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About this book

This book presents a picture of the advances in the research of theoretical and practical frameworks of wastewater problems and solutions. The book deals with a basic concept and principles of modern biological, chemical and technical approaches to remediate various hazardous pollutants from wastewater. The latest empirical research findings in wastewater treatment are comprehensively discussed. Examples of low-cost technologies are also included.

The book is written for professionals, researchers, academics and students wanting to improve their understanding of the strategic role of environmental protection and advanced applied technologies.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Recent Advancement in Wastewater Decontamination Technology

Abstract
Water contamination has become a worldwide severe environmental problem owing to the existence of heavy metal ions. Extension of industrializations is releasing heavy metals ions containing effluents into water bodies and causes damage to the aquatic environment. Treatment of industrial wastewaters using ion-exchange adsorbents has achieved attractiveness in comparison to other treatment methods. The present chapter deals with the preparation and characterization of Polyaniline (PANI)-Titanium-supported nanocomposites ion-exchanger materials. It generally focuses on the ion exchange behavior of nanocomposites for the detection of heavy metal ions in wastewater, industrial effluents, and synthetic mixtures. These nanomaterials have been characterized using advanced techniques of characterizations. Physico-chemical properties; ion uptake efficiency, pH titration, the effect of temperature as well as concentration and kinetic studies have been examined to establish the significant performance of these materials to achieve maximum adsorption towards heavy metal ions. These nanomaterials demonstrated significant ion uptake efficiency, high thermal and chemical stability as compared to pure organic or inorganic ion-exchanger adsorbents. Based on high ion-exchange capacity, the nanomaterials can be successfully used in the wastewater treatment. In spite of the detection of metal pollutants in contaminated waters, these nanocomposites ion-exchange adsorbents can also be effectively utilized in other fields (e.g., Photochemical degradation of organic contaminants, antimicrobial agents, and conducting material). On the basis of excellent performance of titanium-supported nanocomposite in terms of metal removal efficiency, it is anticipated that these nanomaterials could be open, innovative ways to show their excellent uses in diverse fields.
Mohammad Shahadat, Akil Ahmad, Rani Bushra, Suzylawati Ismail, Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad, S. Wazed Ali, Mohd. Rafatullah

Chapter 2. Nanocomposite Materials for Wastewater Decontamination

Abstract
Modernization and industrialization of human life make the fresh water continuously contaminated due to the use of a variety of organic and inorganic pollutants. Contamination of clean water may be because of chemicals, pesticides, soil erosion, heavy metals, dyes, etc. Heavy metal ions and dyes are the most critical pollutants for contamination of water/wastewater. Decontamination of different pollutants is one of the significant challenges for the water industry to produce high quality drinking water. There is a continuous need to develop more appropriate material to be used as water purification materials with high separation capacity, cheap, porosity, and recyclability. Different methods such as adsorption, coagulation, oxidative-reductive degradation and membrane separation, etc. have been developed for the decontamination of water/waste water. Adsorption among them is the most essential method for the purification of water. Variety of different adsorbents like activated carbon and other carbon-based materials (graphene, carbon nanotubes etc.) are used for the decontamination of water. A recent investigation on remediation of water involves the use of, nanomaterials. However, these nanoparticles can agglomerate which may limit its use. Nanocomposites can be used instead of nanoparticles with high purifying capability. Contamination of water by the adsorption of different pollutants e.g. heavy metals ions, dyes, etc. is nowadays effectively removed by these nanocomposites because of their characteristic properties like metal ion affinity, small size, and high surface area-to-volume ratio. The present chapter is a compilation of different nanocomposites and their uses for decontamination of water/waste available till date.
M. Tauqeer, M. S. Ahmad, M. Siraj, A. Mohammad, O. Ansari, M. T. Baig

