zhou, Gianluca Fasano, Anna Chiaradonna, Emilio Bilotta, Pedro Arduino, Mourad Zeghal, Majid Manzari, Tetsuo Tobita

Open Access

Chapter 4. Dynamic Torsional Shear Tests of Ottawa F-65 Sand for LEAP-ASIA-2019
Abstract
The Liquefaction Experiments and Analysis Projects (LEAP) is an international collaborative project that aims to verify, validate, and quantify the uncertainty of numerical liquefaction models. Within this project, a series of hollow cylinder cyclic torsional shear tests were performed at the Disaster Prevention Research Institute facility at Kyoto University. These tests focused on examining how the relative density affects the cyclic response of Ottawa F-65 sand. The obtained results will contribute to a dependable database for the ongoing and future verification and validation processes of liquefaction models. This paper presents the details of the model preparation and test results, as well as a brief discussion on the influence of the relative density and the tests’ repeatability.
Ruben R. Vargas, Kyohei Ueda, Kazuaki Uemura

Part II

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 5. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Centrifuge Tests at University of Cambridge
Abstract
Two dynamic centrifuge tests were conducted on a 5° liquefiable slope with a slope depth of 4 m at the centre line, as part of LEAP-ASIA-2019 at the Schofield Centre, University of Cambridge. The main purpose of these tests was to investigate the suitability of the generalised scaling laws proposed by Iai et al. (Geotechnique, 55(5):355–362, 2005). The two tests were carried out at two drastically different g levels, CU Model B at 80 g and CU Model B1 at 1 g, with corresponding virtual scaling factors of 0.5 and 40, respectively. Following the principles of generalised scaling, results from both tests should be representative of the same slope profile with a slope depth of 4 m previously tested as part of LEAP-UCD-2017. CU Model B exhibited typical liquefaction behaviour with substantial reduction in acceleration transmission along the depth of the slope coupled with considerable excess pore pressure build-up during shaking. For a similar input motion, the slope in CU Model B1 at 1 g showed little deformations. Intensity of the input motion had to be increased by nearly twofolds to trigger slope movements that can be measured by PIV.
Gopal S. P. Madabhushi, Stuart K. Haigh, Jad I. Boksmati, Samy Garcia-Torres, Alessandro Fusco

Open Access

Chapter 6. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Centrifuge Test at University of California, Davis
Abstract
For the LEAP-ASIA-2018 exercise, a centrifuge test was conducted in parallel at ten centrifuge facilities, including the University of California, Davis (UCD). The experiment consisted of a submerged clean sand profile oriented with a 5-degree slope subjected to 1 Hz ramped sine wave motions applied at the base of a rigid container. This paper explains several details of the experiment at UCD, including experiment results, implementation of high-speed cameras and GeoPIV software to measure slope deformation, and the presence of vertical accelerations due to the Coriolis effect and how the accelerations might affect model performance. In addition, this paper presents data and comparison for both conventional (Type A) and generalized (Type B) centrifuge scaling laws.
Nicholas S. Stone, Trevor J. Carey, Anthony Santana, Bruce L. Kutter

Open Access

Chapter 7. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Centrifuge Test at Ehime University
Abstract
Three centrifuge tests were conducted at Ehime University for the LEAP-ASIA-2019 exercise. The experiment consisted of a submerged clean sand, with a target relative density of 65%, with a 5-degree slope in a rigid container. Models were prepared along with the specifications, and each model was subjected to a ramped sine wave base motion. Models were designed so that they simulated the same prototype at different scaling factors to verify the validity of the generalized scaling law. This paper provides an overview of the models and some details of the effects of the scaling factor on the pore pressure responses and deformation of the models.
Mitsu Okamura, Asri Nurani Sjafruddin

