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About this book

This volume covers the recent advances and research on the modeling and simulation of materials. The primary aim is to take the reader through the mathematical analysis to the theories of electricity and magnetism using multiscale modelling, covering a variety of numerical methods such as finite difference time domain (FDTD), finite element method (FEM) and method of moments. The book also introduces the multiscale Green’s function (GF) method for static and dynamic modelling and simulation results of modern advanced nanomaterials, particularly the two-dimensional (2D) materials. This book will be of interest to researchers and industry professionals working on advanced materials.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Material Selection Techniques in Materials for Electronics

Abstract
Material selection is an important step prior to the actual fabrication of any electronic device. Owing to the availability of large set of materials, it is important to select the best possible material in order to enhance the performance of a device. Material selection approaches provide an easy way to recognize the trade-offs between conflicting materials properties and also to select the optimal material for better device performance. In addition to this, these approaches also help us to provide ranking to the alternatives from best to worst. Therefore, these approaches provide a platform to select and prioritize the possible materials and also provide support to perform rigorous evaluation of the possible alternatives. This chapter describes material selection methodologies in detail and explains the steps to be taken for each methodology to find out the most promising material for a given device.
Navneet Gupta, Kavindra Kandpal

Chapter 2. Some Aspects of Artificial Engineered Materials: Planar and Conformal Geometries

Abstract
Artificial engineered materials or metamaterial (MTM) have received considerable attention in recent years due to eccentric and alluring properties compared to ordinary material which are not found in nature. MTM consists of unit cells of different shapes with periodic intervals which are much smaller than operation wavelength. Because of these fascinating EM characteristics, LHM has been widely used in numerous applications at microwave band, such as filters, antennas, and flat lens.
Asit K. Panda

Chapter 3. Advanced Materials for Aerospace Applications

Abstract
Advances in material science, especially in composite technology, allowed the development of promising new materials for aerospace engineering to reduce fuel consumption and to improve safety and performance. Composites, nonmaterial, and artificially engineered materials made a breakthrough in aerospace engineering by reducing the size and improving the performance. Although several applications are there in the aerospace sector, the emphasis of the review is on applications of these advanced materials as stealth materials where they will reduce the aircraft signature both in microwave regime and in IR regime.
E. V. Bhavya, Shreyash Singh Thakur, Balamati Choudhury

Chapter 4. Radar Absorber Design using Two-Dimensional Materials

Abstract
Radar absorbers are one among the promising technologies toward radar cross section reduction at microwave frequencies. Hence, the key role of radar absorber is emerging in military aviation platform. Although the research on radar absorbers are continuing since decades using multilayer concept, viz., ferrite-based radar absorbers, they are narrow band in nature. Recently artificially engineered materials widely known as metamaterials are playing an important role toward performance enhancement of radar absorbers. This chapter provides a systematic review of the advances in metamaterial-based radar absorbers in conjunction with graphene and conducting polymer.
Delme Winson, P. S. Shibu, Balamati Choudhury

Chapter 5. 3D Metamaterial Multilayer Structures

Abstract
The word “Meta” is taken from Greek whose meaning is “beyond”. “Metamaterials” have the exotic properties beyond the naturally occurring materials. According to Wikipedia, metamaterial is defined as “a material which gains its properties from its structure rather than directly from its composition”.
G. Husna Khouser, Yogesh Kumar Choukiker

Chapter 6. Metamaterial-Inspired Planar Cells for Miniaturized Filtering Applications

Abstract
With the rapid advancement in the using of next-generation wireless communication systems, the demand for high-throughput microwave planar filters with miniaturized size and high selectivity increased exponentially [1, 2].
Asit K. Panda

Chapter 7. Conducting Polymer-based Antennas

Abstract
Current advances in the electrical conductivity levels of conducting polymers (CP) and remarkable improvements in their stability are making these materials very striking potential alternatives to copper in planar antennas. This is mainly so in applications where light weight, inexpensive and conformal antennas are a consideration. There have been isolated efforts in the past towards using conducting polymer as material for antenna and transmission line design. This chapter attempts to give a methodical investigation of key factors that are significant for understanding of these materials, their design and simulation as basis material for building microwave antennas. The proposed conducting polymer-based antenna offers great mechanical flexibility and robustness which indicates its promising potential for possible seamless integration in flexible electronics.
Laya Varghese, Balamati Choudhury

Chapter 8. Metamaterial Resonator Antennas

Abstract
Metamaterials (MTMs) are the synthetic materials engineered to have electromagnetic properties that are not usually found in nature. They may have negative values of permittivity or permeability or both of these over a specific range of frequencies.
Sandeep Kumar, Runa Kumari

Chapter 9. Antenna Performance Enhancement using Metasurface

Abstract
Metasurfaces have emerged as a cutting edge technology towards possible applications ranging from optical to microwave regime. This chapter deals with the design of microstrip patch antenna loaded with metasurface superstrate for antenna performance enhancement. Planar patch antennas found extensive applications in the field of radar systems, telemetry applications and mobile communication due to its attractive features like small size, low cost, low profile and easy fabrication. However, these antennas are incompatible to wide-spread applications due to its narrow bandwidth and low-gain characteristics. The proposed metasurface superstrate improves the antenna’s performance such as bandwidth and gain without affecting operating frequency.
V. V. Akshaya, Balamati Choudhury

Chapter 10. Electromagnetic Bandgap Structures

Abstract
In 1970s, Howell introduced Microstrip patch antenna. It is one of the most commonly used antennae in wireless communication, satellite communication, wearable applications and many more applications due to its properties like low weight, compact, low cost, conformal structure, easy integration with circuits, etc. Patch antenna has simple configuration designed with a substrate of dielectric constant, ϵr ≥ 1 with some height. While designing the patch antenna, the height of the substrate should have considered to be greater than λ/4 so that efficiency of antenna can be enhanced. To address the low gain issue of patch antenna, array antenna designs are proposed. In case of array antenna, the minimum required distance between any two array elements has to be λ/2. However, to design a compact antenna, the substrate height should be less than λ/4 and the distance between the array element is taken to be less than λ/2. As a result, surface waves are generated in substrate, which is added destructively with transmitting signal and degrade the performance of antenna [1].
R. Venkata Sravya, Runa Kumari

Chapter 11. Survey on Dielectric Resonator and Substrate Integrated Waveguide-Based 5G MIMO Antenna with Different Mutual Coupling Reduction Techniques

Abstract
Tremendous growth in the field of mobile communication and wireless communication enforces antenna engineers to meet the current technological advancement. It is sure that the implementation of unlicensed 5G spectrum at 60 GHz will be a compulsion at the end of 2020.As the mobile and communication users are increasing very fast to avail the facility of a communication network, requirement of high spectral efficiency and ultra-high data rate must be the motivated area of research. So multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antenna can be a suggestive approach at 60 GHz spectrum.Mutual coupling between the ports of the MIMO antenna is again another challenge which affects the radiation pattern of the antenna. So care must be taken to reduce the mutual coupling between the elements of the antenna.Use of 60 GHz frequency forces the antenna engineers for the use of dielectric resonator antenna instead of microstrip patch antenna.Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) feed antenna provides high gain and high bandwidth compared to the other antenna.This paper gives systematical studies of SIW antenna, dielectric resonator antenna, 5G MIMO antenna with all the isolation improvement techniques to meet the current requirement.
Satyanarayan Rath, K. L. Sheeja
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