Skip to main content
Top
Published in:

06-08-2019

Moving Upstream: The Effect of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions on Educational Inequalities in Smoking Among Young Adults

Authors: Elaine M. Hernandez, Mike Vuolo, Laura C. Frizzell, Brian C. Kelly

Published in: Demography | Issue 5/2019

Log in

Activate our intelligent search to find suitable subject content or patents.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

Education affords a range of direct and indirect benefits that promote longer and healthier lives and stratify health lifestyles. We use tobacco clean air policies to examine whether policies that apply universally—interventions that bypass individuals’ unequal access and ability to employ flexible resources to avoid health hazards—have an effect on educational inequalities in health behaviors. We test theoretically informed but competing hypotheses that these policies either amplify or attenuate the association between education and smoking behavior. Our results provide evidence that interventions that move upstream to apply universally regardless of individual educational attainment—here, tobacco clean air policies—are particularly effective among young adults with the lowest levels of parental or individual educational attainment. These findings provide important evidence that upstream approaches may disrupt persistent educational inequalities in health behaviors. In doing so, they provide opportunities to intervene on behaviors in early adulthood that contribute to disparities in morbidity and mortality later in the life course. These findings also help assuage concerns that tobacco clean air policies increase educational inequalities in smoking by stigmatizing those with the fewest resources.

Dont have a licence yet? Then find out more about our products and how to get one now:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Footnotes
1
We distinguish between tobacco clean air acts (i.e., smoking bans) and other tobacco-related policies that are less universal in their application, including (1) excise taxes, (2) ad restrictions, and (3) single cigarette sales restrictions. Such other policies are more fundamentally dependent on individual use of the flexible resources conferred by education. In this manner, they are less comprehensive and universal in their application and effect.
 
2
Before 2004, only metropolitan statistical area (MSA) was available. Although it increases time points, using MSA (>50,000 people) rather than CBSA (>10,000 people) reduces the number of cities (and respondents) analyzed. Given our focus on local policy, we prioritize adding more cities over time points while diversifying the cities given the lower population threshold of CBSAs, such that not only large cities are included. Although we restrict analyses to age 19 and older, we do not view this restriction as negative because this constitutes an age when young adults begin to frequent nightlife establishments, which have the most between-city variation in smoking bans.
 
3
The rate of any smoking in the past 30 days in the sample (34.5 %) compares well with that of young adults (18–25) in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health across these years, decreasing from 39.5 % in 2004 to 33.5 % by 2011 (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) 2016:7).
 
4
Because the parental measure is derived from years of schooling completed, we cannot be certain where those with a GED would group themselves (i.e., “12 years” or a lower year based on when they left formal schooling).
 
5
Although associate’s degree recipients are a small group, we separate them because research shows that relative to leaving college without a degree, the returns to earning an associate’s degree are greater and help its recipients weather recessionary periods (Kalogrides and Grodsky 2011; Kane and Rouse 1995; Vuolo et al. 2016). In many cases, an associate’s degree is a credential for vocational preparation, leading to tracking into occupations that require specialized knowledge in a way that dropping out of college would not. Thus, the associate’s degree group likely has more flexible resources to tap into than those who do not complete college.
 
6
The main drawback for LPMs is that predicted probabilities are not bounded between 0 and 1, but this is not an issue for our predictions.
 
7
Although the models shown can produce in-sample predicted probabilities, they cannot produce out-of-sample predicted probabilities because multiplying the smoking ban effect by 0 in the interaction model also eliminates the education variables from the model (see StataCorp 2017:447–450). We can, however, derive these predicted probabilities from separate models by education subgroup, which is the approach we take here. These separate models are shown in Tables A2 and A3 in the online appendix. As expected, the smoking ban coefficient is similar to that of the main effect in the interaction models for those with less than a high school education, and to the sum of the main effect and the respective education category for the higher levels of education. Any slight differences between the two modeling approaches are due to differential effect of the controls across education groups. For both parental attainment and individual attainment, the significant effects for those with less than a high school education are reaffirmed; the small, nonsignificant effects computed in the interaction models are also reaffirmed, now corresponding to the coefficients of the respective education categories. Although we caution against direct comparison of the coefficients, the two modeling approaches produce very similar results in terms of the magnitudes of the effects, providing additional evidence for the robustness of our results.
 
8
The calculated smoking ban effect for those with an associate’s degree is –0.068 (p < .01).
 
9
For comparison, the coefficient for high school diploma or GED (Table 3, Model 6) is 0.068; when GED is removed (Table A4, online appendix), this coefficient is similar at 0.054. In both cases, the difference in the effect of smoking bans from those with less than a high school education is significant.
 
