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2015 | Book

Modeling Mobility with Open Data

2nd SUMO Conference 2014 Berlin, Germany, May 15-16, 2014


About this book

This contributed volume contains the conference proceedings of the Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) conference 2014, Berlin. The included research papers cover a wide range of topics in traffic planning and simulation, including open data, vehicular communication, e-mobility, urban mobility, multimodal traffic as well as usage approaches. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

Table of Contents


Data Acquisition and Integration

DFROUTER—Estimation of Vehicle Routes from Cross-Section Measurements
This contribution evaluates and improves the open-source “DFROUTER” tool that is contained in the SUMO traffic simulation suite. DFROUTER uses vehicle counts (e.g. from inductive loops) to calculate routes of vehicles through road networks. This approach is designed for highway corridors that are covered with measurement facilities at all entry and exit points. The study analyzes DFROUTER’s current functionality and compares it with other approaches that have a similar purpose. Tests performed using different networks and sensor coverage amounts are presented. Additionally, an extension to the software is presented that completes missing flows, increasing the correctness of the tool’s results.
TeRon V. Nguyen, Daniel Krajzewicz, Matthew Fullerton, Eric Nicolay
Advanced Traffic Light Information in OpenStreetMap for Traffic Simulations
In this paper, we show the development process of a new proposed feature for OpenStreetMap (OSM) traffic light tags. We introduce the needs for such kind of information in OSM and define requirements for our simulation needs. After comparing different traffic light tagging ideas and matching them to our requirements we come to the conclusion to extend the current classic way of tagging with OSM relations, which define turn restrictions and traffic light information. As a proof of concept a plugin for the popular OSM editor JOSM is shown as well as a conversion implementation of a complex intersection from OSM to SUMO is presented.
David Rieck, Björn Schünemann, Ilja Radusch
Online Micro Modelling Using Proprietary Controllers and SUMO
Over the past years the open source traffic simulator SUMO has been significantly improved and extended. One of the most important elements of urban traffic simulation is the proper handling of traffic light control. Currently available are elementary control methods like embedded fixed time and actuated control, but also controllers external to SUMO that use SUMO’s extensive TraCI interface that enables reading and changing of many simulation parameters. This interface, however, has as yet not been used to link to proprietary controllers, which would enable the use of SUMO for accurate studies in a multivendor environment. Moreover, the TraCI interface accepts the injection of vehicles from external sources during the simulation. This opens up possibilities for using real-world sensor data directly in the simulation environment. This paper describes how state-of-the-art Imtech controllers are linked to SUMO. The paper covers topics like architecture, vehicle detection, signal group control, simulation speed optimization and contains a comparison of the SUMO simulation to the commercial Vissim simulator for an identical scenario. The last section of this paper introduces embedded real-time micro simulation as part of the control environment, which was able to approach.
Robbin Blokpoel, Jaap Vreeswijk
Traffic Simulation for All: A Real World Traffic Scenario from the City of Bologna
A large effort is needed to gather, convert and adapt all the data needed to replicate a part of a real road network. To allow performing real-world evaluations using SUMO out-of-the-box, three “real-world” traffic simulation scenarios that represent parts of the city of Bologna are made available to the public. With these scenarios, researchers are able to start their investigations with little preparation effort and can concentrate on their research questions. This article describes, evaluates, and discusses the scenarios.
Laura Bieker, Daniel Krajzewicz, AntonioPio Morra, Carlo Michelacci, Fabio Cartolano
Can Road Traffic Volume Information Improve Partitioning for Distributed SUMO?
Microscopic vehicular simulations can be computationally intensive due to the sheer size of the road network and number of vehicles. One solution is to parallelize the simulation through distribution and concurrent execution of the scenario being simulated. To enable distributed simulation of an area, the partitioning of the map into different areas for parallel execution on different nodes is required. How the map is partitioned is also a critical factor for distributed simulation, as a poor partitioning can lead to a communication overhead and/or an imbalance of workload among the computing nodes. In this paper, we ask: Can traffic volume information improve the classical structural partitioning algorithms? In the context of improving distributed simulation in SUMO, we propose a modification to three existing mechanisms for road network partitioning, SParTSim, Smart Quadtrees and Quadtrees, with the aim of creating more balanced partitions (in terms of workload) derived from traffic volume data.
Ulrich Dangel, Quentin Bragard, Patrick McDonagh, Anthony Ventresque, Liam Murphy

