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2023 | Book

National Security Drivers of Ukraine

Information Technology, Strategic Communication, and Legitimacy

Editors: Oleksandr Radchenko, Valeriia Kovach, Inna Semenets-Orlova, Artur Zaporozhets

Publisher: Springer Nature Switzerland

Book Series : Contributions to Political Science


About this book

This volume presents the key informational, communication, and socio-political drivers of the Ukrainian state's national security. Since the beginning of the third millennium, there has been an aggravation of global inter-civilizational confrontations, which in 2022 has already resulted in an open military aggression against Ukraine. The hybrid wars against the world of democracy have put ensuring the national security of states on the front pages of world and national agendas.

Using the example of Ukraine, the book demonstrates how, in order to achieve their geopolitical interests, authoritarian regimes incite information wars as a prerequisite for the transition to an armed "hot" war. It further shows how these processes actualize the formation of a fundamentally new state policy to ensure information and, more broadly, national security. The book identifies the main threats to national security in modern states and identifies ways of protecting Ukraine's national interests.

The book will appeal to scholars, students, and researchers of political science, international relations, social sciences, and neighboring disciplines, as well as practitioners and policy-makers interested in a better understanding of national security drivers and protecting national interests.

Table of Contents


National Security: Theoretical and Methodological Approaches

Chapter 1. Review of the Ukrainian Discourse Field of National Security Issues of the Modern State
Current stage of human development is characterized by exacerbation of various information, communication, and sociopolitical risks and threats to national security due to the active penetration of the global information space in all spheres of life of the state and citizen. It is substantiated by the given work. Discourse field of national and information security is systematized. It is based on the analysis of 1500 related publications, and 14 cluster directions of scientific approaches are singled out and characterized. The clusters include the following: historical-comparative, philosophical-ontological, theoretical-conceptual, state-administrative, methodological-security, information-security, law-normative, strategic-communication, corruption-public, sociopolitical, value-psychological, information-technological, legitimization, and cluster of information wars.
Valeriy Dovgan, Yaroslav Chmyr, Andrey Moshnin, Maxym Kravtsov, Iryna Yermolenko
Chapter 2. Societal Content and Main Determinants of “National Security” Phenomenon in the Information and Communication Context
Semantic-ontological analysis of the most significant scientific categories and concepts of the categorical-conceptual apparatus of the issue of national security in their interrelation and interaction is carried out. Hierarchy of the state functions is proposed. It is focused on the place of the function of ensuring the national security of the state in the family of functions of modern democracies. Comparison of the characteristics of competitive and security concepts of national security is done. Structural and functional model of the national security system is developed. The essence of national security of Ukraine is the freedom of life and democratic social and state self-development of the people of Ukraine. Defense of the state is the essence of activities to ensure the national security of Ukraine.
Yaroslav Chmyr, Andrey Moshnin, Bohdan Tsymbal, Rostyslav Shchokin, Anatolii Balashov
Chapter 3. The Systematization of Main Threats to the National Security of the State in Modern Conditions
The isolation and systematization of the main threats to state security in modern conditions is undertaken. This allows the determination of the forms, methods and directions of activity of management system subjects in the field of state security. The work emphasizes that all three types of threats (external, hybrid and internal) affect certain spheres of society (economic, energy, environmental, political, social, ethno-national, ethno-confessional, etc.). These are military, territorial, state-political, regional-sectoral and generally humanitarian in nature. The most topical threats were identified and characterized, including: the ineffectiveness of international security systems; the territorial claims of neighbors; external management; information wars; armed aggression of the Russian Federation; terrorism; poverty; corruption; separatism; energy dependence; the oligarchization of the state; the shadow economy; political crises; organized crime; excessive social differentiation; civilizational division of society; and social conflicts.
Fedir Venislavskyi, Oleksandr Bondarenko, Yaroslav Chmyr, Andrey Moshnin, Vasyl Shoiko