Open Access

Chapter 8. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Centrifuge Tests at University Gustave Eiffel
Abstract
In the framework of the LEAP-ASIA-2019 exercise, two dynamic centrifuge tests on a gentle slope of saturated Ottawa F-65 sand have been performed at the centrifuge of University Gustave Eiffel. These tests were conducted in parallel with other tests performed in nine other centrifuge centers. In addition to the objectives of the LEAP-UCD-2017 (comparison of the experimental results, e.g., effect of the experimental procedure or of test parameters on the results, and providing of a database for numerical modeling), the new objective was to evaluate, through the tested configuration, the generalized scaling approach described by Iai et al. (Géotechnique 55(5):355–362, 2005). In this framework, all the centrifuge teams have performed two types of tests. Considering the same prototype geometry, the first test was performed following the classical approach used in centrifuge modeling, and the second test was performed considering the generalized scaling law (GSL). Following the test matrix and test specifications of LEAP-ASIA-2019, University Gustave Eiffel has performed two model tests (test A2 renamed UGE-1/50-62 and test A3 renamed UGE-2/25-62). The two tests have been performed on a slope sand with the same relative density (62%) considering a target motion PGAeff = 0.3 g (1 Hz ramped sine at the prototype scale).
In this paper, the test setup and the deviations from the specifications such as the experimental setup improvement that have followed the LEAP-UCD-2017 tests are presented in detail. The results obtained from the two tests are then provided at the prototype scale for comparison. The obtained input base motions are first presented followed by the characterization of the soil through CPT profiles. The responses of the saturated sand slopes for both tests are then detailed through the analysis of the pore pressure buildup, the accelerations in the soil, and the displacements measured through surface markers and embedded sensors. Some preliminary results of the global scaling approach are then discussed.
Sandra Escoffier, Zheng Li, Philippe Audrain

Open Access

Chapter 9. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Centrifuge Test at KAIST
Abstract
Since Niigata and Alaska earthquakes in 1964, the dangers of liquefaction are well established, and research into liquefaction has been actively performed. In this context, Liquefaction Experiments and Analysis Projects (LEAP) was launched to provide high-quality experimental data on soil liquefaction using laboratory testing and centrifuge modeling and then validating numerical models to improve predictions. The purpose of LEAP-ASIA-2019, which is one of the LEAP programs, was to fill the gaps and further extend/establish/confirm the trends obtained in the previous LEAP-UCD-2017 program. Further, the validity of the generalized scaling law was also tested for liquefaction simulation using different 1-g and centrifuge scaling factors. During LEAP-ASIA-2019, KAIST performed two model tests (Model A and Model B) with the same target relative density (Dr = 85%) and input motion intensity of 0.3g. Models A and B were identical in construction but were tested under different centrifugal accelerations to verify the generalized scaling factors. This paper describes the experimental procedure in detail and the responses of dense model grounds to strong base shaking in terms of ground accelerations, excess pore pressure, surface displacements, stress-strain behavior, and CPT profiles. Further, discussion on the generalized scaling law and the effect of shaking history on the model behavior are also presented.
Satish Manandhar, Seong-Nam Kim, Dong-Soo Kim

Open Access

Chapter 10. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Centrifuge Test at Kyoto University
Abstract
The Liquefaction Experiments and Analysis Projects (LEAP) is an international collaborative project that aims to verify, validate, and quantify the uncertainty of numerical liquefaction models. “LEAP-ASIA-2019” is one of the LEAP’s exercises, whose main objectives are to validate the “generalized scaling law” for lateral spreading and to fill the gaps of experiments to complete the dataset obtained as part of the “LEAP-UCD-2017.” Within this project, a total of five models were developed at the geotechnical centrifuge of Kyoto University to simulate the dynamic behavior of a submerged, uniform-density, 20-m-long, 4-m-deep, and 5° sloping deposit of Ottawa F-65 sand. This paper presents the key features of the model preparation and testing process while also examining the applicability of the “generalized scaling law” for centrifuge modeling.
Ruben R. Vargas, Kyohei Ueda, Tetsuo Tobita

Open Access

Chapter 11. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Centrifuge Test at NCU
Abstract
Two centrifuge tests are performed at NCU under centrifugal acceleration field of 26g and 13g to validate the generalized scaling law for LEAP-ASIA-2019. The model arrangement and test process follow the specification of LEAP-UCD-2017. Both models are subjected one destructive motion which is 0.18g, 1 Hz, 16 cycles, tapered sine wave. Test results indicate the model adopted generalized scaling law with virtual 1g modeling factor of 2 can generally simulated the same prototype of the model only adopted centrifuge scaling law. The acceleration response, pore water pressure behavior, and cone tip resistance of both models are in good agreement with each other.
Jun-Xue Huang, Wen-Yi Hung