Literature
go back to reference Allison, P. D. (2009). Fixed effects regression models. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRef Allison, P. D. (2009). Fixed effects regression models. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRef
go back to reference Baker, D. P., Smith, W. C., Muñoz, I. G., Jeon, H., Fu, T., Leon, J., . . . Horvatek, R. (2017). The population education transition curve: Education gradients across population exposure to new health risks. Demography, 54, 1873–1895. Baker, D. P., Smith, W. C., Muñoz, I. G., Jeon, H., Fu, T., Leon, J., . . . Horvatek, R. (2017). The population education transition curve: Education gradients across population exposure to new health risks. Demography, 54, 1873–1895.
go back to reference Bambra, C., Gibson, M., Sowden, A., Wright, K., Whitehead, M., & Petticrew, M. (2010). Tackling the wider social determinants of health and health inequalities: Evidence from systematic reviews. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 64, 284–291.CrossRef Bambra, C., Gibson, M., Sowden, A., Wright, K., Whitehead, M., & Petticrew, M. (2010). Tackling the wider social determinants of health and health inequalities: Evidence from systematic reviews. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 64, 284–291.CrossRef
go back to reference Bell, K., Salmon, A., Bowers, M., Bell, J., & McCullough, L. (2010). Smoking, stigma and tobacco “denormalization”: Further reflections on the use of stigma as a public health tool. A commentary on Social Science & Medicine’s Stigma, Prejudice, Discrimination and Health Special Issue (67). Social Science & Medicine, 70, 795–799. Bell, K., Salmon, A., Bowers, M., Bell, J., & McCullough, L. (2010). Smoking, stigma and tobacco “denormalization”: Further reflections on the use of stigma as a public health tool. A commentary on Social Science & Medicine’s Stigma, Prejudice, Discrimination and Health Special Issue (67). Social Science & Medicine, 70, 795–799.
go back to reference Bennett, G. G., Wolin, K. Y., Robinson, E. L., Fowler, S., & Edwards, C. L. (2005). Perceived racial/ethnic harassment and tobacco use among African American young adults. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 238–240.CrossRef Bennett, G. G., Wolin, K. Y., Robinson, E. L., Fowler, S., & Edwards, C. L. (2005). Perceived racial/ethnic harassment and tobacco use among African American young adults. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 238–240.CrossRef
go back to reference Bird, C. E., & Rieker, P. P. (2008). Gender and health: The effects of constrained choices and social policies. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef Bird, C. E., & Rieker, P. P. (2008). Gender and health: The effects of constrained choices and social policies. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
go back to reference Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste (R. Nice, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste (R. Nice, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
go back to reference Boyer, C. A., & Lutfey, K. E. (2010). Examining critical health policy issues within and beyond the clinical encounter: Patient-provider relationships and help-seeking behaviors. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(Suppl. 1), S80–S93.CrossRef Boyer, C. A., & Lutfey, K. E. (2010). Examining critical health policy issues within and beyond the clinical encounter: Patient-provider relationships and help-seeking behaviors. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(Suppl. 1), S80–S93.CrossRef
go back to reference Brown, S. L., & Rinelli, L. N. (2010). Family structure, family processes, and adolescent smoking and drinking. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20, 259–273.CrossRef Brown, S. L., & Rinelli, L. N. (2010). Family structure, family processes, and adolescent smoking and drinking. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20, 259–273.CrossRef
go back to reference Cameron, A. C., & Trivedi, P. K. (2009). Microeconomics: Methods and applications. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Cameron, A. C., & Trivedi, P. K. (2009). Microeconomics: Methods and applications. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Cameron, A. C., & Trivedi, P. K. (2010). Microeconomics using Stata (Revised ed.). College Station, TX: Stata Press. Cameron, A. C., & Trivedi, P. K. (2010). Microeconomics using Stata (Revised ed.). College Station, TX: Stata Press.
go back to reference Carpiano, R. M., & Daley, D. M. (2006). A guide and glossary on postpositivist theory building for population health. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 60, 564–570.CrossRef Carpiano, R. M., & Daley, D. M. (2006). A guide and glossary on postpositivist theory building for population health. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 60, 564–570.CrossRef
go back to reference Chamberlain, T. C. (1965). The method of multiple working hypotheses. Science, 148, 754–759.CrossRef Chamberlain, T. C. (1965). The method of multiple working hypotheses. Science, 148, 754–759.CrossRef
go back to reference Chang, V. W., & Lauderdale, D. S. (2009). Fundamental cause theory, technological innovation, and health disparities: The case of cholesterol in the era of statins. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 245–260.CrossRef Chang, V. W., & Lauderdale, D. S. (2009). Fundamental cause theory, technological innovation, and health disparities: The case of cholesterol in the era of statins. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 245–260.CrossRef
