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About this book

In Sub-Saharan Africa, the rapidly evolving COVID-19, increasing population growth, and exponential expansion in demand for agricultural commodities are putting pressure on available resources, thereby posing immense challenges to the region’s capacity to achieve nutritional security related to United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Although Sub-Saharan Africa boasts vast, fertile and uncultivated arable lands, its capacity to contribute to feeding its current and future population is being seriously undermined by factors such as poor adoption and utilization of innovations and digital tools, climate change impact, environmental degradation, weak political will, limited interest in farming, lack of government support, and more. In spite of these constraints, sustainable agriculture, food security and nutrition security in Sub-Saharan Africa can be achieved by adopting a multi-pronged approach, which includes improved agricultural mechanization, adoption of high yielding crop varieties, use of information technology, public investments in improved technologies, and rural infrastructure funding. This edited volume provides innovative policy tools for enhancing Sub-Saharan Africa's capacity to achieve sustainable agriculture, food security and nutrition security in the digital age and in the face of climate variability. Furthermore, this book presents smart strategies for increased agricultural production, reduced food waste, and enhanced nutritional outcomes by harnessing the latest discoveries in agricultural research, education and advisory services.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction: Nutrition, Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change Issues in Africa

Abstract
One of the reasons behind these nutrition-related institutional challenges is that most policy interventions tend to focus on agricultural production metrics, with limited focus on enhancing the quality of research towards improving nutrition outcomes. In order for African countries to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 target, there must be a policy and paradigm shift from erratic political responses to actual malnutrition metrics focusing on access to healthy food, quality of food in terms of proteins, micronutrients and vitamins, access to land for crop production, access to water, access to relevant farming inputs, evidence-based commitment to Food and Nutrition Security (FNS), systematic assessment of progress towards achieving FNS and adequate investments in nutrition-related programmes. In alignment with one of the purposes of this book, this chapter will recommend informed policy interventions and improved nutrition programmes for African countries in a rapidly changing climatic space which is also increasingly being undermined by the Coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19).
Mariama Deen-Swarray, Gbadebo Odularu, Bamidele Adekunle

Chapter 2. Crop and Livestock Production Responses to Rainfall and Temperature Variation in West Africa

Abstract
For the past decades, the intergovernmental panel on climate change raised alarm on the probable negative impact of climatic variation on crop and livestock production with its implications for food security in developing nations. Despite programmes and policies set up for climate change mitigation and adaptation, there is still a need to assess the extent to which climatic variation affects agricultural subsectors production with focus on a specific geographic location for policy advocacy and adjustment for sustainable agriculture. The study made use of annual time series data covering a period of 50 years (1967–2016), collected from World Bank database indicators and analyzes using ordinary least square and Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that 25% increase in rainfall and temperature provides the highest level of crop and livestock production in West Africa. Given that on the average simulated percentages of rainfall and temperature in West Africa fall under the thermal threshold (38 °C–40 °C) for agricultural production, it is recommended that strategies such as the introduction of floods warning systems and water storage areas, and reforestation policy through increment in budgetary allocation to the ministry of forestry should be implemented in the dry land zone of West Africa.
Ukpe Udeme Henrietta, Djomo Choumbou Raoul Fani, Ngo Valery Ngo, Oben Njock Emmanuel, Gbadebo Odularu

Chapter 3. Agricultural Value Added, Food and Nutrition Security in West Africa: Realizing the SDG 2

Abstract
This study examined how food security will be achieved in ECOWAS through agricultural value added. The study made use of panel data sourced from the World Bank World Development Indicators (WDI) and the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) databases; it employed the fixed effects econometric technique. Results from the analysis showed that 1% increase in agricultural production, agriculture employment, agricultural valued added, political stability and absence of violence as well as access to electricity all things being equal, will bring about 14.2, 56.9, 1.9, 1.5 and 42.5% increase in food security. Thus, the study recommended that the governments of the West African countries should ensure that there is adequate security in the economies so as to encourage people to practice agriculture.
Romanus Osabohien, Oluwatoyin Matthew, Folasade Adegboye, Gbadebo Odularu

Chapter 4. Effect of Infrastructural Growth on Agricultural Research and Development in Nigeria

Abstract
This study analyzes the effects of infrastructural growth—expenditure on roads construction—on agricultural research and development (ARD) in Nigeria. The result revealed that long-run electricity supply in the previous year was significantly positive at 1% level of probability. This implies that unit increase in expenditure on roads construction in the previous year and electricity supply in the previous year increase ARD expenditure by 0.83 and 0.76, respectively. In contrast, water supply expenditure in the previous year was negative and significant at 1% level of probability, implying that unit increase in expenditure on water supply in the previous year decrease ARD expenditure by 0.006. The result further revealed that in the short-run expenditure on electricity supply two years ago was positive and significant at 5% level of probability, implying that unit increase in electricity supply two years ago increase ARD expenditure by 0.67. In contrast, expenditure on water supply in the previous year and research and development two years ago was negative and significant at 5% level of probability, implies that unit increase in expenditure on water supply in the previous year and ARD expenditure two years ago decreases ARD expenditure by 0.13 and 0.57, respectively.
Samuel Sesan Abolarin, Joseph Chinedu Umeh, Celina Biam