Chapter 3. Nano-materials for Wastewater Treatment

Abstract
Heavy metal and ionic contamination in wastewater and surface water has been reported in many parts of the world and studied as a major global issue. Their exposure in a trace amount is hazardous for human health, thus; it is critical and challenging to remove undesirable metals from the water system. Today various methods have been placed for effective removal of heavy metals from the water like chemical precipitation, ion exchange, adsorption, membrane filtration and electrochemical technologies. The low-cost adsorbent has been studied as a substitute for costly current methods. The synthesis and characterization of nano-composite material for treating wastewater through adsorption using magnetic nano-sized ferric oxide (FeO) namely iron oxide have been discussed. It was then functionalized with graphene due to its large surface area. Due to the magnetic nature of this composite, it can be easily separated from the water under a magnetic field. Their chemical synthesis, characterization (XRD, SEM, TEM, and AAS), sorption behaviour of heavy metals [e.g. Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and As (III)] from aqueous systems under varying experimental conditions has also been studied.
Anjali Tyagi, Anshika Tyagi, Zahoor A. Mir, Sajad Ali, Juhi Chaudhary

Chapter 4. Chitosan Based Nanocomposites as Efficient Adsorbents for Water Treatment

Abstract
Excessive growth and rapid development put a huge burden on the environment and the large fraction of water bodies getting polluted through industries. Though one third part of the earth contain water, but still there is a crises of water for drinking and other purposes. These water contaminants, contain many harmful and toxic metals, dyes, drugs, pesticides etc. Polluted water can be treated by numerous methods to make it fit for the drinking purpose. Chitosan being the most abundant biodegradable and cationic polymer can be effectively used for the treatment of wastewater for the removal of toxic and hazardous contaminants, heavy metals and other impurities present in water. Chitosan with characteristic functional groups such as amino and hydroxyl group can also be useful for the treatment of water as an adsorbent. Chitosan being the environmental friendly, cost effective and non toxic in nature is also applied for the purpose of treatment of water through adsorption, chelation, precipitation, ion exchange techniques etc. Nanoparticle doped with chitosan in the form of bionanocomposites has been a very successful tool for the removal of pollutants from the water. Wastewater contains different types of metal ions, toxic substance,and different pH i.e. alkaline as well as acidic nature. Chitosan in the acidic media is very helpful as the amino functional group can easily be protonated in acidic media to bind with the anionic part of the organic pollutants.
Nafees Ahmad, Saima Sultana, Mohammad Zain Khan, Suhail Sabir

Chapter 5. Graphene and Its Composites: Applications in Environmental Remediation

Abstract
The research on graphene has attracted a lot of interest in the scientific world, especially in material science. The scaled-up and reliable production of graphene composites explores their utility with wider applications. In this chapter, we focus on the description of various methods to synthesize graphene-based composites, especially those with organic polymers, inorganic nanostructures, carbon nanotubes, etc. The possibility of conjugation of graphene with different materials to form composite has received particular attention concerning the design of stable materials particularly adsorbents for the advancement of the water treatment process. This chapter describes the preparation of graphene and its composites, efforts, and trends in environmental water remediation highlighting the strategies for the optimization of composite properties.
Uzma Haseen, Khalid Umar, Hilal Ahmad, Tabassum Parveen, Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim

Chapter 6. Fabrication of Polyaniline Supported Nanocomposites and Their Sensing Application for Detection of Environmental Pollutants

Abstract
Nanoscale composite materials have played a significant role in sensing of gases, owing to their high surface area, higher mechanical strength with efficient chemical activity as well as cost effective nature. The present chapter deals with synthesis and characterization of Polyaniline (PANI) based nanocomposites ion-exchanger and nanomaterials in addition to their sensing applications in various fields. These nanomaterials have been explored on the basis of advanced techniques of characterizations. Besides the sensing materials, on the basis of ion uptake capacity, these nanocomposite ion-exchange materials can also be used for the treatment of meal ions from industrial wastewaters. This chapter mainly focuses on the synthesis of PANI based nanocomposites and their applications as gas sensors and biosensors. The PANI nanomaterials demonstrated impressive results and outstanding sensing behaviour. It has been found that PANI based nanocomposite materials are not only used for the detection of toxic gases, but, these materials also facilitated immobilization of bioreceptors (e.g., enzymes, antigen–antibodies, and nucleic acids, etc.) for the exposure of biological agents through a combination of biochemical and electrochemical reactions. In future, PANI based nanocomposite materials are expected to open new approaches for demonstrating their outstanding applications in diverse fields.
Mohammad Shahadat, Mohammad Oves, Abid Hussain Shalla, Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad, S. Wazed Ali, T. R. Sreekrishnan