go back to reference Cialdini, R. B., Reno, R. R., & Kallgren, C. A. (1990). A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 1015–1026.CrossRef Cialdini, R. B., Reno, R. R., & Kallgren, C. A. (1990). A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 1015–1026.CrossRef
go back to reference Clarke, A. E., Shim, J. K., Mamo, L., Fosket, J. R., & Fishman, J. R. (2003). Biomedicalization: Technoscientific transformations of health, illness, and U.S. biomedicine. American Sociological Review, 68, 161–194.CrossRef Clarke, A. E., Shim, J. K., Mamo, L., Fosket, J. R., & Fishman, J. R. (2003). Biomedicalization: Technoscientific transformations of health, illness, and U.S. biomedicine. American Sociological Review, 68, 161–194.CrossRef
go back to reference Clouston, S. A. P., Rubin, M. S., Chae, D., Freese, J., Nemesure, B., & Link, B. (2017). Fundamental causes of accelerated declines in colorectal cancer mortality: Modeling multiple ways that disadvantage influences mortality risk. Social Science & Medicine, 187, 1–10.CrossRef Clouston, S. A. P., Rubin, M. S., Chae, D., Freese, J., Nemesure, B., & Link, B. (2017). Fundamental causes of accelerated declines in colorectal cancer mortality: Modeling multiple ways that disadvantage influences mortality risk. Social Science & Medicine, 187, 1–10.CrossRef
go back to reference Cockerham, W. C. (2005). Health lifestyle theory and the convergence of agency and structure. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46, 51–67.CrossRef Cockerham, W. C. (2005). Health lifestyle theory and the convergence of agency and structure. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46, 51–67.CrossRef
go back to reference Conrad, P. (1992). Medicalization and social control. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 209–232.CrossRef Conrad, P. (1992). Medicalization and social control. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 209–232.CrossRef
go back to reference Conti, G., Heckman, J., & Urzua, S. (2010). The education-health gradient. American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings, 100, 234–238. Conti, G., Heckman, J., & Urzua, S. (2010). The education-health gradient. American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings, 100, 234–238.
go back to reference Cutler, D., & Lleras-Muney, A. (2010). Understanding differences in health behaviors by education. Journal of Health Economics, 29, 1–28.CrossRef Cutler, D., & Lleras-Muney, A. (2010). Understanding differences in health behaviors by education. Journal of Health Economics, 29, 1–28.CrossRef
go back to reference Cutler, D., & Miller, G. (2005). The role of public health improvements in health advances: The twentieth-century United States. Demography, 42, 1–22.CrossRef Cutler, D., & Miller, G. (2005). The role of public health improvements in health advances: The twentieth-century United States. Demography, 42, 1–22.CrossRef
go back to reference de Walque, D. (2010). Education, information, and smoking decisions: Evidence from smoking histories in the United States, 1940–2000. Journal of Human Resources, 45, 682–717.CrossRef de Walque, D. (2010). Education, information, and smoking decisions: Evidence from smoking histories in the United States, 1940–2000. Journal of Human Resources, 45, 682–717.CrossRef
go back to reference Dinno, A., & Glantz, S. (2009). Tobacco control policies are egalitarian: A vulnerabilities perspective on clean indoor air laws, cigarette prices, and tobacco use disparities. Social Science & Medicine, 68, 1439–1447.CrossRef Dinno, A., & Glantz, S. (2009). Tobacco control policies are egalitarian: A vulnerabilities perspective on clean indoor air laws, cigarette prices, and tobacco use disparities. Social Science & Medicine, 68, 1439–1447.CrossRef
go back to reference Dowd, J. B., & Aiello, A. E. (2008). Did national folic acid fortification reduce socioeconomic and racial disparities in folate status in the US? International Journal of Epidemiology, 37, 1059–1066.CrossRef Dowd, J. B., & Aiello, A. E. (2008). Did national folic acid fortification reduce socioeconomic and racial disparities in folate status in the US? International Journal of Epidemiology, 37, 1059–1066.CrossRef
go back to reference Farrell, P., & Fuchs, V. R. (1982). Schooling and health: The cigarette connection. Journal of Health Economics, 1, 217–230.CrossRef Farrell, P., & Fuchs, V. R. (1982). Schooling and health: The cigarette connection. Journal of Health Economics, 1, 217–230.CrossRef
go back to reference Farrelly, M. C., Loomis, B. R., Han, B., Gfroerer, J., Kuiper, N., Couzens, G. L., . . . Caraballo, R. S. (2013). A comprehensive examination of the influence of state tobacco control programs and policies on youth smoking. American Journal of Public Health, 103, 549–555. Farrelly, M. C., Loomis, B. R., Han, B., Gfroerer, J., Kuiper, N., Couzens, G. L., . . . Caraballo, R. S. (2013). A comprehensive examination of the influence of state tobacco control programs and policies on youth smoking. American Journal of Public Health, 103, 549–555.
go back to reference Fenelon, A., & Preston, S. H. (2012). Estimating smoking-attributable mortality in the United States. Demography, 49, 797–818.CrossRef Fenelon, A., & Preston, S. H. (2012). Estimating smoking-attributable mortality in the United States. Demography, 49, 797–818.CrossRef
go back to reference Fleming, C. B., White, H. R., & Catalano, R. F. (2010). Romantic relationships and substance use in early adulthood: An examination of the influences of relationship type, partner substance use, and relationship quality. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51, 153–167.CrossRef Fleming, C. B., White, H. R., & Catalano, R. F. (2010). Romantic relationships and substance use in early adulthood: An examination of the influences of relationship type, partner substance use, and relationship quality. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51, 153–167.CrossRef