Informational Security Phenomenon

Chapter 4. Postindustrial Society and Global Informational Space as Infrastructure Medium and Factor for Actualization of the State Informational Security
Global information integration of mankind in the vast majority of spheres and areas of its life beyond any political, economic, racial, and cultural differences is an integral part of globalization. At the current stage, such socio-humanitarian phenomenon led to the creation of single global information space. Characteristic features of the information society are revealed. Level of stability and protection of political, socioeconomic, military defense, spiritual-cultural, and other spheres of society from each of the six identified groups of dangerous, destabilizing negative destructive threats is characterized by the information security in the global information space of society. All these harm national interests of the state, sustainable development of society, well-being, and health of every citizen. It is substantiated that successful entry of states into the global information space presupposes orientation of the state information policy, clearly formulated in conceptual documents in terms of its strategic goals and formation of new information culture of society.
Yaroslav Chmyr, Anastasia Nekryach, Larysa Kochybei, Аllа Dakal, Lilia Strelbytska
Chapter 5. Substantive Essence and Components of the Societal Phenomenon “Information Security” in the Age of Information Society
State, nation, and individual merged into a single subject of information and national security for the first time in the history of mankind at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Ontological essence, content of societal phenomenon “information security” as a certain state of institutions of the state and society, and forms of national interests’ protection are revealed. They are considered as a state of protection of the information space and the level of protection of important spheres of human life and society, as a function of the state and the institution of legal protection, as a process of purposeful actions, and as a system of appropriate measures of the state. Model of the state information security system is proposed. It includes a number of subsystems (political information, psychological information, and technical information). Its main elements are public institutions as key subjects of state policy in the field of information security and tasks for this policy implementation. Generally, it is protection of information sovereignty and national interests of the state.
Larysa Hren, Nadiia Karpeko, Olena Kopanchuk, Mykola Strelbitsky, Violeta Tohobytska
Chapter 6. Formation of Information Security Systems of the State: Current Status, Trends, and Problems
Phenomenon of information security appeared in the transition era of significant number of information and communication processes of political, economic, and social life in the global information space. Intensification of interstate competition and confrontation in this space acquires all signs of the fundamental needs of the individual, community, state, and society as a whole. Information security in modern conditions is an important objective prerequisite for successful functioning and progressive development of the state, nation, and civilization. The work established that Ukraine lags far behind the world’s leading states in terms of creating an information security system and ensuring its effective functioning. This requires our state to intensify efforts for defending national information sovereignty, intensify measures aimed primarily at combating Russian aggressive propaganda, reduce “digital divide” with the world’s leading powers, develop and disseminate effective cybersecurity programs, and so on.
Oleksandr Radchenko, Serhii Bielai, Valeriia Kovach, Nataliia Hrabar, Ihor Yevtushenko

Strategic Communications

Chapter 7. Theoretical Models of Information and Communication Interaction of State and Society in the Context of National Security
Five mechanisms of information exchange with society are identified based on the analysis of the evolution of public participation in social communication processes. These are dictation, propaganda (one-sided public information), advertising (publicity), two-way asymmetric information, and two-way symmetrical dialogue. Modern model of information and communication interaction between the state and society is proposed. It has a three-level nature of modern communication channels and also contains such fundamental innovations as a “trust filter” and “value filter of communication channel.” The use of information, communication, and psychological tools of strategic communications is designed to ensure public support or at least loyalty of critical mass of citizens to official public policy and institutions of government as an important internal factor of national security. The current level of public policy in Ukraine in the field of public communications is assessed as not only far from optimal. It also loses to modern systems of developed countries.
Oleksandr Radchenko, Fedir Venislavskyi, Оlenа Krutii, Oleksandrа Marusheva, Oleksii Kriukov
Chapter 8. Place and Role of Strategic Communications in Public Management System
Strategic communications are important and effective tool for establishing comprehensive internal and external communications of public authorities. They are able to ensure coordinated interaction of public administration on the adequacy of national-state “agenda” and the validity of fundamental meanings, guidelines, values, principles of social life, and activities of social institutions. This is especially important for modern Ukraine. There is a “clash of civilizations” both in the form of open military aggression and especially in the form of information warfare on the part of the Russian Federation. Conceptual model of strategic communications adapted to the field of public administration is proposed. There most communication activities take place at the tactical level of informational influence, involving direct interaction with target audiences and dialogue using multiple channels of information and information products.
Tomash Michalski, Tetyana Syvak, Svitlana Dombrovska, Valentyn Stanishevskiy, Ivan Servetskiy
Chapter 9. Structure and Function of Strategic Communications in the System of National and Informational State Security
Ensuring of proper state of national and information security of the state requires creation of appropriate structure of the system of strategic communications at the national level and definition of clear range of functional powers of the relevant state bodies. Components of strategic communications are informational and value-ideological prerequisite for the formation of both informational and national self-identity and preservation of national, cultural, and informational identity of Ukrainian autochthony, political, security, and information nation. Together, they form holistic dimension for practical implementation of communication strategy. Peculiarities of strategic communications in the public administration system are described. In particular, they are defined as a process of coordination and synchronization of narratives, themes, messages, individual activities, and actions within the whole hierarchical communication system of public administration entities to interact with target audiences and certain groups of society. Such groups are influenced by information in order to achieve strategic goals.
Tetyana Syvak, Maryna Shkliaruk, Volodymyr Kopanchuk, Оlenа Postupna, Olena Fendo
Chapter 10. Current State of Strategic Communications in Ukraine and Their Functional Influence on Efficiency of State Management System
Communication infrastructure of public administration should be formed for the effective functioning of the system of strategic communications in the state. It is the framework of national information and communication space, consisting of a set of information, technological networks, MCM, humanitarian, educational, scientific, cultural institutions, establishments and organizations. It provides the establishment of effective communication activities between the public authorities and society and ensures the stability of the communication system. Th development of a strategic communications system in Ukraine should be aimed at developing of organizational capacity of public administration bodies to effectively perform their own functions and the functions of the state in the process of strategic communications. A number of priority measures aimed at building a system of strategic communications in Ukraine were identified.
Tetyana Syvak, Petro Vorona, Yurii Nesteriak, Viktor Paliukh, Аllа Dakal

