Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Photonic Network Communications 3/2020

06-08-2020 | Original Paper

Network coding-based routing and spectrum allocation in elastic optical networks for enhanced physical layer security

Authors: Giannis Savva, Konstantinos Manousakis, Georgios Ellinas

Published in: Photonic Network Communications | Issue 3/2020

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

In this work, an eavesdropping-aware routing and spectrum allocation approach is proposed utilizing network coding (NC) in elastic optical networks (EONs). To provide physical layer security in EONs and secure the confidential connections against eavesdropping attacks using NC, the signals of the confidential connections are combined (XOR-ed) with other signals at different nodes in their path, while transmitted through the network. The combination of signals through NC significantly increases the security of confidential connections, since an eavesdropper must access all individual signals, traversing different links, in order to decrypt the combined signal. A novel heuristic approach is proposed that solves the combined network coding and routing and spectrum allocation problem that also takes into account additional NC constraints that are required in order to consider a confidential connection as secure. Different routing and spectrum allocation strategies are proposed, aiming to maximize the level of security provided for the confidential demands, followed by an extensive performance evaluation of each approach in terms of the level of security provided, as well as the spectrum utilization and blocking probability, under different network conditions. Performance results demonstrate that the proposed approaches can provide efficient solutions in terms of network performance, while also providing the level of security required for each demand.
Literature
1.
go back to reference Gerstel, O., et al.: Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer? IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), S12–S20 (2012) CrossRef Gerstel, O., et al.: Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer? IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), S12–S20 (2012) CrossRef
2.
go back to reference Christodoulopoulos, K., et al.: Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation. In: IEEE GLOBECOM (2010) Christodoulopoulos, K., et al.: Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation. In: IEEE GLOBECOM (2010)
3.
go back to reference Fok, M.P., et al.: Optical layer security in fiber-optic networks. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forens. Secur. 6(3), 725–736 (2011) CrossRef Fok, M.P., et al.: Optical layer security in fiber-optic networks. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forens. Secur. 6(3), 725–736 (2011) CrossRef
4.
go back to reference Savva, G., et al.: Spread spectrum over OFDM for enhanced security in elastic optical networks. In: IEEE PSC (2018) Savva, G., et al.: Spread spectrum over OFDM for enhanced security in elastic optical networks. In: IEEE PSC (2018)
5.
go back to reference Kitayama, K., et al.: Security in photonic networks: threats and security enhancement. IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 29(21), 3210–3222 (2011) CrossRef Kitayama, K., et al.: Security in photonic networks: threats and security enhancement. IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 29(21), 3210–3222 (2011) CrossRef
6.
go back to reference Furdek, M., et al.: An overview of security challenges in communication networks. In: IEEE RNDM (2016) Furdek, M., et al.: An overview of security challenges in communication networks. In: IEEE RNDM (2016)
7.
go back to reference Skorin-Kapov, N., et al.: Physical-layer security in evolving optical networks. IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(8), 110–117 (2016) CrossRef Skorin-Kapov, N., et al.: Physical-layer security in evolving optical networks. IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(8), 110–117 (2016) CrossRef
8.
go back to reference Manousakis, K., Ellinas, G.: Attack-aware planning of transparent optical networks. Opt. Switch. Netw. 19(2), 97–109 (2016) CrossRef Manousakis, K., Ellinas, G.: Attack-aware planning of transparent optical networks. Opt. Switch. Netw. 19(2), 97–109 (2016) CrossRef