go back to reference Frisbie, W. P., Song, S.-E. E., Powers, D. A., & Street, J. A. (2004). The increasing racial disparity in infant mortality: Respiratory distress syndrome and other causes. Demography, 41, 773–800.CrossRef Frisbie, W. P., Song, S.-E. E., Powers, D. A., & Street, J. A. (2004). The increasing racial disparity in infant mortality: Respiratory distress syndrome and other causes. Demography, 41, 773–800.CrossRef
go back to reference Frohlich, K. L., & Potvin, L. (2008). Transcending the known in public health practice. The inequality paradox: The population approach and vulnerable populations. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 216–221. Frohlich, K. L., & Potvin, L. (2008). Transcending the known in public health practice. The inequality paradox: The population approach and vulnerable populations. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 216–221.
go back to reference Glied, S., & Lleras-Muney, A. (2008). Technological innovation and inequality in health. Demography, 45, 741–761.CrossRef Glied, S., & Lleras-Muney, A. (2008). Technological innovation and inequality in health. Demography, 45, 741–761.CrossRef
go back to reference Gortmaker, S. L., & Wise, P. H. (1997). The first injustice: Socioeconomic disparities, health services technology, and infant mortality. Annual Review of Sociology, 23, 147–170.CrossRef Gortmaker, S. L., & Wise, P. H. (1997). The first injustice: Socioeconomic disparities, health services technology, and infant mortality. Annual Review of Sociology, 23, 147–170.CrossRef
go back to reference Halaby, C. N. (2003). Panel models for the analysis of change and growth in life course studies. In J. T. Mortimer & M. J. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 503–527). New York, NY: Kluwer/Plenum.CrossRef Halaby, C. N. (2003). Panel models for the analysis of change and growth in life course studies. In J. T. Mortimer & M. J. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 503–527). New York, NY: Kluwer/Plenum.CrossRef
go back to reference Halaby, C. N. (2004). Panel models in sociological research: Theory into practice. Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 507–544.CrossRef Halaby, C. N. (2004). Panel models in sociological research: Theory into practice. Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 507–544.CrossRef
go back to reference Harper, S., Strumpf, E. C., Burris, S., Smith, G. D., & Lynch, J. (2014). The effect of mandatory seat belt laws on seat belt use by socioeconomic position. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33, 141–161.CrossRef Harper, S., Strumpf, E. C., Burris, S., Smith, G. D., & Lynch, J. (2014). The effect of mandatory seat belt laws on seat belt use by socioeconomic position. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33, 141–161.CrossRef
go back to reference Hayward, M. D., & Gorman, B. K. (2004). The long arm of childhood: The influence of early-life social conditions on men’s mortality. Demography, 41, 87–107.CrossRef Hayward, M. D., & Gorman, B. K. (2004). The long arm of childhood: The influence of early-life social conditions on men’s mortality. Demography, 41, 87–107.CrossRef
go back to reference Hernandez, E. M. (2013). Provider and patient influences on the formation of socioeconomic health behavior disparities among pregnant women. Social Science & Medicine, 82, 35–42.CrossRef Hernandez, E. M. (2013). Provider and patient influences on the formation of socioeconomic health behavior disparities among pregnant women. Social Science & Medicine, 82, 35–42.CrossRef
go back to reference Ho, J. Y., & Fenelon, A. (2015). The contribution of smoking to educational gradients in U.S. life expectancy. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 56, 307–322.CrossRef Ho, J. Y., & Fenelon, A. (2015). The contribution of smoking to educational gradients in U.S. life expectancy. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 56, 307–322.CrossRef
go back to reference Honjo, K., Tsutsumi, A., Kawachi, I., & Kawakami, N. (2006). What accounts for the relationship between social class and smoking cessation? Results of a path analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 317–328.CrossRef Honjo, K., Tsutsumi, A., Kawachi, I., & Kawakami, N. (2006). What accounts for the relationship between social class and smoking cessation? Results of a path analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 317–328.CrossRef
go back to reference House, J. S. (2002). Understanding social factors and inequalities in health: 20th century progress and 21st century prospects. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 125–142.CrossRef House, J. S. (2002). Understanding social factors and inequalities in health: 20th century progress and 21st century prospects. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 125–142.CrossRef
go back to reference Hummer, R. A., & Lariscy, J. T. (2011). Educational attainment and adult mortality. In R. G. Rogers & E. M. Crimmins (Eds.), International handbook of adult mortality (pp. 241–261). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer. Hummer, R. A., & Lariscy, J. T. (2011). Educational attainment and adult mortality. In R. G. Rogers & E. M. Crimmins (Eds.), International handbook of adult mortality (pp. 241–261). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.