Legitimacy and Legitimation

Chapter 11. Essence and Content of State-Administrative Duality of “Legitimacy”: “Legitimation” and its Place in the Information Security System of the Modern State
In the modern world, the issue of legitimacy acquired a new sound. It is extremely widespread due to serious political, social, economic and security shocks. Legitimacy is determined by the central, determining element of constitutional stability and functioning of political power and is one of the important factors of national security. Substantive and structural components of legitimacy are revealed. They include the following: ontological, value, normative-legal, resource, procedural, identification, communicative and manipulative. The concept of legitimacy exists in inseparable connection with the concept of “legitimation.” Such conceptual pair is a single governmental duality. It is the quintessence of the societal phenomenon of democracy understanding. It is noted that the legitimization of public authorities occurs in the process of effective information and communication interaction between state institutions and civil society. In their absence (or low level of efficiency), there is a communication vacuum. Such vacuum is quickly filled with various harmful information patterns. Thus, legitimacy is seen as an important factor and legitimation—as a key component of the information and national security system of the state.
Oksana Radchenko, Oleksiі Stepanko, Stanislav Poroka, Oleksii Piddubnyi, Vasyl Omelchuk, Svitlana Marchenko
Chapter 12. Comparative Analysis of Conceptual Models of Power Legitimation in Authoritarian, Democratic and Transitional Societies
The relationship between the legitimacy, effectiveness of public administration and stability of the political system is revealed. Comparative analysis of conceptual models of legitimation of power in authoritarian, democratic and transitional societies is proposed on its base. It is determined that legitimacy of authoritarian regimes is based on their functionality. Legitimacy of democratic regimes is based primarily on processes and procedures and only partially on functionality. Systematic model of legitimation of public authorities of transitional societies is proposed. It provides 10 areas of application of various technologies of legitimation of institutions and public authorities, as a certain socio-political engineering. It is concluded that nowadays new forms of legitimacy are emerged. They testify shift of the center of democracies and their complication. Movable concentration is replaced by the principle of distribution, separation, multiplication and existence of counter-democratic forms and institutions of indirect democracy.
Oksana Radchenko, Anastasia Nekryach, Larysa Kochybei, Tomash Michalski, Yurii Berezhnyi
Chapter 13. Project Approach in the Executive Bodies’ Activity of United Territorial Communities as a Modern Mechanism of Local Public Authorities’ Legitimation in Ukraine
The need for permanent participation of citizens in the executive bodies of united territorial communities is due to the high public need to legitimize government decisions in order to implement effective reforms to modernize the Ukrainian political, economic and social system. The structural-functional model of the formation of self-sufficient territorial communities in the conditions of administrative-financial decentralization is offered. This provides optimal distribution of powers between local governments and executive bodies at different levels of administrative-territorial structure as an effective tool to ensure legitimacy of public policy and public authorities. Formal rule, the use of legitimate coercion and professional management are not enough in the formation of a modern mechanism of legitimation of local public authorities. It is necessary to use law and all social norms to regulate public relations to gain social recognition, i.e., legitimacy of the majority.
Serhii Chernov, Serhii Bogutskij, Tetiana Gogol, Olena Hafurova, Artem Koshelenko, Oleksandr Zemlianskyi
Chapter 14. “Legitimacy Crisis” and its Impact on the Stability and Security of the System of Public Authorities of the State during the Formation of the Global Information Space
The issue of legitimacy came to the forefront of scientific research in the era of structural transformations of social systems since the beginning of the third millennium. It is accompanied by the awareness of the inevitability of democratic legitimacy for modern states and their public authorities and the growing of “legitimacy crisis.” The main factors of modern delegitimization of public authorities as a manifestation of the “legitimacy crisis” are identified. They include the following: loss of mass rationality; loss of economic and social efficiency of public administration systems; growing of social inequality; institutional corruption; populism and nationalism; use of political resources by the political and managerial elites and the information space of the state in general as a tool for mass manipulation of public opinion. The phenomenon of “legitimacy crisis” is characteristic not only of countries with democratic state-building but also of developed democracies. Even critical delegitimization of public authorities does not lead to the fall of the political regime during democratic elections.
Stanislav Dovgy, Oksana Radchenko, Oleksandr Radchenko, Aleksander Kuczabski, Maryna Kryvoberets