Open Access

Chapter 12. Experimental Evaluation of Lateral Spreading of a Liquefiable Sloping Deposit Using Centrifuge and Generalized Scaling Law Tests at RPI
Abstract
Two centrifuge model tests of a liquefiable sloping deposit subjected to a tapered acceleration input motion were conducted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute as part of the Liquefaction Experiments and Analysis Projects (LEAP). The models were built at a consistent relative density Dr = 65%, observing the same methodology of model preparation, but reflected different scaling laws. Model A was designed observing the conventional similitude laws for centrifuge testing, whereas Model B was designed based on the principles of the generalized scaling laws. Albeit the response of the two models was comparable prior to liquefaction, Model B showed a higher propensity for liquefaction and exhibited higher surficial lateral displacements.
Evangelia Korre, Tarek Abdoun, Mourad Zeghal

Open Access

Chapter 13. Centrifuge Model Tests at Zhejiang University for LEAP-ASIA-2019
Abstract
Two centrifuge models with the same target relative density (Dr = 65%) were conducted in different centrifugal acceleration (30 g for Model-A and 15 g for Model-B) at Zhejiang University (ZJU) to validate generalized scaling law in the program of LEAP-ASIA-2019. The same model used in LEAP-UCD-2017 was repeated, representing a 5-degree slope consisting of saturated Ottawa F-65 sand. This chapter describes test facilities, instrumentations layout, and test procedures. Uncertainty analysis is also carried out in input parameters (e.g., achieved peak ground acceleration, achieved density and the degree of saturation). The test results of acceleration, excess pore water pressures, and displacement etc. were compared at prototype scale to check the validity of the generalized scaling law (GSL). The preliminary experiment results of Zhejiang University show that the Type II generalized scaling law is applicable to the acceleration response while has a weak applicability to the displacement response.
Qiang Ma, Yan-Guo Zhou, Kai Liu, Yun-Min Chen

Part III

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 14. Type-C Simulations of Centrifuge Tests from LEAP-ASIA-2019 Using SANISAND-Sf
Abstract
This chapter presents Type-C numerical simulations of prototype-scale centrifuge tests on gently sloped liquefiable deposits of Ottawa F65 sand for the LEAP-ASIA-2019 project. The simulations aim to assess the performance of the numerical modeling approach and a SANISAND-type constitutive model for large post-liquefaction shear deformation of sands. The constitutive model is calibrated against cyclic torsional shear tests conducted at different relative density levels and cyclic shear stress amplitudes. The laboratory-determined hydraulic conductivity of sand is doubled and kept constant during the dynamic stage of the analyses to account for the increase in permeability experienced during liquefaction. The simulations successfully capture the acceleration response and excess pore water pressure generation and dissipation of the slope deposit when soil liquefaction is observed. However, accurately modeling lateral displacements remains challenging in most cases. The results provide insights into the capabilities and limitations of the adopted Type-C numerical simulations, numerical modeling approach, and constitutive model.
Andrés Reyes, Andrés R. Barrero, Mahdi Taiebat

Open Access

Chapter 15. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Numerical Simulations Using a Strain Space Multiple Mechanism Model for a Liquefiable Sloping Ground
Abstract
This chapter presents the numerical simulations using a strain space multiple mechanism model on a liquefiable sloping ground during earthquake excitation which are compared with the results obtained from the centrifuge tests conducted at different centrifuge facilities as a part of LEAP-ASIA-2019 with an effort to validate the generalized scaling laws. The constitutive model parameters were determined based on the results of cyclic torsional shear tests. One of the key objectives of this chapter is to assess the differences arising in the soil system responses depending on the three different predictors when using the same constitutive model. For this purpose, the soil constitutive model parameters were calibrated differently, and all the predictors were able to capture the important features of saturated sand during undrained cyclic shearing. This was followed by the numerical simulations of the centrifuge data, which showed no predominant differences in the simulated results due to the different soil constitutive model parameters. However, the amount of shear-induced dilatancy experienced by the sand during cyclic shearing was found out to be different among predictors. It is also highlighted that predictors may achieve the ideal measured results either by performing numerical simulations in model scale or in prototype scale.
Yoshikazu Tanaka, Anurag Sahare, Kyohei Ueda, Waka Yuyama, Susumu Iai

Open Access

Chapter 16. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Centrifuge Test Simulation at UNINA
Abstract
This chapter describes the numerical simulations carried out at the University of Napoli Federico II in the framework of the LEAP-ASIA-2019 Simulation Exercise. An advanced critical state compatible, bounding surface plasticity model for sand has been adopted and calibrated on the available cyclic laboratory test data. The calibration has been finalized to catch the cyclic strength of the investigated sand. Centrifuge test simulations have been performed by means of the finite element code PLAXIS, which is a commercial code well widespread in the community of geotechnical practitioners. Type-C simulations highlighted the capability of the numerical model to reasonably predict the time histories of acceleration and excess pore water pressure measured during the experimental tests.
Gianluca Fasano, Anna Chiaradonna, Emilio Bilotta