9.
go back to reference Savva, G., et al.: Eavesdropping-aware routing and spectrum/code allocation in OFDM-based EONs using spread spectrum techniques. IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 11(7), 409–421 (2019) CrossRef Savva, G., et al.: Eavesdropping-aware routing and spectrum/code allocation in OFDM-based EONs using spread spectrum techniques. IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 11(7), 409–421 (2019) CrossRef
10.
go back to reference Bai, W., et al.: Eavesdropping-aware routing and spectrum allocation based on multi-flow virtual concatenation for confidential information service in elastic optical networks. Opt. Fiber Technol. 40, 18–27 (2018) CrossRef Bai, W., et al.: Eavesdropping-aware routing and spectrum allocation based on multi-flow virtual concatenation for confidential information service in elastic optical networks. Opt. Fiber Technol. 40, 18–27 (2018) CrossRef
11.
go back to reference Singh, S.K., et al.: Balancing data security and blocking performance with spectrum randomization in optical networks. In: IEEE GLOBECOM (2016) Singh, S.K., et al.: Balancing data security and blocking performance with spectrum randomization in optical networks. In: IEEE GLOBECOM (2016)
12.
go back to reference Manley, E.D., et al.: All-optical network coding. IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2(4), 175–191 (2010) CrossRef Manley, E.D., et al.: All-optical network coding. IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2(4), 175–191 (2010) CrossRef
13.
go back to reference Beldachi, A.F., et al.: Resilient cloud-RANs adopting network coding. Optical network design and modeling (ONDM). Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 11616, 349–361 (2020) CrossRef Beldachi, A.F., et al.: Resilient cloud-RANs adopting network coding. Optical network design and modeling (ONDM). Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 11616, 349–361 (2020) CrossRef
14.
go back to reference Martínez-Peñas, U., Kschischang, F.R.: Reliable and secure multishot network coding using linearized Reed-Solomon codes. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 65(8), 4785–4803 (2019) MathSciNetCrossRef Martínez-Peñas, U., Kschischang, F.R.: Reliable and secure multishot network coding using linearized Reed-Solomon codes. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 65(8), 4785–4803 (2019) MathSciNetCrossRef
15.
go back to reference Liu, X., et al.: Optimal byzantine attacker identification based on game theory in network coding enabled wireless ad hoc networks. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forens. Secur. 15, 2570–2583 (2020) CrossRef Liu, X., et al.: Optimal byzantine attacker identification based on game theory in network coding enabled wireless ad hoc networks. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forens. Secur. 15, 2570–2583 (2020) CrossRef
16.
go back to reference Savva, G., et al.: Network coding for security against eavesdropping attacks in elastic optical networks. In: IFIP ONDM (2019) Savva, G., et al.: Network coding for security against eavesdropping attacks in elastic optical networks. In: IFIP ONDM (2019)
17.
go back to reference Ramirez, W., et al.: Network coding-based protection scheme for elastic optical networks. In: IEEE DRCN (2014) Ramirez, W., et al.: Network coding-based protection scheme for elastic optical networks. In: IEEE DRCN (2014)
18.
go back to reference Kamal, A.E., Mohandespour, M.: Network coding-based protection. Opt. Switch. Network. 11, 189–201 (2014) CrossRef Kamal, A.E., Mohandespour, M.: Network coding-based protection. Opt. Switch. Network. 11, 189–201 (2014) CrossRef
19.
go back to reference Hai, D.T.: An optimal design framework for 1+1 routing and network coding assignment problem in WDM optical networks. IEEE Access 5, 22291–22298 (2017) CrossRef Hai, D.T.: An optimal design framework for 1+1 routing and network coding assignment problem in WDM optical networks. IEEE Access 5, 22291–22298 (2017) CrossRef
20.
go back to reference Hai, D.T.: On the spectrum-efficiency of QoS-aware protection in elastic optical networks. Optik 202, 163563 (2020) CrossRef Hai, D.T.: On the spectrum-efficiency of QoS-aware protection in elastic optical networks. Optik 202, 163563 (2020) CrossRef
21.
