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Abstract: In recent times, nanotechnology has gained significant attention in the field of refractory research. As the unshaped refractory, especially the castable, is becoming of prime importance in refractory research, a good amount of work is going on globally to study the effect of nanotechnology on castables. The effect of different nano-oxide binders, formed from colloidal bonding agents and nano-additives is also important. Conventional bonding materials, like, high-alumina cement, have drawbacks in the processing steps (mainly drying) and with respect to properties developed. The use of colloidal silica as an alternative binder has improved this condition and is being practiced commercially, but restrictions on high temperature applications have encouraged the use of other colloidal systems, namely alumina, mullite, spinel, sols, etc. Nanoparticles are also present in the castable system from binders like hydratable alumina, additives like microsilica, etc. are also present in the castable system and influence the properties developed. Nano scaled additives are also added to reduce the energy consumption and to improve the densification process at lower temperatures. In this paper, various aspects of the contribution and effect of nanotechnology, on the development of refractory castables are discussed.
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