Although empirical evidence has shown that socially responsible human resource management (SRHRM) practices positively influence employees’ outcomes, knowledge on the social impact of SRHRM practices on employee well-being has been limited. Drawing upon the social information processing theory and attribution theory, we investigate whether, how, and when SRHRM practices increase the well-being of employees. Using multiphase and multilevel data from 474 employees in 50 companies, we find that SRHRM practices positively predict employee well-being and that the relationship is mediated by employees’ perspective-taking. Furthermore, substantive attributions strengthen the positive relationship between SRHRM practices and perspective-taking of employees, whereas symbolic attributions weaken this relationship. We also find that substantive attributions positively moderate the indirect effect of SRHRM practices on employee well-being through perspective-taking, whereas symbolic attributions negatively moderate this indirect effect. Our study contributes to the understanding of the complex effect that SRHRM has on employee well-being.