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About this book

This substantially updated and augmented second edition adds over 200 pages of text covering and an array of newer developments in nanoscale thermal transport. In Nano/Microscale Heat Transfer, 2nd edition, Dr. Zhang expands his classroom-proven text to incorporate thermal conductivity spectroscopy, time-domain and frequency-domain thermoreflectance techniques, quantum size effect on specific heat, coherent phonon, minimum thermal conductivity, interface thermal conductance, thermal interface materials, 2D sheet materials and their unique thermal properties, soft materials, first-principles simulation, hyperbolic metamaterials, magnetic polaritons, and new near-field radiation experiments and numerical simulations. Informed by over 12 years use, the author’s research experience, and feedback from teaching faculty, the book has been reorganized in many sections and enriched with more examples and homework problems. Solutions for selected problems are also available to qualified faculty via a password-protected website.• Substantially updates and augments the widely adopted original edition, adding over 200 pages and many new illustrations;• Incorporates student and faculty feedback from a decade of classroom use;• Elucidates concepts explained with many examples and illustrations;• Supports student application of theory with 300 homework problems;• Maximizes reader understanding of micro/nanoscale thermophysical properties and processes and how to apply them to thermal science and engineering;• Features MATLAB codes for working with size and temperature effects on thermal conductivity, specific heat of nanostructures, thin-film optics, RCWA, and near-field radiation.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Improvement of performance and shrinkage of device sizes in microelectronics have been major driving forces for scientific and economic progress over the past 40 years. Developments in semiconductor processing and surface sciences have allowed precise control over critical dimensions with desirable properties for solid-state devices. In the past 30 years, there have been tremendous developments in micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), microfluidics and nanofluidics, quantum structures and devices, photonics and optoelectronics, nanomaterials for molecular sensing and biomedical diagnosis, and scanning probe microscopy for measurement and manipulation at the molecular and atomic levels. This book was motivated by the need to understand the thermal phenomena and heat transfer processes in micro/nanosystems and at very short time scales for solving problems occurring in contemporary and future technologies. Since the first publication in 2007, many universities have offered micro/nanoscale heat transfer courses and used it as either the textbook or major reference. Significant progress has been made in the last decade and this second edition reflects a major update. This chapter gives an introduction of the thermal issues associated with nanotechnology and an outline of the rest of the chapters.
Zhuomin M. Zhang

Chapter 2. Overview of Macroscopic Thermal Sciences

Abstract
This chapter provides a concise description of the basic concepts and theories underlying classical thermodynamics and heat transfer. Different approaches exist in presenting the subject of thermodynamics. Most engineering textbooks first introduce temperature, then discuss energy, work, and heat, and define entropy afterward. An overview of classical thermodynamics is provided that is somewhat beyond typical undergraduate textbooks. The basic phenomena and governing equations in energy, mass, and momentum transfer are subsequently presented in a self-consistent manner without invoking microscopic theories.
Zhuomin M. Zhang

Chapter 3. Elements of Statistical Thermodynamics and Quantum Theory

Abstract
This chapter starts with a statistical model of independent particles and a brief introduction to the basic principles of quantum mechanics. The three important distributions are derived based on the statistics for different types of particles. The microscopic descriptions and results are then linked to macroscopic quantities and the laws of thermodynamics. The application to ideal gases is presented in this chapter, while the applications to blackbody radiation, lattice vibration, free electrons in metals, and electrons and holes in semiconductors will be deferred to later chapters.
Zhuomin M. Zhang

Chapter 4. Kinetic Theory and Micro/Nanofluidics

Abstract
Statistical mechanics involves determination of the most probable state and equilibrium distributions, as well as evaluation of the thermodynamic properties in the equilibrium states. Kinetic theory deals with the local average of particle properties and can be applied to nonequilibrium conditions to derive transport equations [18]. Kinetic theory, statistical mechanics, and molecular dynamics are based on the same hypotheses; they are closely related and overlap each other in some aspects. Knowledge of kinetic theory is important to understanding gas dynamics, as well as electronic and thermal transport phenomena in solid materials.
Zhuomin M. Zhang