Chapter 7. A New Polyoxovanadate Based Hybrid Materials: A Promising Sensor for Picric Acid and Pd2+ Found in the Aqueous Environment

Abstract
Apart from traditional metal-organic frameworks as sensitive materials, discrete cages or clusters to sense hazardous species are uncommon. Keeping this view in mind, a new hybrid discrete material of decavanadate anion and copper complex cations is designed for the purpose. A novel polyoxovanadate (POV)-based inorganic-organic hybrid compound showing the unique combination of first anagostic(V···H) interaction was synthesized. Single crystal X-ray data ascertained the bonding modes and geometry of the complex along with novel anagostic weak intermolecular interactions in the complex material. X-ray crystallography confirmed the composition of the cluster to be {Cu(Pyno)4}{NEt3H}2[H2V10O28] (1), containing decavanadate as an anion with square planar copper(II) complex and triethylammonium as cations. The compound was further characterized by FTIR, time decay and magnetic studies. Magnetic studies confirmed the presence of the Cu2+ state in the complex at RT as well as low temperature. The cluster displayed rare intermolecular V⋯H, lp⋯π, V–O⋯H, π⋯π and C–H⋯H interactions, which generate a supramolecular framework. Hirshfeld surface analyses have verified these interactions. The hybrid material is disclosed as the first aqueous phase sensor for picric acid (PA) as well as Pd2+. The complex shows highly sensitive, discriminative and selective sensing behavior for the said species and is the first example of its type in discrete molecule category. The sensing pathways are investigated by spectral titrations, time decay, and DFT (B3LYP/def2–SVP) studies. The lowest detection limit has been discovered for the present POV towards the sensing of both PA and Pd2+ ions with ~0.18 and ~0.80 ppb, respectively.
Mukul Raizada, M. Shahid, Farasha Sama

Chapter 8. Photocatalytic Decontamination of Organic Pollutants Using Advanced Materials

Abstract
Organic pollutants released into the natural environment such as a river, air and land pose a high threat to organisms that thrive in these environment. Industrial effluents are considered the major source of organic pollutants such as dyes, pesticides, and drugs such as antibiotics. Even with extensive regulations, numerous studies have found the presence of such organic pollutants in natural environments. Currently, the use of semiconductor materials for the photocatalytic destruction of organic pollutants got increased owing to their advantages such as high efficiency, low cost, and less toxicity. Among these materials, TiO2 based materials have shown superior pollutant degrading capability coupled with lower secondary pollution. This chapter reviews advanced photocatalytic materials available to degrade organic pollutants.
Krishnasamy Lakshmi, Venkatramanan Varadharajan, Krishna Gounder Kadirvelu

Chapter 9. Metal Oxide Nanostructured Materials for Water Treatment: Prospectives and Challenges

Abstract
Water being scarce is worth saving. The water contamination and pollution are increasing at greater pace posing serious threats to the ecosystem. However, the problem of water contamination has been solved upto much extent with the development and advancement in field of nanotechnology. Several modified and doped metal oxide nanostructured materials are used in water purification. These materials are synthesized by various techniques like hydrothermal synthesis, chemical vapour deposition method, sol gel method to obtain various types of materials possessing different properties which are immensely useful at nanoscale level due to their large surface area to volume ratio, band gap tunability along with high catalytic activity. Various characterisation techniques like X-ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform –Infra-Red spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy are needed to ensure the formation of metal oxide nanostructured materials. These metal oxide nanostructured materials are inevitably helpful in the form of catalyst for removal and purification of wastewater (like dyes and organic pollutants, inorganic materials) discharged from different industries by methods like photocatalysis, adsorption techniques, ion exchange process, disinfection process and electrochemical techniques for simultaneous heavy metal separation and detection.
Sayfa Bano, Saima Sultana, Suhail Sabir

