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2024 | Book

Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Application

Automotive Engineering Problems


About this book

This book focuses on the latest applications of nonlinear approaches in engineering and addresses a range of scientific problems. Examples focus on issues in automotive technology with a strong emphasis on application, physical meaning, and methodologies of the approaches. The book’s chapters are written by world-class experts who advance the future of engineering by discussing the development of more optimal, accurate, efficient, cost, and energy-effective systems. Topics covered are of high interest in engineering and physics, and an attempt has been made to expose engineers and researchers to a broad range of practical topics and approaches.

Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Application: Automotive Engineering Problems is appropriate for researchers, students, and practicing engineers interested in the applications of nonlinear approaches to solving engineering and science problems.

Table of Contents


Modeling Dynamic Systems

Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Vibration Model and Response Characteristics of Deep-Water Riser-Test Pipe System
In this chapter, the 3D vibration control equations of infinitesimal riser-test pipe (RTS) will be established through the energy method and Hamilton variational principle. The infinitesimal segment of the RTS is too short, such that it can be regarded as a straight segment. Because the vibration data of deep-water RTS cannot be accurately measured onsite, a simulation experiment was performed to validate the nonlinear vibration model in this study. Three criteria should be satisfied for the similarity experiment of RTS vibration: geometric similarity, motion similarity, and dynamic similarity. According to the parameters of BY5-2-1 well in the South China Sea and the proposed nonlinear vibration model, the results of marine fluid motion, platform heave motion, and RTS vibration response are obtained, and the vibration characteristics of RTS in deep-water are analyzed.
Xiaoqiang Guo, Liming Dai, Jun Liu, Qingyou Liu, Yufa He
Dealing with Non-linearities in a 1:7 Autonomous Land Vehicle
Traxxas is a well-known brand in RC-car market and known to have produced innumerable amounts of RC-cars. One of the most well-known top speed cars of the company Traxxas called the Traxxas XO-1 is capable of reaching speeds of up to 100 mph, when unleashed to its full potential. The Traxxas X0-1 is a 1:7 scaled car that has been proven to be dimensionally equivalent to a C5 Corvette (Milani et al., Veh Syst Dyn 60(7):2511–2540, 2022). The following chapter provides a step-by-step guide on how to design and model the Traxxas XO-1 for running it as an autonomous vehicle (AV). In order to perform experiments that can cater advanced vehicle dynamic measurements, the gear used to stipulate this practically includes the use of National Instrument’s software and hardware together with an onboard servo motor (2075) and the Mamba Monster Extreme electronic speed controller. Software like LabVIEW and MATLAB have been used to drive the car autonomously to prove the accuracy and reliability of the system. Together with the power of dimensional analysis, the Traxxas XO-1 has been modelled as a 1:7 scaled passenger car equivalent to a passenger car the likes of Toyota Corolla or Camry. The chapter strives to comprehensively provide the exact through and thorough account of how a 1:7 scaled Traxxas XO-1 can be successfully used to perform advanced vehicle dynamic experiments in the field of engineering.
Muhammad Rehan Siddiqi, Hormoz Marzbani, Reza. N. Jazar
Nonlinear Analysis of Flexible Parallel Mechanisms Through Bézier-Based Integration
The slider-crank mechanism, a fundamental component in various engineering applications, including automobile engines and pumps, features three revolute joints and one prismatic joint while possessing only one degree of freedom. This chapter comprehensively analyzes this mechanism, considering its components’ rigid and flexible behaviors and introducing a newly developed Bézier-based integration approach to solve the governing equation. In this chapter, by extending the Equation of Motion (EOM), innovative methods such as Greenwood, Augmented, Elimination, and Integrated Multiplier are introduced and implemented to convert Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs) to Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). Additionally, implementing Bézier-based integration is proposed as an alternative to conventional approaches like Runge–Kutta methods and Euler due to its potential for significantly reducing execution time without compromising accuracy. Therefore, the primary objective of this chapter is to investigate how adopting Bézier-based integration can revolutionize real-time dynamics simulations of the slider-crank mechanism. It is demonstrated that incorporating Bézier-based integration leads to enhanced computational efficiency without sacrificing precision or reliability during real-time dynamics simulations. This research contributes significant insights into advancing simulation methodologies for complex mechanisms like the slider-crank system. For instance, using the Bézier technique can reduce the elapsed time to 45%.
R. Nopour, M. M. Aghdam, A. Taghvaeipour
Vibration Analysis of Tire–Road Separation in a Bicycle-Car Model
The chapter investigates the tire–road separation of a bicycle-car model to discover what part of the reported time and frequency domains of vibrating systems, including vertical displacements and pitch mode, must be re-examined to consider no-contact regimes. The most significant characteristics in predicting tire–road separation dynamics are carried out under in-contact and off-contact conditions; the constraint demonstrates that the system could switch from the in-contact state to the no-contact state when the road excitation guarantees the separation condition. A fraction of contact-free time for both tires is introduced to clarify engineering design directions in comparing the suspension quality. The separation dynamics are numerically solved in both dimensional and nondimensional fields to gain further insights into contactless phenomena and avoid dangerous oscillations.
Quy Dang Nguyen, Tra Van Nguyen, Dai Quoc Vo, Tuan Ngoc Vu, Sina Milani, Hormoz Marzbani, Reza N. Jazar
Physics-Informed Neural Network for Solution of Nonlinear Differential Equations
In the recent years, machine learning techniques, notably deep learning, have emerged as vital tools in diverse arenas ranging from image recognition to agriculture, medicine, civil infrastructure, and even natural language processing. Of note, neural networks have been utilized in various engineering domains such as material science, fluid dynamics, and condition monitoring. Quite recently, a new category of neural networks, i.e. physics-informed neural networks (PINNs), has been introduced mainly to offer solution to linear and nonlinear differential equations. The core novelty of PINNs lies in their capacity to assimilate the underlying physical insights of a problem.
Within the context of PINNs, the process of solving governing equations, encompassing both ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial differential equations (PDEs), involves the approximation of solutions through neural networks. The fine-tuning of these networks is achieved by optimizing a loss function, which factors in both the governing equation and its pertinent boundary and initial conditions. Impressively, PINNs have already demonstrated their prowess by accurately solving various ODEs and PDEs in diverse engineering contexts. In the ensuing chapter, we shall explore the utility of PINNs for solution of nonlinear differential equations in mechanical engineering.
Ali Fallah, Mohammad Mohammadi Aghdam