Chapter 5. Thermal Properties of Solids and the Size Effect

Abstract
This chapter focuses on simple phonon theory and electronic theory of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and thermoelectricity of metals and insulators. The Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) has been used to facilitate the understanding of microscopic behavior, together with the quantum statistics of phonons and electrons. The quantum size effect on phonon specific heat is extensively covered. Examples are given to analyze direct thermoelectric conversion for temperature measurement, power generation, and refrigeration. Furthermore, a detailed treatment of classical size effect on thermal conductivity is presented. Finally, the concepts of quantum electrical conductance and thermal conductance are introduced.
Zhuomin M. Zhang

Chapter 6. Electron and Phonon Transport

Abstract
This chapter introduces electronic band theory after a brief discussion of electronic structures in atoms, binding in crystals, and crystal lattices. The phonon dispersion relations are presented subsequently and explained in terms of different branches of acoustic and optical phonons. Subsequently, the electron and phonon scattering mechanisms are outlined. The next section addresses electronic emission and tunneling phenomena, including photoelectric effect, thermionic emission, field emission, as well as electron tunneling through a potential. A significant portion of this chapter is then devoted to semiconductor materials and devices, with an emphasis on optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, thermophotovoltaic systems, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and semiconductor lasers including quantum well lasers.
Zhuomin M. Zhang

Chapter 7. Nonequilibrium Energy Transfer in Nanostructures

Abstract
This chapter begins with a description of the phenomenological theories in which the energy transport processes are represented by a single differential equation or a set of differential equations that can be solved with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. These equations are often called non-Fourier heat equations, which can be considered as extensions of the conventional heat diffusion equation based on Fourier’s law. The limitations of the phenomenological theories are discussed. While the BTE, Monte Carlo method, and MD simulations have been presented in previous chapters, this chapter stresses the application in solid nanostructures, including thermal boundary resistance (TBR) and multilayer structures. The equation of phonon radiative transfer (EPRT) is introduced and used to delineate the diffusive and ballistic heat conduction regimes in thin films. A heat conduction regime with respect to length and time scale is presented, followed by a summary of the contemporary methods for measuring thermal transport properties of solids, thin films, and nanostructures.
Zhuomin M. Zhang

Chapter 8. Fundamentals of Thermal Radiation

Abstract
This chapter contains an introduction to the electromagnetic wave theory, blackbody radiation, plane wave reflection, and refraction at the boundary between two semi-infinite media, evanescent waves and total internal reflection, and various models used to study the optical properties of different materials. A brief description on the typical experimental methods used to measure the spectral radiative properties is also presented. The materials covered in the following sections are intended to provide a sound background for more in-depth studies on the applications of thermal radiation to micro/nanosystems in subsequent chapters.
Zhuomin M. Zhang

Chapter 9. Radiative Properties of Nanomaterials

Abstract
This chapter starts with the radiative properties of a single layer with or without considering the wave interference effect. Partial coherence and the effect of surface scattering will be considered next. The approach will then be generalized to multilayered structures using the 1D matrix formulation. Furthermore, periodic structures such as photonic crystals and gratings will be studied based on the Bloch wave equation. Subsequently, the effective medium formulations will be briefly discussed. Finally, the effect of surface roughness and microstructures on the radiative properties will be presented.
Zhuomin M. Zhang

Chapter 10. Near-Field Energy Transfer

Abstract
Near-field effects can realize emerging technologies, such as superlens, subwavelength light source, polariton-assisted biosensors, and energy conversion devices. The control of thermal radiative properties by micro/nanoscale 1D, 2D, and 3D photonic structures has been extensively addressed in previous chapters. Because of the important applications to energy transport and conversion, this chapter focuses on near-field radiative heat transfer between objects in close vicinity. The phenomenon of photon tunneling and the principle of fluctuation–dissipation theorem will be presented, along with recent theoretical and experimental developments.
Zhuomin M. Zhang

Backmatter

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