go back to reference Johnson, M. K. (2004). Further evidence on adolescent employment and substance use: Differences by race and ethnicity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45, 187–197.CrossRef Johnson, M. K. (2004). Further evidence on adolescent employment and substance use: Differences by race and ethnicity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45, 187–197.CrossRef
go back to reference Kalogrides, D., & Grodsky, E. (2011). Something to fall back on: Community colleges as a safety net. Social Forces, 89, 853–878.CrossRef Kalogrides, D., & Grodsky, E. (2011). Something to fall back on: Community colleges as a safety net. Social Forces, 89, 853–878.CrossRef
go back to reference Kane, T. J., & Rouse, C. E. (1995). Labor-market returns to two- and four-year college. American Economic Review, 85, 600–614. Kane, T. J., & Rouse, C. E. (1995). Labor-market returns to two- and four-year college. American Economic Review, 85, 600–614.
go back to reference Kelly, B. C. (2009). Smoke-free air policy: Subcultural shifts and secondary health effects among NYC club-going youth. Sociology of Health & Illness, 31, 569–582.CrossRef Kelly, B. C. (2009). Smoke-free air policy: Subcultural shifts and secondary health effects among NYC club-going youth. Sociology of Health & Illness, 31, 569–582.CrossRef
go back to reference Kelly, B. C., Vuolo, M., Frizzell, L. C., & Hernandez, E. (2018). Denormalization, smoke-free air policy, and tobacco use among young adults. Social Science & Medicine, 211, 70–77.CrossRef Kelly, B. C., Vuolo, M., Frizzell, L. C., & Hernandez, E. (2018). Denormalization, smoke-free air policy, and tobacco use among young adults. Social Science & Medicine, 211, 70–77.CrossRef
go back to reference Kenkel, D., Lillard, D., & Mathios, A. (2006). The roles of high school completion and GED receipt in smoking and obesity. Journal of Labor Economics, 24, 635–660. Kenkel, D., Lillard, D., & Mathios, A. (2006). The roles of high school completion and GED receipt in smoking and obesity. Journal of Labor Economics, 24, 635–660.
go back to reference Kivimäki, M., Shipley, M. J., Ferrie, J. E., Singh-Manoux, A., Batty, G. D., Chandola, T., . . . Smith, G. D. (2008). Best practice interventions to reduce socioeconomic inequalities of coronary heart disease mortality in UK: A prospective occupational cohort study. Lancet, 372, 1648–1654. Kivimäki, M., Shipley, M. J., Ferrie, J. E., Singh-Manoux, A., Batty, G. D., Chandola, T., . . . Smith, G. D. (2008). Best practice interventions to reduce socioeconomic inequalities of coronary heart disease mortality in UK: A prospective occupational cohort study. Lancet, 372, 1648–1654.
go back to reference Leclere, F. B., Rogers, R. G., & Peters, K. (1998). Neighborhood social context and racial differences in women’s heart disease mortality. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 39, 91–107.CrossRef Leclere, F. B., Rogers, R. G., & Peters, K. (1998). Neighborhood social context and racial differences in women’s heart disease mortality. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 39, 91–107.CrossRef
go back to reference Link, B. G. (2008). Epidemiological sociology and the social shaping of population health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49, 367–384. Link, B. G. (2008). Epidemiological sociology and the social shaping of population health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49, 367–384.
go back to reference Link, B. G., Northridge, M. E., Phelan, J. C., & Ganz, M. L. (1998). Social epidemiology and the fundamental cause concept: On the structuring of effective cancer screens by socioeconomic status. Milbank Quarterly, 76, 375–402.CrossRef Link, B. G., Northridge, M. E., Phelan, J. C., & Ganz, M. L. (1998). Social epidemiology and the fundamental cause concept: On the structuring of effective cancer screens by socioeconomic status. Milbank Quarterly, 76, 375–402.CrossRef
go back to reference Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. C. (1995). Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35(Extra Issue), 80–94. Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. C. (1995). Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35(Extra Issue), 80–94.
go back to reference Lleras-Muney, A., & Lichtenberg, F. R. (2005). Are the more educated more likely to use new drugs? Annales d’Économie et de Statistique, 79/80, 671–696.CrossRef Lleras-Muney, A., & Lichtenberg, F. R. (2005). Are the more educated more likely to use new drugs? Annales d’Économie et de Statistique, 79/80, 671–696.CrossRef
go back to reference Maralani, V. (2014). Understanding the links between education and smoking. Social Science Research, 48, 20–34.CrossRef Maralani, V. (2014). Understanding the links between education and smoking. Social Science Research, 48, 20–34.CrossRef
go back to reference Masters, R. K., Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. C. (2015). Trends in educational gradients of “preventable” mortality: A test of fundamental cause theory. Social Science & Medicine, 127, 19–28.CrossRef Masters, R. K., Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. C. (2015). Trends in educational gradients of “preventable” mortality: A test of fundamental cause theory. Social Science & Medicine, 127, 19–28.CrossRef
go back to reference McKinlay, J. B., & Marceau, L. D. (2000a). Upstream healthy public policy: Lessons from the battle of tobacco. International Journal of Health Services, 30, 49–69.CrossRef McKinlay, J. B., & Marceau, L. D. (2000a). Upstream healthy public policy: Lessons from the battle of tobacco. International Journal of Health Services, 30, 49–69.CrossRef