Chapter 10. Heavy Metal Remediation by Natural Adsorbents

Abstract
Global industrialization and urbanization have led to serious, alarming levels of environmental pollution. Due to the property of high solubility in the aqueous solutions, heavy metals can quickly be absorbed by all living organisms. Once they enter the food chain, it is challenging to detoxify them. Metals are a part of the biological systems, but up to a certain permissible limit, beyond that limit, it becomes hazardous. The physical and chemical technologies require special equipment, it is also labor intensive as well as very costly. Whereas biological technologies of remediation are gaining popularity in order to solve the increasing levels of contamination in the environment. During the recent studies, it is clear that lime precipitation proves to be as one of the effective technique in order to treat inorganic effluent having a concentration of metal higher than 1000 mg/L; usage of new adsorbents, as well as the technique of membrane filtration, are frequently studied and is used for the remediation of the heavy metal-contaminated wastewater. Various techniques have been used for the remediation of contaminated wastewater, it is important to select the most effective method for remediation of metal-contaminated wastewater based on criteria of pH, initial metal concentration, the overall result after the treatment when compared with other technologies along with environmental impact and economics parameter including the capital investment and costs of operation. Finally, the technical applicability along with the simplicity of the plant and cost-effectiveness are major key factors that play an important role in the selection of the suitable treatment system for contaminated wastewater.
Neha Dhingra, Ngangbam Sarat Singh, Talat Parween, Ranju Sharma

Chapter 11. Removal and Recovery of Heavy Metal Ions Using Natural Adsorbents

Abstract
Now a day’s heavy metal pollution has become a serious environmental problem. The presence of heavy metal ions is a major problem due to their toxicity to many life forms on this planet. Therefore the removal of heavy metals from the environment is of special concern due to their persistence. During these days natural adsorbents are most frequently studied and widely applied for the metal contaminated water. Adsorption processes are being widely used by various researchers for the removal of heavy metals from the waste streams. The need for the safe and economical methods for the elimination of heavy metals from contaminated waters has developed the interest of researchers towards the production of low cost adsorbents. Therefore there is an urgent need that all possible sources of agro-based inexpensive adsorbents should be explored and their role for the removal of heavy metals should be studied in detail.
Amjad Mumtaz Khan, Sajad Ahmad Ganai

Chapter 12. Wastewater Treatments Plants and Their Technological Advances

Abstract
The biggest challenge of the twenty-first century is the provision of pure and affordable water to meet up human needs. Water supply is struggling to keep up the pace with the ever-increasing demand worldwide, which is being aggravated by various factors like population explosion, rapid urbanization, water quality deterioration and global climatic change. Continued depletion of freshwater resources, has shifted the focus more towards the recovery, reuse, and recycling of water, which mandates advanced wastewater treatment. Numerous innovations have been observed in the field of water treatment in the last few years, which have resulted in the blooming of better alternatives to conventional wastewater treatment systems. Some of those technologies are nanotechnology, Membrane Filtration bioreactors, an advanced oxidation process (AOP) and microbial fuel cells which have promising prospects and broad applications. These new treatment technologies have been proven to remove a wide range of challenging contaminants from wastewater successfully. These revolutionary techniques in the field of wastewater treatment have been discussed in this chapter.
Ngangbam Sarat Singh, Ranju Sharma, Talat Parween

Chapter 13. Bioremediation of Oil-Spills from ShoreLine Environment

Abstract
In the present day society, we are in great need of petroleum hydrocarbons for our energy need. In spite of recent advance technologies, crude oil accidental spill occurs at constant rate during its extraction, transportation, storage, refining, and distribution. Marine shorelines are essential ecological and human resources that serve as a home of a variety of wildlife habitat. Marine oil spill causes extensive damage to coastal marine environments. Unlike, higher organisms that are adversely affected by oil spill, specific microorganisms are capable of degrading these hydrocarbons into the non-toxic compound and mineralize them. They play an essential role in the bioremediation of oil spill and reduce the overall impact of the oil spill disaster. Microbial bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons is a useful approach and have been used practically in recent years. In this chapter, we studied various factors responsible for the oil spill disaster, its ill effect and ways to overcome these effects. We also explored the importance of bioremediation technique over the traditional methods.
Ranju Sharma, Ngangbam Sarat Singh, Neha Dhingra, Talat Parween

