Models are mathematical, computer-based, or conceptual tools that allow a synthesis of the current understanding of particular systems in the realms of physics, chemistry, biology, or economics. In climate research, numerical models attempt to take into account numerous elements of the system that are important for its evolution, in particular the oceans, the cryosphere, and the biosphere. Advanced models enable investigations of certain mechanisms that may ultimately be relevant to a system’s evolution, such as feedbacks between its different constitutive elements, and the sensitivity of climate to disturbance. Models also have some measure of predictability for complex non-linear processes, which are the rule in the physical, biological or economic sciences.
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- Modeling and Observing Climate
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