go back to reference McKinlay, J. B., & Marceau, L. D. (2000b). US public health and the 21st century: Diabetes mellitus. Lancet, 356, 757–761.CrossRef McKinlay, J. B., & Marceau, L. D. (2000b). US public health and the 21st century: Diabetes mellitus. Lancet, 356, 757–761.CrossRef
go back to reference McLaren, L., McIntyre, L., & Kirkpatrick, S. (2010). Rose’s population strategy of prevention need not increase social inequalities in health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 39, 372–377.CrossRef McLaren, L., McIntyre, L., & Kirkpatrick, S. (2010). Rose’s population strategy of prevention need not increase social inequalities in health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 39, 372–377.CrossRef
go back to reference McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., & Cook, J. M. (2001). Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 415–444.CrossRef McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., & Cook, J. M. (2001). Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 415–444.CrossRef
go back to reference Mercken, L., Snijders, T. A. B., Steglich, C., Vartiainen, E., & de Vries, H. (2010). Dynamics of adolescent friendship networks and smoking behavior. Social Networks, 32, 72–81.CrossRef Mercken, L., Snijders, T. A. B., Steglich, C., Vartiainen, E., & de Vries, H. (2010). Dynamics of adolescent friendship networks and smoking behavior. Social Networks, 32, 72–81.CrossRef
go back to reference Messer, K., Trinidad, D. R., Al-Delaimy, W. K., & Pierce, J. P. (2008). Smoking cessation rates in the United States: A comparison of young adult and older smokers. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 317–322.CrossRef Messer, K., Trinidad, D. R., Al-Delaimy, W. K., & Pierce, J. P. (2008). Smoking cessation rates in the United States: A comparison of young adult and older smokers. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 317–322.CrossRef
go back to reference Mirowsky, J., & Ross, C. E. (2003). Education, social status, and health. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter. Mirowsky, J., & Ross, C. E. (2003). Education, social status, and health. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
go back to reference Moen, P., & Hernandez, E. (2009). Social convoys: Studying linked lives in time, context, and motion. In G. Elder, Jr. & J. Giele (Eds.), The craft of life course research (pp. 258–279). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Moen, P., & Hernandez, E. (2009). Social convoys: Studying linked lives in time, context, and motion. In G. Elder, Jr. & J. Giele (Eds.), The craft of life course research (pp. 258–279). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Montez, J. K., Hummer, R., & Hayward, M. (2012). Educational attainment and adult mortality in the United States: A systematic analysis of functional form. Demography, 49, 315–336.CrossRef Montez, J. K., Hummer, R., & Hayward, M. (2012). Educational attainment and adult mortality in the United States: A systematic analysis of functional form. Demography, 49, 315–336.CrossRef
go back to reference Murnane, R. J., Willett, J. B., & Boudett, K. P. (1999). Do male dropouts benefit from obtaining a GED, postsecondary education, and training? Evaluation Review, 23, 475–503.CrossRef Murnane, R. J., Willett, J. B., & Boudett, K. P. (1999). Do male dropouts benefit from obtaining a GED, postsecondary education, and training? Evaluation Review, 23, 475–503.CrossRef
go back to reference Pampel, F. C. (2006). Socioeconomic distinction, cultural tastes and cigarette smoking. Social Science Quarterly, 87, 19–35.CrossRef Pampel, F. C. (2006). Socioeconomic distinction, cultural tastes and cigarette smoking. Social Science Quarterly, 87, 19–35.CrossRef
go back to reference Pampel, F. C. (2009). The persistence of educational disparities in smoking. Social Problems, 56, 526–542.CrossRef Pampel, F. C. (2009). The persistence of educational disparities in smoking. Social Problems, 56, 526–542.CrossRef
go back to reference Pampel, F. C., Krueger, P. M., & Denney, J. T. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in health behaviors. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 349–370.CrossRef Pampel, F. C., Krueger, P. M., & Denney, J. T. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in health behaviors. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 349–370.CrossRef
go back to reference Pampel, F. C., Mollborn, S., & Lawrence, E. M. (2014). Life course transitions in early adulthood and SES disparities in tobacco use. Social Science Research, 43, 45–59.CrossRef Pampel, F. C., Mollborn, S., & Lawrence, E. M. (2014). Life course transitions in early adulthood and SES disparities in tobacco use. Social Science Research, 43, 45–59.CrossRef
go back to reference Phelan, J. C., Link, B. G., Diez-Roux, A., Kawachi, I., & Levin, B. (2004). “Fundamental causes” of social inequalities in mortality: A test of the theory. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45, 265–285.CrossRef Phelan, J. C., Link, B. G., Diez-Roux, A., Kawachi, I., & Levin, B. (2004). “Fundamental causes” of social inequalities in mortality: A test of the theory. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45, 265–285.CrossRef
go back to reference Phelan, J. C., Link, B. G., & Tehranifar, P. (2010). Social conditions as fundamental causes of health inequalities: Theory, evidence, and policy implications. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(Suppl.), S28–S40. Phelan, J. C., Link, B. G., & Tehranifar, P. (2010). Social conditions as fundamental causes of health inequalities: Theory, evidence, and policy implications. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(Suppl.), S28–S40.