Open Access

Chapter 17. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Centrifuge Test Simulations of Liquefiable Sloping Ground
Abstract
Numerical simulations of a liquefiable sloping ground for LEAP-ASIA-2019 centrifuge tests are presented. The simulations are performed using a pressure-dependent constitutive model implemented with the characteristics of dilatancy, cyclic mobility, and associated shear deformation. The soil model parameters are determined based on a series of stress-controlled cyclic torsional shear tests of Ottawa F-65 sand with relative density Dr = 60% during calibration phase. Computational framework for the seismic response analysis is discussed and the computed results are presented for all selected centrifuge experiments during Type-C phase. Measured time histories of these experiments are reasonably captured. It is demonstrated that the pressure-dependent constitutive model as well as the overall employed computational framework has the potential to predict the response of the liquefiable sloping ground, and subsequently realistically evaluates the performance of an equivalent soil system subjected to seismically induced liquefaction.
Zhijian Qiu, Ahmed Elgamal

Open Access

Chapter 18. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Type-B Simulations Through FLIP
Abstract
This chapter presents numerical simulation by using FLIP ROSE (Iai et al, Soils Found 32(2):1–15, 1992). FLIP ROSE is one of effective stress analysis used widely in Japan. It is commonly used to verify the seismic performance in practical design of port structures such as caisson-type quay walls and sheet pile quay walls. By using this program, we conducted the numerical simulation exercise for some cases.
Junichi Hyodo, Koji Ichii

Open Access

Chapter 19. LEAP-ASIA-2019 Simulations at Tsinghua University
Abstract
This chapter presents the constitutive model calibration and numerical simulations of centrifuge shaking table tests for LEAP-ASIA-2019, at Tsinghua University. A plasticity model that can provide unified description for the behavior sand at different states under both monotonic and cyclic loading, with focus on the large post-liquefaction shear deformation, is calibrated and used in this study. New undrained cyclic torsional shear test results for Ottawa F65 sand provided in the most recent phase of the LEAP project are used in the calibration process. Typical results for acceleration, excess pore pressure, and displacement for one of the tests are presented in detail, showing that the numerical simulation is able to capture the liquefaction related behavior in the tests well. Comparisons between the simulation and test residual displacement results for the five different tests show conflicting results. The simulations for the two RPI tests under different centrifuge acceleration levels with different stress states and input motion frequencies generally show adequate agreement with test results, exhibiting the constitutive model and numerical simulation method’s wide applicability range. However, the simulation results for the KyU tests are significantly different to the test results.
Rui Wang, Tong Zhu, Chuang Zhou, Jian-Min Zhang

Open Access

Chapter 20. Class-C Simulations of LEAP-ASIA-2019 via OpenSees Platform by Using a Pressure Dependent Multi-yield Surface Model
Abstract
In this chapter, Class-C numerical simulations were performed for LEAP-ASIA-2019 centrifuge experiments that took place at different universities testing facilities. A comparative study was conducted among the simulated and experimental seismic responses of a mildly sloping ground of medium-dense to dense Ottawa-F65 sand under ramped sinusoidal acceleration input motions. A pressure dependent multi-yield surface model that can simulate the liquefaction potential of sand soils under earthquake loading was chosen for the numerical simulations through the OpenSees finite element modeling software. An initial calibration of the soil constitutive model, namely “Phase I,” was performed against different cyclic torsional shear tests for Ottawa-F65 sand under various Cyclic Stress Ratios (CSRs). Numerical modeling of centrifuge experiments “Phase II” was carried out after a few adjustments to the estimated model parameter values for the sake of providing proper computed output responses. The adopted soil model and simulation technique provide adequate numerical predictions of the liquefaction potential for the mildly sloping ground problem and accurately simulate the time histories of excess pore water pressure, accelerations, and surface deformations, regardless of experiencing a few undesirable responses for simulated Kyoto University centrifuge tests. The capabilities and limitations of the selected constitutive soil model and computational technique are analyzed and discussed through the context.
Mohamed A. Elbadawy, Yan-Guo Zhou
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Model Tests and Numerical Simulations of Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading II
Editors
Tetsuo Tobita
Koji Ichii
Kyohei Ueda
Copyright Year
2024
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-48821-4
Print ISBN
978-3-031-48820-7
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-48821-4