Modelling and Processing

A Situational Awareness Approach to Intelligent Vehicle Agents
As an increasing number of technological developments are made in the field of autonomous vehicles, the question of what intelligent system(s) will be placed around these vehicles both for the pursuit of individual goals and conformance to regulations as part of a wider collective of vehicles becomes pertinent, especially in the context of a mixed environment of autonomous and human controlled vehicles. The requirement to conform both to the law and with social conventions, in unpredictable circumstances, poses the problem of how to encode such knowledge. This paper adopts a Situational Awareness approach to agent knowledge, from low level perceptions, through to high level projection of future events, and explores a number of traffic scenarios where agents adopt different plans based on expected future states. A variant on such reactions is also presented, where the use of institutional governance frameworks is adopted to enforce certain behaviour, offering a ‘late binding’ mechanism for socially complex situations.
Vincent Baines, Julian Padget
SUMO’s Lane-Changing Model
SUMO is an open source microscopic traffic simulation. A major component of modelling microscopic vehicle behavior is the lane-changing behavior on multi-lane roads. We describe a new model which uses a 4-layered hierarchy of motivations to determine the vehicle behavior during every simulation step and motivate in which ways it improves the current lane-changing model.
Jakob Erdmann
Development and Assessment of Cooperative V2X Applications for Emergency Vehicles in an Urban Environment Enabled by Behavioral Models
Statistically, emergency vehicles (EVs) encounter a higher risk of getting involved in accidents during their missions than other road users. The successful completion of these missions can be facilitated by new applications. Simulations may support the development of applications, as it is not possible to test them in a real traffic system. Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) is one possible tool to conduct simulations of real traffic systems. However, SUMO is not capable of modelling a realistic behavior of EVs, new types of infrastructure, and individual vehicles (IVs) concerning EVs by a predefined function. We propose models for each of the missing pieces towards an integrated approach to simulate EVs in an urban environment. Therefore, we adjust them with a video analysis and simulate them. Further, an assessment analyzes their usability as a reference for testing new applications. In order to identify supportive applications, we created and carried out a survey with 252 EV drivers. The deduced applications are a traffic light preemption via V2I and an automated formation of a rescue lane via V2V. We assess the models and applications by evaluating the travelling time, a speed profile of the EV, and speed profiles of the IVs. Additionally, we show the usefulness of the two applications for the EV as well as the IVs.
Florian Weinert, Michael Düring
TraCI4Matlab: Enabling the Integration of the SUMO Road Traffic Simulator and Matlab® Through a Software Re-engineering Process
SUMO (Simulation of Urban Mobility) has become one of the preferred open-source platforms for researchers to perform microscopic road traffic simulation. Thanks to the Traffic Control Interface (TraCI), SUMO offers a high level of flexibility, allowing a client to retrieve and modify the objects in the simulation. Two implementations of TraCI have been released to date for Python (TraCI-Python) and Java (TraCI4j). On the other hand, Matlab® is a software tool with a programming language with a broad user’s community of researchers. Matlab is used in many tasks on simulation, control, optimization and it is a preferred tool for rapid prototyping. Both platforms share strengths that benefit the development of control strategies for road traffic. The desire of combining both strengths motivated the interest to develop a TraCI implementation for Matlab. This chapter describes an adaptive software re-engineering process of TraCI-Python used to implement TraCI4Matlab (TraCI for Matlab).
Andrés F. Acosta, Jorge E. Espinosa, Jairo Espinosa
An Integrated Framework for Mobile-Based ADAS Simulation
The increasing number of vehicles and mobile users has led to a huge increase in the development of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). In this paper we propose a multi-agent-based driving simulator which integrates a test-bed that allows ADAS developers to compress testing time and carry out tests in a controlled environment while using a low-cost setup. We use the SUMO microscopic simulator and a serious-game-based driving simulator which has geodata provided from standard open sources. This simulator connects to an Android device and sends data such as the current GPS coordinates and transportation network data. One important feature of this application is that it allows ADAS validation without the need of field testing. Also important is the suitability of our architecture to serve as an appropriate means to conduct behaviour elicitation through peer-designed agents, as well as to collect performance measures related to drivers’ interaction with ADAS solutions.
João S. V. Gonçalves, João Jacob, Rosaldo J. F. Rossetti, António Coelho, Rui Rodrigues

Data Generation and Validation

TOMS—Traffic Online Monitoring System for ITS Austria West
ITS Austria West is a long-term Austrian project whose goal is to continuously generate and publish real-time traffic data. TOMS—a traffic monitoring system developed in the frame of this project—integrates sensor data, coming in real time from various data sources, into periodical snapshots of the traffic situation. Our system relies heavily on the open source package SUMO to generate and maintain the road network and to simulate the traffic in order to obtain estimates for traffic values on roads that are not covered by sensors. Due to inaccuracies in the original demand model, a series of calibration steps are executed. The resulting demand model achieves an acceptable level of stability and conformity with the reality. A traffic simulation runs with this demand model in parallel with the traffic monitoring software and is continuously adjusted in order to comply with the current traffic situation, as reported by sensors.
Karl-Heinz Kastner, Petru Pau
Second Generation of Pollutant Emission Models for SUMO
Traffic puts a high burden on the environment in means of emitted pollutants and consumed fuel. Different attempts exist for reducing these impacts, ranging from traffic management actions to in-vehicle ITS solutions. When equipped with a model of vehicular pollutant emissions, microscopic traffic simulations are assumed to be helpful in predicting the performance of such approaches. SUMO includes a model for vehicular emissions since 2008. In the context of the projects COLOMBO and AMITRAN, two further models were implemented. Herein, these models are presented and discussed, pointing out the progress in emissions modelling.
Daniel Krajzewicz, Michael Behrisch, Peter Wagner, Raphael Luz, Mario Krumnow
Modelling Bluetooth Inquiry for SUMO
SUMO provides an interface for the implementation of arbitrary additional vehicle devices. This paper describes how this interface was used to implement Bluetooth devices with a special focus on the inquiry process and how its modelling relates to real world measurements and a simplified analytic model.
Michael Behrisch, Gaby Gurczik
Modeling Mobility with Open Data
Michael Behrisch
Melanie Weber
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