go back to reference Polonijo, A. N., & Carpiano, R. M. (2013). Social inequalities in adolescent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination: A test of fundamental cause theory. Social Science & Medicine, 82, 115–125.CrossRef Polonijo, A. N., & Carpiano, R. M. (2013). Social inequalities in adolescent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination: A test of fundamental cause theory. Social Science & Medicine, 82, 115–125.CrossRef
go back to reference Price, J., & Simon, K. (2009). Patient education and the impact of new medical research. Journal of Health Economics, 28, 1166–1174.CrossRef Price, J., & Simon, K. (2009). Patient education and the impact of new medical research. Journal of Health Economics, 28, 1166–1174.CrossRef
go back to reference Reid, J. L., Hammond, D., Boudreau, C., Fong, G. T., & Siahpush, M. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in quit intentions, quit attempts, and smoking abstinence among smokers in four western countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 12(Suppl. 1), S20–S33.CrossRef Reid, J. L., Hammond, D., Boudreau, C., Fong, G. T., & Siahpush, M. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in quit intentions, quit attempts, and smoking abstinence among smokers in four western countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 12(Suppl. 1), S20–S33.CrossRef
go back to reference Rose, G. (1992). The strategy of preventive medicine. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Rose, G. (1992). The strategy of preventive medicine. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Rostron, B. L., & Wilmoth, J. R. (2011). Estimating the effect of smoking on slowdowns in mortality declines in developed countries. Demography, 48, 461–479.CrossRef Rostron, B. L., & Wilmoth, J. R. (2011). Estimating the effect of smoking on slowdowns in mortality declines in developed countries. Demography, 48, 461–479.CrossRef
go back to reference Sanson-Fisher, R. W., D’Este, C. A., Carey, M. L., Noble, N., & Paul, C. L. (2014). Evaluation of systems-oriented public health interventions: Alternative research designs. Annual Review of Public Health, 35, 9–27.CrossRef Sanson-Fisher, R. W., D’Este, C. A., Carey, M. L., Noble, N., & Paul, C. L. (2014). Evaluation of systems-oriented public health interventions: Alternative research designs. Annual Review of Public Health, 35, 9–27.CrossRef
go back to reference Schoenborn, C. A., Stommel, M., & Lucas, J. W. (2017). Examining the high rate of cigarette smoking among adults with a GED. Addictive Behaviors, 77, 275–286.CrossRef Schoenborn, C. A., Stommel, M., & Lucas, J. W. (2017). Examining the high rate of cigarette smoking among adults with a GED. Addictive Behaviors, 77, 275–286.CrossRef
go back to reference Shipan, C. R., & Volden, C. (2006). Bottom-up federalism: The diffusion of antismoking policies from U.S. cities to states. American Journal of Political Science, 50, 825–843.CrossRef Shipan, C. R., & Volden, C. (2006). Bottom-up federalism: The diffusion of antismoking policies from U.S. cities to states. American Journal of Political Science, 50, 825–843.CrossRef
go back to reference Starr, P. (1982). The social transformation of American medicine: The rise of a sovereign profession and the making of a vast industry. New York, NY: Basic Books. Starr, P. (1982). The social transformation of American medicine: The rise of a sovereign profession and the making of a vast industry. New York, NY: Basic Books.
go back to reference Stuber, J., Galea, S., & Link, B. G. (2008). Smoking and the emergence of a stigmatized social status. Social Science & Medicine, 67, 420–430.CrossRef Stuber, J., Galea, S., & Link, B. G. (2008). Smoking and the emergence of a stigmatized social status. Social Science & Medicine, 67, 420–430.CrossRef
go back to reference Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2017). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 17-5044, NSDUH Series H-52). Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, SAMHSA. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2017). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 17-5044, NSDUH Series H-52). Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, SAMHSA.
go back to reference Tyler, J. H., Murnane, R. J., & Willett, J. B. (2000). Estimating the labor market signaling value of the GED. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115, 431–468.CrossRef Tyler, J. H., Murnane, R. J., & Willett, J. B. (2000). Estimating the labor market signaling value of the GED. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115, 431–468.CrossRef
go back to reference Umberson, D., Crosnoe, R., & Reczek, C. (2010). Social relationships and health behaviors across the life course. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 139–157.CrossRef Umberson, D., Crosnoe, R., & Reczek, C. (2010). Social relationships and health behaviors across the life course. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 139–157.CrossRef
go back to reference U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. (1964). Smoking and health: Report of the advisory committee to the surgeon general of the Public Health Service (Public Health Service Publication No. 1103). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. (1964). Smoking and health: Report of the advisory committee to the surgeon general of the Public Health Service (Public Health Service Publication No. 1103). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service.