Informational Wars

Chapter 15. Information Wars: Historical and Comparative Analysis, Specifics and Factors of Actualization in the Modern World
Transition of mankind to the era of information society is characterized by the gradual movement of most geopolitical processes and relations in the global information space. It becomes the main environment of interpersonal, group and international contacts and the main place of conflict of national interests, information sovereignty and field of information wars. Use of information weapons is becoming more common in the practice of international relations in modern conditions. It provides opportunity to gain information advantage and dominance in the information space of the world. Thus, the need to intensify the actions of public authorities of Ukraine is sharpened. It is directed on national interests of the state in the global information space and effective protection of national information space and information sovereignty of the state, timely detection and neutralization of threats of negative impact of harmful content of national and world information space. It is especially important for Ukraine to confront the manifestations of hybrid warfare. This requires appropriate response measures.
Roman Primush, Yaroslav Chmyr, Maxym Kravtsov, Yuliia Perehuda, Andrii Koniushkov
Chapter 16. Information Weapons: Forms and Technologies of Modern Information Wars
This work proposes analysis and systematization of technologies of modern hybrid information wars, forms of using certain types of information weapons capable to reform mass and individual consciousness of citizens, destroying established values of national identity and social solidarity and thus reprogramming the social space in the interests of external object of influence. Structural-functional model of information warfare is proposed. Such a model has a system-organized form and purposeful character. It is realized in two main forms: information-technical war and information-psychological war. Systemic activities of public authorities in Ukraine first of all the institutes of the President of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the Armed Forces, the Security Service and the Ministry of Internal Affairs, should be urgently deployed. They counteract manifestations of information warfare, conduct counter-propaganda information operations, etc.
Oleksandr Radchenko, Oleksandr Nepomniashchij, Ivan Shkurat, Yaroslav Chmyr, Valeriia Kovach
Chapter 17. Tools for Counteracting Information Aggression Use of Elements of Information War in Ukraine
Our state needs to create a national information security system in the context of the Russian Federation’s aggressive information and armed war against Ukraine. Such a system should be able to resist propaganda, information and subversive activities of Russian intelligence services and protect national information sovereignty. Ukraine should use more effective technologies to oppose modern methods of information-technical and information-psychological influence, expansion of the “Russian world,” its aggressive pressure on the national identity of Ukrainians. Ukraine should form new media culture of Ukrainian society able to recognize fakes, hostile narratives and manipulations and resist them, find alternative sources of information, critically evaluate content of information messages, understand national values and be able to defend them in information and communication processes. Our state and society should pursue a consolidated state information policy to protect and strengthen the national sovereignty of Ukraine and ensure information security. It should be facilitated by the proposals in this intelligence on the further development of the main directions of such policy.
Yaroslav Chmyr, Maryna Deineha, Eduard Shchepanskiy, Artem Koshelenko, Roman Kozenko
Chapter 18. Mental and Value Features of Ukrainian Society in the Context of “Civilizations Clash” as the Main Object of Information War in Ukraine
Peculiarities of the value-world archetypes formation of Ukrainian society and dynamics of political process in Ukraine are considered through the prism of the civilizational theory of A. Toynbee and S. Huntington. Mental and value guidelines of citizens and social groups became the main object of information wars. So, cultural and linguistic value aspect is a key in the democratic state-building of Ukraine. Field study was conducted. Comparative analysis of the value orientations of citizens of four megaregions of Ukraine was done on its basis. It includes: eastern, western, southern and north-central. Values that divide and unite Ukrainian society were identified. Matrix of value methodology of political systems research on four binary value oppositions in three corresponding axiological clusters is offered: value absolutes; universal modalities and socio-archetypal values. It allowed determining the place of Ukrainian society in the value-political space of the modern world. Such a concept also defined basic principles of state humanitarian policy to develop and consolidate in Ukrainian society those values that should bring Ukraine closer to democracy.
Oleksandr Radchenko, Oleksii Kriukov, Valeriia Kovach, Inna Semenets-Orlova, Artur Zaporozhets, Vitalii Kostenko
National Security Drivers of Ukraine
Oleksandr Radchenko
Valeriia Kovach
Inna Semenets-Orlova
Artur Zaporozhets
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