Chapter 5. Sustainable Seeds Supply, Public Infrastructure, Research and Development (R&D) Expenditures in Nigeria

Abstract
The rise of commercial public R&D and infrastructure expenditures in agriculture and the resulting innovations in improving yields, asset productivity and sustainability provide the means for meeting the food needs of the Nigerian growing population. To reach the goal, both the public and private sectors will need to keep the R&D and infrastructural pipeline flowing and make investment and commitments to ensure innovative technologies and techniques, which are required for the sustainability of agribusiness in Nigeria. The study revealed that for 5% increase in public R&D and decrease in infrastructure expenditures, the mean simulated improved cassava seed supply was ₦160.29 compared to ₦156.71 for the baseline while the mean simulated improved maize seed supply was ₦349.59 compared to ₦332.23 for the baseline. Similarly, for 5% increases in public R&D and infrastructure expenditures, the mean simulated improved cassava seed supply was ₦158.93 compared to ₦156.71 for the baseline while the simulated improved maize seed supply was ₦356.40 compared to ₦332.23 for the baseline. It is recommended that the development of road infrastructure is imperative for agriculture and overall economic growth as well as reducing transaction costs associated with agricultural activities hence reducing the costs of acquiring inputs.
Donald Denen Dzever, Ugochukwu Christopher Nnama, Ayuba Ali

Chapter 6. Understanding the Nutrition, Health, Climate Change, Deforestation, and Land Access Nexus

Abstract
Agriculture remains the most dominant socioeconomic sector of the African economy, accounting for over 60% of total job opportunities, in the face of low productivity, minimal value addition capacities, and poor quality among others such that its global agricultural value-added hovers around 2%. This is evident in its high level of food and nutritional insecurity across all agroecological zones in which millions of Africans still live on less than $US2 per day. For most low-income, unemployed and vulnerable farming communities in rural and peri-urban geographies, access to food, especially nutrient dense perishable foods may be undermined. More specifically, approximately 419 million additional people could fall into extreme poverty in 2020, particularly in SSA and South Asia (World Bank 2020). Thus, the study provides compelling evidences to the African Union Commission, its agencies, as well as national governments on targeted support to selected strategic crops in the relevant geographical locations on the continent. In other words, documenting and realizing the impact pathways toward nutritional security and sustainable agri-food outcomes are dynamic, and not linearly associated.
Gbadebo Odularu, Mariama Deen-Swarray, Bamidele Adekunle

Chapter 7. Gender, Rural Communities and Sustainable Development in South Africa

Abstract
Socio-economic empowerment of women deals with diverse issues that aim at improving the general status of women. Many scholars have explored the impact of women empowerment in family and community nutritional outcomes. These societal challenges are some of the major reasons for transforming the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) into Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) in the year 2015. According to the SDGs Report 2018, the latest poverty estimate suggests that 783 million people lived below the poverty threshold in 2013. Nevertheless, the United Nations Members States in 2015 adopted the 2030 Agenda of Sustainable Development due to its provision of a shared blueprint of peace and prosperity for people and the planet now and future. The Sustainable Development Goals aim to end poverty in all its forms by the year 2030 in relation to 2015. Participatory roles of the parties involved in instituting Community Development Programmes (CDPs) are essential for their successes. Non-participation by depending on social grants only cannot enhance the socio-economic status of women, especially in rural areas.
Olufunmilayo Odularu, Priscilla Monyai

Chapter 8. Agricultural Production, Farm Management, and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions: Lessons and Policy Directions for Cameroon

Abstract
The Agricultural sector and its management practices play a significant role in climate change. However, there are conflicting views on whether to satisfy demand for food or to preserve the environment through efficient farming practices. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing effects of agricultural subsector production and farm management practices on greenhouse emissions (GHG) in Cameroon (1980–2013). It was found that the agricultural subsector production in the previous year (crop and livestock) and farm management practices in the previous year (fertilizer consumption and agricultural land use) significantly affect GHG in the long run while GHG in the previous year significantly affect itself in the short run. The result also shows that GHG respond positively to a unit shock of crop subsector production and fertilizer consumption while GHG respond negatively to a unit shock of livestock subsector production and agricultural land use. Finally, crop subsector production is the major contributor to GHG in both long and short run. It was recommended that integrated farming system should be practiced with emphasis on organic farming. Further, animal feed and manure management (collection, storage and utilisation) should be appropriately handled to meet up with the scientific requirement.
Ukpe Udeme Henrietta, Djomo Choumbou Raoul Fani, Ogebe Frank, Gbadebo Odularu, Oben Njock Emmanuel