go back to reference U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). The health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). The health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.
go back to reference Vuolo, M., Kadowaki, J., & Kelly, B. C. (2016a). A multilevel test of constrained choices theory: The case of tobacco clean air restrictions. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 57, 351–372.CrossRef Vuolo, M., Kadowaki, J., & Kelly, B. C. (2016a). A multilevel test of constrained choices theory: The case of tobacco clean air restrictions. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 57, 351–372.CrossRef
go back to reference Vuolo, M., Mortimer, J. T., & Staff, J (2016b). The value of educational degrees in turbulent economic times: Evidence from the Youth Development Study. Social Science Research, 57, 233–252.CrossRef Vuolo, M., Mortimer, J. T., & Staff, J (2016b). The value of educational degrees in turbulent economic times: Evidence from the Youth Development Study. Social Science Research, 57, 233–252.CrossRef
go back to reference Warren, J. R., Hoonakker, P., Carayon, P., & Brand, J. (2004). Job characteristics as mediators in SES-health relationships. Social Science & Medicine, 59, 1367–1378.CrossRef Warren, J. R., Hoonakker, P., Carayon, P., & Brand, J. (2004). Job characteristics as mediators in SES-health relationships. Social Science & Medicine, 59, 1367–1378.CrossRef
go back to reference Widome, R., Samet, J. M., Hiatt, R. A., Luke, D. A., Orleans, T., Ponkshe, P., & Hyland, A. (2010). Science, prudence, and politics: The case of smoke-free indoor spaces. Annals of Epidemiology, 20, 428–435.CrossRef Widome, R., Samet, J. M., Hiatt, R. A., Luke, D. A., Orleans, T., Ponkshe, P., & Hyland, A. (2010). Science, prudence, and politics: The case of smoke-free indoor spaces. Annals of Epidemiology, 20, 428–435.CrossRef
go back to reference Williams, D. R., Costa, M. V., Odunlami, A. O., & Mohammed, S. A. (2008). Moving upstream: How interventions that address the social determinants of health can improve health and reduce disparities. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 14(Suppl.), S8–S17.CrossRef Williams, D. R., Costa, M. V., Odunlami, A. O., & Mohammed, S. A. (2008). Moving upstream: How interventions that address the social determinants of health can improve health and reduce disparities. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 14(Suppl.), S8–S17.CrossRef
go back to reference Willson, A. E., Shuey, K. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (2007). Cumulative advantage processes as mechanisms of inequality in life course health. American Journal of Sociology, 112, 1886–1924.CrossRef Willson, A. E., Shuey, K. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (2007). Cumulative advantage processes as mechanisms of inequality in life course health. American Journal of Sociology, 112, 1886–1924.CrossRef
go back to reference Winship, C., & Morgan, S. L. (1999). The estimation of causal effects from observational data. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 659–706.CrossRef Winship, C., & Morgan, S. L. (1999). The estimation of causal effects from observational data. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 659–706.CrossRef
go back to reference Yang, S., Platt, R. W., Dahhou, M., & Kramer, M. S. (2014). Do population-based interventions widen or narrow socioeconomic inequalities? The case of breastfeeding promotion. International Journal of Epidemiology, 43, 1284–1292.CrossRef Yang, S., Platt, R. W., Dahhou, M., & Kramer, M. S. (2014). Do population-based interventions widen or narrow socioeconomic inequalities? The case of breastfeeding promotion. International Journal of Epidemiology, 43, 1284–1292.CrossRef
go back to reference Yang, Y. (2010). Aging, cohorts, and methods. In R. H. Binstock & L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (7th ed., pp. 17–30). New York, NY: Academic Press. Yang, Y. (2010). Aging, cohorts, and methods. In R. H. Binstock & L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (7th ed., pp. 17–30). New York, NY: Academic Press.
go back to reference Zajacova, A. (2012). Health in working-aged Americans: Adults with high school equivalency diploma are similar to dropouts, not high school graduates. American Journal of Public Health, 102(Suppl. 3), S284–S290.CrossRef Zajacova, A. (2012). Health in working-aged Americans: Adults with high school equivalency diploma are similar to dropouts, not high school graduates. American Journal of Public Health, 102(Suppl. 3), S284–S290.CrossRef
go back to reference Zajacova, A., & Lawrence, E. M. (2018). The relationship between education and health: Reducing disparities through a contextual approach. Annual Review of Public Health, 39, 273–289.CrossRef Zajacova, A., & Lawrence, E. M. (2018). The relationship between education and health: Reducing disparities through a contextual approach. Annual Review of Public Health, 39, 273–289.CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Moving Upstream: The Effect of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions on Educational Inequalities in Smoking Among Young Adults
Authors
Elaine M. Hernandez
Mike Vuolo
Laura C. Frizzell
Brian C. Kelly
Publication date
06-08-2019
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Demography / Issue 5/2019
Print ISSN: 0070-3370
Electronic ISSN: 1533-7790
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-019-00805-2

Other articles of this Issue 5/2019

Demography 5/2019 Go to the issue