go back to reference Agarwal, A., Charikar, M.: On the advantage of network coding for improving network throughput. In: IEEE Information Theory Workshop (2004) Agarwal, A., Charikar, M.: On the advantage of network coding for improving network throughput. In: IEEE Information Theory Workshop (2004)
22.
go back to reference Yang, L., et al.: Incorporating network coding to formulate multicast sessions in elastic optical networks. In: IEEE ICNC (2016) Yang, L., et al.: Incorporating network coding to formulate multicast sessions in elastic optical networks. In: IEEE ICNC (2016)
23.
go back to reference Kim, M., et al.: Network coding and its implications on optical networking. In: IEEE/OSA OFC (2009) Kim, M., et al.: Network coding and its implications on optical networking. In: IEEE/OSA OFC (2009)
24.
go back to reference Engelmann, A., Jukan, A.: Balancing the demands of reliability and security with linear network coding in optical networks. In: IEEE ICC (2016) Engelmann, A., Jukan, A.: Balancing the demands of reliability and security with linear network coding in optical networks. In: IEEE ICC (2016)
25.
go back to reference Zhang, M., et al.: All optical XOR logic gates: technologies and experiment demonstrations. IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(5), S19–S24 (2005) CrossRef Zhang, M., et al.: All optical XOR logic gates: technologies and experiment demonstrations. IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(5), S19–S24 (2005) CrossRef
26.
go back to reference Kong, D., et al.: All-optical XOR gates for QPSK signal based optical networks. Electron. Lett. 49(7), 486–488 (2013) CrossRef Kong, D., et al.: All-optical XOR gates for QPSK signal based optical networks. Electron. Lett. 49(7), 486–488 (2013) CrossRef
27.
go back to reference Chen, L.K., et al.: Breakthroughs in photonics 2014: optical physical-layer network coding, recent developments, and challenges. IEEE Photon. J. 7(3), 1–6 (2015) Chen, L.K., et al.: Breakthroughs in photonics 2014: optical physical-layer network coding, recent developments, and challenges. IEEE Photon. J. 7(3), 1–6 (2015)
28.
go back to reference Lu, G.W., et al.: Flexible and re-configurable optical three-input XOR logic gate of phase-modulated signals with multicast functionality for potential application in optical physical-layer network coding. OSA Opt. Exp. 24(3), 2299–2306 (2016) CrossRef Lu, G.W., et al.: Flexible and re-configurable optical three-input XOR logic gate of phase-modulated signals with multicast functionality for potential application in optical physical-layer network coding. OSA Opt. Exp. 24(3), 2299–2306 (2016) CrossRef
29.
go back to reference Li, M., et al.: Common-channel optical physical-layer network coding. IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1340–1343 (2014) CrossRef Li, M., et al.: Common-channel optical physical-layer network coding. IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1340–1343 (2014) CrossRef
30.
go back to reference Zhang, M., et al.: Optical encryption/decryption of 8PSK signal using FWM-based modified XOR. Appl. Opt. 54(25), 7813–7819 (2015) CrossRef Zhang, M., et al.: Optical encryption/decryption of 8PSK signal using FWM-based modified XOR. Appl. Opt. 54(25), 7813–7819 (2015) CrossRef
31.
go back to reference Guan, X., Chan, C.: Physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. OSA Opt. Express 23, 10057–10063 (2015) CrossRef Guan, X., Chan, C.: Physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. OSA Opt. Express 23, 10057–10063 (2015) CrossRef
32.
go back to reference Savva, G., et al.: Physical layer-aware routing, spectrum, and core allocation in spectrally-spatially flexible optical networks with multicore fibers. In: IEEE ICC (2018) Savva, G., et al.: Physical layer-aware routing, spectrum, and core allocation in spectrally-spatially flexible optical networks with multicore fibers. In: IEEE ICC (2018)
Metadata
Title
Network coding-based routing and spectrum allocation in elastic optical networks for enhanced physical layer security
Authors
Giannis Savva
Konstantinos Manousakis
Georgios Ellinas
Publication date
06-08-2020
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Photonic Network Communications / Issue 3/2020
Print ISSN: 1387-974X
Electronic ISSN: 1572-8188
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11107-020-00893-w