Skip to main content
Top

Open Access 2023 | Open Access | Book

Cover of the book

Ocean Governance

Knowledge Systems, Policy Foundations and Thematic Analyses

insite
SEARCH

About this book

This Open Access book on Ocean Governance examines sustainability challenges facing our oceans today. The book is organized into three sections: knowledge systems, policy foundations and thematic analyses. The knowledge produced in the book was catalyzed by the scientific outcomes within the European-funded Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) network “Ocean Governance for Sustainability – Challenges, Options and the Role of Science”. This network brings together scientists, policy-makers and civil society representatives from 28 nation states to cooperate on ocean governance research. This book offers a compilation of new research material including focused case studies, broad policy syntheses and reflective chapters on the history and current status of knowledge production systems on ocean governance. New research material is presented, although some chapters draw on secondary sources. The book starts with synthetic review chapters from the editors, outlining past and present knowledge systems, addressing how and why ocean governance for sustainability is where it currently stands with critical reflections on existing narratives, path dependencies and colonialist histories. This is followed by chapters addressing, synthesizing and analyzing different legal and policy frameworks for ocean governance both regionally and internationally. At the core of the book are the thematic analyses, which provide focused case studies with detailed contextual information in support of different ocean governance challenges and sustainability pathways around the world. The book concludes with a chapter explicitly targeting students, researchers and policy-makers with key take-away messages compiled by the editors.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 1. Ocean Governance for Sustainability Transformation
Abstract
This introductory chapter focuses on selected key events, features and policies of ocean governance that have had, or are likely to be needed in transforming how and why we govern the ocean sustainably. In doing so we outline examples of prominent historical events, important thematic areas of global development, policy instruments and the principles of governance processes that can transform the way society engages with the ocean. However, we acknowledge that such an overview cannot fully capture all issues, particularly how each is differentiated at regional and local levels. Accordingly, we introduce globally relevant issues and general principles, which will require further inquiry to fully unpack at the relevant levels and scales for engaged students, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners. Thus, we provide an overview of these topics from a multi- and inter-disciplinary perspective, supported by up-to-date literature. This is followed by a brief explanation of how the chapters in the book are organized into three parts, and how each chapter contributes to the book’s content, including a final chapter that outlines the takeaway points for students, researchers and policy-makers in pursuing ocean governance for sustainability transformation.
Stefan Partelow, Maria Hadjimichael, Anna-Katharina Hornidge

Open Access

19. Correction to: Assembling the Seabed: Pan-European and Interdisciplinary Advances in Understanding Seabed Mining
Wenting Chen, Kimberley Peters, Diva Amon, Maria Baker, John Childs, Marta Conde, Sabine Gollner, Kristin Magnussen, Aletta Mondre, Ståle Navrud, Pradeep A. Singh, Philip Steinberg, Klaas Willaert

Knowledge Systems

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 2. Knowing the Ocean: Epistemic Inequalities in Patterns of Science Collaboration
Abstract
Ocean governance requires us to know the ocean. However, the knowledge systems that have shaped how and why we know the current ocean have been historically limited. In the present, they often subdue other knowledge systems that, if and when recognized and included into governing processes, not only move towards social justice and inclusion but can also improve decision-making and practical outcomes. The concept of epistemic inequalities encapsulates the disparities between different ways of knowing and their influence in ocean governance. For example, since the rise of colonial Europe, European-centric white male ideologies have long dominated global development practices. Within science, some disciplines have substantially more power than others, represented by funding and policy influence. In turn, local and indigenous knowledge systems, feminist ideologies and a broader range of highly valuable ways of knowing and doing in the sciences are far from equally participating in shaping ocean development discourses, decision-making and governance processes affecting the future of ocean sustainability. This chapter provides a theoretical basis for unpacking such epistemic inequalities in ocean governance, and thus setting a foundation for critically reflecting on the context and knowledge within the chapters of this book.
Anna-Katharina Hornidge, Stefan Partelow, Kerstin Knopf