Chapter 9. Productivity Analysis Among Smallholder Rice Farmers: Policy Implications for Nutrition Security in the West Region of Cameroon

Abstract
Nutrition security is far below the government expectation despite policy and programmes set up to boost the agricultural sector. A multistage selection involving purposive and stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting respondents. The estimated production function shows that increases in farm size and labour lead to increase in rice output. In contrast, increases in fertilizer use lead to decreases in rice output by the value of the estimated coefficient. Technical efficiency in small scale rice production could be increased through better extension contact while accessibility to credit decreases technical efficiency in small scale rice production in the study area. On the average, small scale farmers’ technical efficiency could be increased by 18% if the available resources are efficiently utilized. Analysis of profitability indicates that small scale rice production is profitable in the study area. The policy implications for nutrition security show that there are significant and positive correlation between nutrition security, technical efficiency and profitability. It is recommended that government should aim to improve farmers’ profit margin through inputs subsidies which will increase both income and output and thereby increase their nutrition security.
Djomo Choumbou Raoul Fani, Ukpe Udeme Henrietta, Oben Njock Emmanuel, Gbadebo Odularu

Chapter 10. Maximizing Agricultural Growth Policy Space Through Public Expenditures and Foreign Direct Investment in Cameroon (1985–2016)

Abstract
Faced with economic crisis, Cameroon resorted to the lobbying and encouragement of foreign aids, foreign investment and export-oriented production as panacea for sustainable economic growth that could be trickled down to poverty reduction. Sustainable agricultural progress is an adequate means of providing a permanent solution to poverty traps and increasing the overall welfare of mankind. This study analyzed how to maximize agricultural growth policy space through public expenditures and foreign direct investment in Cameroon. Annual time series covering a period of 32 years (1985–2016) were obtained from secondary sources. System dynamic modelling approach was used to analyze the broad objective involving three (3) scenarios. The study found that increase in foreign direct investment and decrease in public expenditures provided the best alternative for the sustainability of the agricultural growth which validates the classical theory that stated that private investment is the engine of growth. It is recommended that incentives such as reduction of tax should be given to attract more foreign investors into the country. Further, investment on infrastructure such as roads, railways and dam should be done in order to provide adequate environment to foreigners to invest in the agricultural sector.
Djomo Choumbou Raoul Fani, Aye Goodness Chioma, Ukpe Udeme Henrietta, Ngo Valery Ngo, Gbadebo Odularu, Oben Njock Emmanuel

Chapter 11. Impact of Knowledge Management and Digital Libraries on Climate Change in West and Central Africa

Abstract
Global climate change has been a global concern all over the world in view of its threat to human existence, and literature opines that carbon dioxide could rise from about 1.4 to 5.8 °C above the 1990 average by the year 2100. In view of this alarming statistical realities and projections, this paper evaluates the roles of digital libraries as regards the impact of knowledge management on climate change. Also, rapid development in information and communication technologies within the last two decades has empowered libraries in the provision of digital library services in the creation, development and provision of innovative information resources and services, hence the importance of epitomizing the roles of digital libraries in the management and applicability of knowledge on the world’s changing climate cannot be over-emphasized. The study also epitomizes the contributions of selected West African institutions in ameliorating the effects of climate change.
Oluwayemi IbukunOluwa Olatoye, Ndakasharwa Muchaonyerwa, Tolulope Ayodeji Olatoye

Chapter 12. Conclusion: Fostering Nutrition Security, Climate Adaptation and Sustainable Agriculture Strategies Amid COVID-19 Pandemic

Abstract
The implementation of Food and Nutrition Security (FNS), climate change adaptation and sustainable agriculture strategies provide a strong foundation for preparedness response to future agri-food crisis such as the rapidly evolving coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19). More specifically, Agriculture and Rural Development and related-ministries and other government organizations should ensure that sustainable agriculture programmes incorporate the following components: transportation of food and agricultural inputs are unhindered by the restriction of movements to ensure that supply chains are kept open and functional; Food Safety Management Systems (FSMS) to eliminate or reduce the risk of food surfaces and food packaging materials becoming contaminated and supporting the most vulnerable population by releasing assorted food via safety net interventions to complement food distributions in specific areas of vulnerability.
Gbadebo Odularu, Olatokunbo Akinseye Aluko, Adenike Odularu, Monica Akokuwebe, Adebola Adedugbe

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