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About this book

This book discusses the early stages of the development of nanostructures, including synthesis techniques, growth mechanisms, the physics and chemistry of nanostructured materials, various innovative characterization techniques, the need for functionalization and different functionalization methods as well as the various properties of nanostructured materials. It focuses on the applications of nanostructured materials, such as mechanical applications, nanoelectronics and microelectronic devices, nano-optics, nanophotonics and nano-optoelectronics, as well as piezoelectric, agriculture, biomedical and, environmental remediation applications, and anti-microbial and antibacterial properties. Further, it includes a chapter on nanomaterial research developments, highlighting work on the life-cycle analysis of nanostructured materials and toxicity aspects.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

1. Nanotechnology and Dimensions

Abstract
The role of nanotechnology towards different field of application emphases by nanomaterials size, dimensions and properties. Varying nanometer size and dimensions leads to different nanostructures with unique properties, and the features of nanoparticles was identified by their synthesis route and analyses techniques. Also the chapter briefly discussed about significances and concepts of nanoscience and technology.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

2. Nanomaterials, Properties and Applications

Abstract
Nanomaterials size range from 1 to 100 nm with unique optical, electrical, magnetic, mechanic and structural properties. There are some naturally occurring nanomaterials (viruses, protein, lotus leaf, spider-mite silk, and butterfly wings etc.) and more engineered nanomaterials (Au NPs, Ag NPs, etc.) with top-down and bottom-up approaches. The chapter detailed about properties and applications of nanomaterials.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

3. Fundamentals of Nanostructures

Abstract
Nanostructures may define by its dimensions as one dimension, two dimension and three dimensions based on quantum confinement effects. Nanostructures are made of nanoparticles using atom by atom or electron arrangement with the help of deposition and lithography techniques. This chapter briefly describe about nanostructured materials, approach towards nanostructured materials and various types of nanostructural materials.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

4. Physics and Chemistry of Nanostructures

Abstract
Nanostructural materials are often in a metastable state. Their detailed atomic configuration depends on nanomaterial fabrication. Therefore, the properties of nanostructures can be widely adjustable by changing their size, shape and processing conditions. The below chapter discuss briefly about physics and chemistry of nanostructured materials.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

5. Quantum Effects, CNTs, Fullerenes and Dendritic Structures

Abstract
Nanostructural materials have wide classification of structures based on their fabrication methods. Fullerenes are close-caged molecules containing only hexagonal and pentagonal interatomic bonding networks. Carbon nanotubes are large, linear fullerenes with aspect ratios as large as 103–105. Nanotubes as many derivatives like nanocones, nanosprings, etc. The chapter detailed about different nanostructures and its properties.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

6. Semiconductors, Organic and Hybrid Nanostructures

Abstract
Nanostructures vary according to their materials used as organic, inorganic or hybrid structures. The nanostructured material has at least one dimension confinement and has intermediate size between macro and microscale materials. This chapter describes about the semiconductor nanostructures, organic and hybrid nanostructures and its types, also their fabrication techniques explained in detail.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

7. Properties of Nanostructured Materials

Abstract
Nanostructured materials are becoming of major significance, and their investigations require a comprehensive approach. Depending on the size of the smallest feature, the interaction of light with structured materials can be very different. The chapter identifies the nanostructures unique properties that make the nanostructure for varying applications and detailed about the properties.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

8. Nanostructured Materials—Design and Approach

Abstract
Nanostructured material handling, properties and applications are widely important for promptly advancing field. This chapter focuses on important synthesis methods for production of nanostructural materials and selected properties of synthesized materials.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

9. Functionalization of Nanostructures

Abstract
Presently, coating on nanostructural materials is preferred for exact release of biological entities into human system for varies desired application like drug delivery system, and thus the functionalization is an important concept for nanostructural material development. The functionalization is made by coating the material surface, tuning the material size etc.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

10. Characterization and Technical Analysis of Nanostructured Materials

Abstract
The morphology, structural and other properties of nanostructured materials are analyzed by different characterization techniques. In the below characterization studies, the shapes, sizes, and structures of nanostructured materials and their distribution are investigated. This chapter discuss briefly on analysis techniques.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

11. Fabrication of Nanostructures

Abstract
This chapter explains the techniques that are available for fabricating nanostructures and also explain the substrates and wafers, modification of materials, lithography, film deposition, wet and dry etching, wafer bonding and packaging.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

12. Nanostructured Materials for Optical and Electronic Applications

Abstract
Nanostructured materials in the area of optical and electronic applications are advancing more with more device development as solar panels, optoelectronic switches, batteries and sensors. This chapter particularly focuses on the optoelectronic applications. All electronic tools have one thing in common: an integrated circuit (IC) acting as their brain. Nano-electromechanical systems have evolved early years and creating sensors eyes and actuators arms at the same scale as the accompanying nanoelectronics. Recent developments in synthesis of nanomaterials with excellent electrical and mechanical properties have extended the boundaries of NEMS applications to include more advanced devices such as the non-volatile nano-electro-mechanical memory, where information is transferred and stored through a series of electrical and mechanical actions at the nanoscale (Venkateswara Rao and Kumar Yadav in Int J Eng Sci 4:6–9, 2015 [1]).
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

13. Nanostructured Materials for Bioapplications

Abstract
Nanostructured materials development has high impact on biological, biomedical and clinical applications. The nanostructural materials applied for biological system can be an interface with high biodegradability and minimum toxicity. That concern must to be resolve with design and synthesis of nanoscale structures. This chapter describes more on biomedical application and their design techniques.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

14. Nanostructured Materials for Photonic Applications

Abstract
The nanostructured materials play a significant role in the technological progress of photonic and optical applications. More photonic applications are based on functional nanostructures. The investigation on nonlinear properties are great importance in the photonic device fabrication. This chapter elaborates the functional nanomaterials and their properties for photonic applications.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

15. Nanostructured Materials for Environmental Remediation

Abstract
Currently, more research as concerned on environmental remediation for improving our daily lives and the environment. The nanoscale materials designed for environmental application has more concern towards increased surface area, surface modification, and tunability of size. This review mainly describes recent progress in the design, fabrication, and modification of nanostructured semiconductor materials for environmental applications.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

16. Miscellaneous Applications of Nanostructures

Abstract
Other than energy, environment, electronic and biomedical applications, the nanostructured materials used in more advanced and sensitive applications like cosmetics, food processing, communication and security purpose. This chapter describes all the applications related to above mentioned sectors.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

17. Nanostructured Materials Life Time and Toxicity Analysis

Abstract
Now-a-days, the nanostructured materials increased its fabrication skill and application in important sectors like energy, environment, and medicine. However, there are some concerns related to its toxicity and life time. This chapter presents some interesting techniques and analysis to measure life time and toxicity of nanoscale materials.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria

18. Nanomaterials Research and Development

Abstract
The specific impact caused by nanoparticles can be assessed by life cycle assessment analysis. Performing life cycle analysis and potential risk management of nanoscale materials are increasing to perform better products and further technology developments. This chapter describes methods for research developed and applied life cycle assessment (LCA) models to evaluate ENMs and nano-enabled product.
T. Daniel Thangadurai, N. Manjubaashini, Sabu Thomas, Hanna J. Maria
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