Chapter 14. Rainwater Harvesting and Current Advancements

Abstract
Our natural resources such as water, soil, forests, etc. are limited. As the cities are burdened with new residential areas, industries, food supplies with increasing population, the demand for these resources have been elevated as per they are already being exploited beyond their limits. Water is the basis of our life as crucially involved in simple chores of drinking, cooking to high scale industrial set ups. But with increasing urbanization and industrialization the water bodies have been exhausted to their utmost limit. Which is why there is a need to develop the alternate water sources. For this, the concept of rainwater harvesting comes up as a robust approach for sustaining the human needs. Rainwater harvesting is not a new policy; only it has been revitalized with the modern scientific approaches since there is numerous evidence of ancient civilizations of conserving and harvesting rainwater. The common method involves rainwater harvesting is a collection of rainwater in different structures and then making use of it in daily life, conserving it for future applications or it recharges the groundwater bodies. The implementation of varying rainwater harvesting techniques and methods varies from place to place depending upon their specific climatic conditions, land topography, hydrogeological conditions, etc. Also, it strengthens the relationship between the humans and the environment, making them aware of the need for conserving nature and natural resources along with sustainable development.
Neha Dhingra, Ngangbam Sarat Singh, Ranju Sharma, Talat Parween

Chapter 15. Adsorptive Removal and Recovery of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution/Effluents Using Conventional and Non-conventional Materials

Abstract
The development of industries over the past few decades has turned the world into a modernized era. The ultimate pros of this industrialization are benefited by humans on one side whereas they are also severely affected by the cons on the other side. The intended release of industrial wastewater into the water bodies often contaminates it heavily with toxic substances particularly heavy metals, as they are non-biodegradable and persistent in the environment. Remediation of heavy metals by various physical and chemical approaches is not advisable as it is uneconomical and generates a large number of secondary wastes. Hence, utilization of low cost conventional and non-conventional adsorbents offers natural and eco-friendly statuary for metal removal. Hence, it is considered an efficient and alternative tool for metal remediation. Based on the facts stated above, the present chapter described the sources and environmental significance of heavy metals as well as remediation strategies using low-cost adsorbents.
Ashitha Gopinath, Kadirvelu Krishna, Chinnannan Karthik

Chapter 16. Graphene Based Composites of Metals/Metal Oxides as Photocatalysts

Abstract
Graphene based metal and metal oxide composites have attracted great attention towards curing and solving various environmental issues. Further, the Honeycomb structured of graphene is an ideal nominee for various advanced application such as photovoltaics and optoelectronics etc. However, the performance of graphene based material strongly depends on the synthesis method. So, the selection of appropriate synthesis technique is important for targeted application. In the chapter we reviewed the synthesis and properties of graphene and further its role as a photocatalyst.
Asim Jilani, Mohammad Omaish Ansari, Mohammad Oves, Syed Zajif Hussain, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman

Chapter 17. Microbial Electrochemical Cell: An Emerging Technology for Waste Water Treatment and Carbon Sequestration

Abstract
Recently, treatment of waste water using biofuel technology has gained more attention because of its bio-sustainable resource by generating powering microbes (electrical energy) which exponentially reducing dependence of fossil fuels. In the last one decade, one of the bioelectro-chemical approach; microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has been developed to treat waste water and energy production. It is considered as a potential green technology to tackle the issues of energy shortage and global warming. This technique employs conversion of waste water (which contain organic matter) into hydrogen or a variety of value-added products (acetate, hydrogen peroxide, methane, ethanol) via electrochemically active bacteria (electrogenes). Significant outcomes of MECs offers a new solution to emerging environmental issues related to waste water treatment, energy and resource recovery as well. In future, it is expected that treatment of industrial waste water using MECs has become a promising renewable green technology to manage waste water and biofuels production. The present chapter mainly reviews utilization of various polymer-based electrode materials in MECs for treatment of waste water along with their future potential substrates. 
Abdul Hakeem Anwer, Mohammad Danish Khan, Mohammad Zain Khan, Rajkumar Joshi
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