Open Access

Chapter 3. Managing Fish or Governing Fisheries? An Historical Recount of Marine Resources Governance in the Context of Latin America – The Ecuadorian Case
Abstract
The narratives and images about ocean and its resources governance, their use and value have deep roots in human history. Traditionally, the contemporary images of fish and fisheries have been shaped under the cultural construction of power, wealth and exclusion, and also as one of poverty and marginalization. This perception was formed on early notions of natural (marine) resources access and use that were born within the colonial machinery that ruled the world from the Middle Ages until late XVII. This research explores the historical overview of marine resources usage and governance in Latin America, from a ‘critical approach to development’ perspective, by following a narrative description based on a ‘three-acts’ format. It illustrates how and to what extent politics, power and knowledge have deeply influenced policies and practices at exploring the marine and terrestrial resources and at managing fish and seafood, historically, and how the fisheries resources’ management practices are influenced by principles of appropriation, regulation and usage, put in place already in the XV century that were imposed at the conquering and colonization of the Americas, disregarded previous governance practices. This article argues that fisheries governance cannot be improved without some appreciation for the social, historical, geopolitical, and cultural significance of the fishing resources themselves, of the perceptions of them by humans, and of the interactions Global North-Global South. The analysis also opens the dialogue about what kind of ocean and governance “science” we want, to support decisions, policies and practices regarding fisheries governance. Final thoughts highlight a reflection about whose knowledge is created and used to support decision and policy making in Ecuador.
María José Barragán-Paladines, Michael Schoon, Winny Collot D’Escury, Ratana Chuenpagdee

Open Access

Chapter 4. Post-War Reconnaissance of Japanese Fishery and Ocean Science and Its Contribution to the Development of U.S. Scientific Programs: 1947–1954
Abstract
This chapter examines the over-looked contribution of Japanese scientists to ocean science and the construction of recruitment fisheries oceanography, the study of the effects of climate and ocean variability on fish abundance. After World War II, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service worked with the Supreme Commander Allied Powers staff in Tokyo to find and translate scientific documents about tuna and oceanography, for use by Americans trying to start fisheries in former Japanese waters. Determining the migration patterns of the fish was essential to catching them, and the Japanese translations greatly influenced “Progress in Pacific Oceanic Fishery Investigations, 1950-53.” The document pioneers the integration of fisheries, oceanography, and meteorology to better understand the dynamic structure of the equatorial Pacific Ocean, and the importance of upwelling and frontal structures as they relate to distribution and abundance of Pacific tunas. The science of finding the fish was a critical step in the global expansion of tuna fishing throughout the subsequent decades. While the paper acknowledged the Japanese contribution to the construction of the science, the publication also masked the importance of the contribution.
Carmel Finley

Policy Foundations

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 5. Making Marine Spatial Planning Matter
Abstract
Over the last decade, Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has become one of the key components of marine governance. In the European Union, member states are working towards the development of their first plans under the Maritime Spatial Planning Directive. Internationally, UNESCO and the European Commission have launched their MSP Global initiative to speed up the implementation of MSP around the world. MSP is also framed as being a key mechanism for sustainably realising the benefits of the Blue Economy and emerging Green Deals. During this same period, however, a substantial body of critical academic work has emerged that questions whether the implementation of MSP will transform unsustainable marine governance and management practices. This scholarship illustrates that the current trajectory of many MSP initiatives is to preserve the status quo and that they fail to adequately address longstanding marine governance issues. Drawing on Flyvbjerg’s vital treatise on phronetic social science, this chapter will explore: where is MSP going; who gains and loses, and how they do so; is this desirable, and if not, what can be done to make MSP matter? I particularly focus on mechanisms of winning and losing, characterising them as key tensions in MSP processes that can be unsettled to make MSP more transformative.
Wesley Flannery