Applied Dynamic Systems

Energy Analysis of Handwriting with Robotic Analog
This chapter investigates the usage of energy by a human arm in writing with a three-revolute-joint (3R) robotic analog as a substitute. Data were gathered on basic paths as well as more-complex paths designed to mimic more human language and scripts. Furthermore, testing included several writing orientations—left to right, right to left, top to bottom, and bottom to top—and testing and simulating handedness. Data were gathered through a numerical analysis and a simulated 3R robot operated by using direct torque control. Energy data were extrapolated from joint variables, via torque. This chapter aims to determine whether writing from right to left or writing from left to right consumes more energy.
Mingjia Wang, Tegwyn G. Murden, Hettiadura E. T. Fernando, Reza N. Jazar, M. Mahinfalah
Computations of Absolute Sea Levels at Tide Gauge Locations Accounting for Variable Subsidence
Correcting the relative trends for sea level rise with the absolute value of the subsidence of the instrument, despite its popularity, is mistaken. This is because the supporting data refer to a much shorter time window for the global positioning system (GPS) position than the mean sea level from the tide gauge. In many worldwide locations, recent subsidence has grown for many reasons, from groundwater withdrawal to mining. This is producing unrealistic values for the absolute rates of rise and acceleration of the sea levels. The absolute rates of rise of the sea levels may become even negative in case of recent significant subsidence. Also, non-existing positive accelerations can be shown in the absolute sea levels. The proposed mathematical approach uses a linear profile for the subsidence rate of the tide gauge instrument from an unperturbed value of zero (or whatever the Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) value suggests, if the area is subjected to GIA movement) at the time the tide gauge record starts, to the latest GPS subsidence rate which applies to approach the end of the tide gauge record. In the specific cases considered of Sydney and Fremantle, the produced absolute sea levels are shown to be much more realistic than with previous assumptions.
Alberto Boretti
Accounting for Accelerating Subsidence in the Analysis of Tide Gauge Records
To appreciate the absolute (geocentric) sea level trend in a tide gauge location, it is necessary to subtract from the relative sea level trend measured by the tide gauge instrument, the absolute subsidence of the land where the tide gauge instrument is located. While Global Positioning System (GPS) may permit the computation of the subsidence rate in the last few years, up to 10–15 years, past values of subsidence may only be inferred from Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) computations. Proper trend analysis for the relative sea levels requires more than 100 years to correctly appreciate the rate of rise and acceleration. The same time window must be also used for the subsidence. The method is presented here, and a few examples of applications are provided. The observed rate of rise and acceleration of the relative sea levels at the world tide gauges has an almost equal contribution from thermosteric absolute sea level rise and subsidence.
Albert Boretti
Evolutionary Game Theory and Innovative Building Strategies
In this work, authors have used evolutionary game theory logic to evaluate if a traditional building design will remain a stable environment when facing a new (e.g., energy conscious) building design strategy. The idea is to investigate if the builders of innovative design strategy are going to be able to develop a footstep within the already established traditional design environment, become an alternative, and finally take over this environment and become the dominant building construction strategy. In other words, to see if the new strategy can take over, and change the traditional environment in such a way that the traditional strategy builders will be forced to adopt the innovative model strategy.
Javad Khazaii, Ali Khazaei, Hamid Khayyam, Reza N. Jazar
A Hybrid Numerical Study of the Nonlinear Instability of Nano-switches
This study offers a computationally efficient technique to study the pull-in instability phenomenon of beam-type nano-switches using nonlocal elasticity theory. The governing equation of the system is derived using the Hamilton principle based on the Timoshenko beam theory. A hybrid combination of the method of adjoints (MoA) with the Bezier-based multistep technique is utilized to obtain the solution for the instability pull-in voltage. The MoA is firstly used to convert the governing nonlinear boundary value problem (BVP) of the micro-switch to the corresponding initial value problem (IVP). Then, the resulted IVP system is solved using the robust Bézier procedure. Results of the presented hybrid solution are compared with other well-known methods such as Adams-Bashforth, Taylor, and Runge-Kutta methods. Results revealed that for higher step sizes, the presented method provides more stable results in comparison with other techniques. This study presents a framework, similar to shooting method, for converting a general nonlinear BVP to an IVP system, which can be solved using various analytical and numerical methods. Finally, a parametric study is provided to investigate the effects of size dependency, shear effects, and intermolecular forces on the static behavior of nano-switch and instability voltage.
M. Bameri, V. Mirzaei, P. Moradweysi, M. M. Aghdam
Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Application
Reza N. Jazar
Liming Dai
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