Open Access

Chapter 6. The Past, Present and Future of Ocean Governance: Snapshots from Fisheries, Area-Based Management Tools and International Seabed Mineral Resources
Abstract
Ocean governance comprises the law of the sea as well as all related policy and normative dimensions that relate to the regulation of human activity at sea and increasingly places a strong focus on marine environmental protection and the conservation of marine resources, with the aim of ensuring a healthy and productive ocean while sustaining a resilient ocean-based economy. Premised on this observation, this chapter aims to reflect on the past, present and future of ocean governance using three case studies as snapshot examples, namely, fisheries at sea, marine area-based management tools and international seabed mineral resources. Put together, these three case studies will demonstrate how the law of the sea has evolved when considered from the dimension of ocean governance, particularly with respect to the challenge of protecting and preserving the marine environment through the sustainable use of marine resources.
Pradeep A. Singh, Fernanda C. B. Araujo

Open Access

Chapter 7. The Diverse Legal and Regulatory Framework for Marine Sustainability Policy in the North Atlantic – Horrendograms as Tools to Assist Circumnavigating Through a Sea of Different Maritime Policies
Abstract
Although considerable progress has been made in the management and planning of the marine environment, important gaps still exist in streamlining policies across governance levels, maritime sectors, and between different countries. This can hinder effective Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) and prevent harmonious cross-sectoral cooperation, and importantly, cross-border or trans-boundary collaboration. These may in turn have serious implications for overall ocean governance and ultimately, marine sustainability. The North Atlantic presents an ideal case-study region for reviewing these issues: North Atlantic countries have different governance structures, and as such, different approaches to marine policy. Therefore, for an effective marine management, cross-sectoral and cross-border MSP in the region, there is a need to review marine and maritime policies in order to identify differences and commonalities among countries. This chapter reviews major policies for the marine environment in the North Atlantic and assesses where differences between countries exist and at which governance level they are being created. Key research questions include: (i) Are there significant differences in marine policy between North Atlantic countries? Moreover, are there any substantial geographical/political differences? (ii) Are there differences in implementation of key policies? Such an analysis requires a sound framework for comparison among countries. To that end, the use of “horrendograms”, a tool increasingly being used by the marine research and planning community to assess such issues, is adopted. Results indicate that key differences between countries are created primarily at a national level of marine governance. Although differences between countries exist, overall strategic targets are similar. For instance, whilst the political systems of certain North Atlantic countries may differ substantially, key objectives for major sectors, such as fisheries and conservation, are similar – even when such objectives are implemented at different levels. Findings from the study can enable targeted policy intervention and, as such, assist the development of future outlooks of ocean governance in the region. Results can also aid the development of future visions and scenarios for MSP in the Atlantic region.
Helena Calado, Marta Vergílio, Fabiana Moniz, Henriette Grimmel, Md. Mostafa Monwar, Eva A. Papaioannou

Open Access

Chapter 8. International Fisheries Law: Past to Future
Abstract
Ocean governance is a collective effort. It depends on the ability of all actors, from States to individuals, to work together upon common understandings, values and rules for use of the ocean. The contemporary Law of the Sea regime, as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), provides a global legal order for the control of diverse activities carried out in the ocean, aiming to achieve balanced relationships among multiple users and scarce marine resources. International marine fisheries, in particular, are regulated by International Fisheries Law (IFL). More intensively in the last decades, IFL has contributed to ocean governance by harmonising social, economic and environmentally-sound standards for fisheries, setting out important parameters to support the potential of fisheries to sustainably operate in the ocean. This chapter draws on a historical narrative of IFL from 1994, when the UNCLOS entered into force, to mid-2022. It analyses selected legal developments at global and regional levels with a view to clarify how the contemporary IFL has developed and responded to the recurrent problems in fisheries at global and regional levels, addressing current and future needs.
Julia Nakamura

Open Access

Chapter 9. Managing Land Sea Interactions: Case Studies of Coastal Governance in Four EU Member States
Abstract
Under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, EU member states are committed to delivering Good Environmental Status in EU marine and coastal areas but the risk of damage from land based pollutants is rising, along with increased economic uses and activities in marine and coastal areas. While it is accepted that land sea interactions need to be managed, and uses and activities in our marine and coastal areas must be regulated, the complexity and dynamic nature of land sea connections create challenges for governance systems. This chapter reviews the marine and coastal management systems in operation in Ireland, Romania, Spain and France. Using relevant case studies at national, sub national and local level, we assess their capacity to manage complex and dynamic land sea interactions. We further examine their ability to achieve integrated, multiscalar and cross sectoral governance of their marine and coastal areas. Recommendations to assist EU member states who are developing marine and coastal governance systems are also provided.
Paul Lawlor, Daniel Depellegrin

Thematic Analyses

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 10. Sustainable Seafood Consumption: A Matter of Individual Choice or Global Market? A Window into Dublin’s Seafood Scene
Abstract
Seafood consumption is considered a key element for food security and for nutrition related policies. However, seafood is often not easily accessible or perceived as a popular option even by those living in close proximity to the sea, especially in the western world. Common culprits are usually identified as a lack of specialized shops, culinary knowledge or as the disconnection with local coastal cultural heritage. This is, for instance, the case in Ireland: Irish waters provide a great diversity of seafood and yet, its domestic consumption remains unusually low for an island nation. Most of Ireland’s seafood is exported to other countries, whilst the Irish stick to the popular salmon, cod and tuna; a consumption habit that has obvious sustainability externalities. This contribution aims to unpack the issues connected to seafood consumption in Ireland’s coastal capital Dublin and offers a window into the city’s seafood scene. Data presented were gained within Food Smart Dublin, a multidisciplinary research project designed to encourage a behavioural shift of consumption towards more sustainable local seafood. The project’s purpose was to reconnect Dublin’s society with their tangible and intangible coastal cultural heritage by rediscovering and adapting historical recipes. The paper thus connects past, present, and future perspectives on the topic. First, the past is explored by delineating the potential of marine historical heritage in stimulating sustainable seafood consumption with the reintroduction of traditional Irish recipes. The present offers a data snapshot on consumption patterns towards seafood gathered from structured online questionnaires results from the Food Smart Dublin project. Respondents offered insights into their relationship with the sea, on the frequency with which they consume seafood and the obstacles they see in consuming more of it. Finally, these perspectives delineate possible future scenarios and recommended governance actions to support policymakers in designing a better and more sustainable seafood system.
Cordula Scherer, Agnese Cretella

Open Access

Chapter 11. Marine Governance as a Process of Reflexive Institutionalization? Illustrated by Arctic Shipping
Abstract
The objective of this chapter is to give insight in marine governance challenges, illustrated by Arctic shipping. To do this, this chapter presents a theory of marine governance as reflexive institutionalization, in which the structural properties of marine governance arrangements are (re)produced in interactions between governmental actors, maritime sectors and civil society actors within the structural conditions of the networked polity at sea. Based on an analysis of the institutionalization of shipping governance arrangements of three (possible) Arctic shipping routes; The Northwest Passage (NWP), the Northeast Passage and Northern Sea Route (NEP/NSR), and the Transpolar Sea Route (TSR) the following question will be answered, “What are the enabling and constraining conditions of marine governance as reflexive institutionalization?” In other words, what are the possibilities for public and private actors to challenge discursive spaces and to change the rules of the game, in order to find solutions for environmental, spatial, economic, and social problems at the Arctic Ocean? The analysis shows forms of institutionalization as structural reflectiveness in which the dominant discourse ‘shipping is allowed in the Arctic’ is not challenged. However, this form of reflectiveness showed how actors, such as China and Russia, are able the use rules from different institutional settings to strengthen their position.
Jan P. M. van Tatenhove

Open Access

Chapter 12. Assembling the Seabed: Pan-European and Interdisciplinary Advances in Understanding Seabed Mining
Abstract
This chapter deploys assemblage theory and thinking to bring together a unique set of insights on the seabed ranging from the ecological, to legal, practice to theoretical. It does so with a particular aim in mind: to integrate debates pertinent to understanding the frontier space of the sea floor. Whilst there are increasing calls for interdisciplinary integration in the marine sciences, combining the natural and social sciences research on the space of the seabed and its potential for mining tends to be siloed with work addressing component parts of such possible processes: ecosystem and ecosystem service aspects, legal dimensions, and geopolitical aspects, to name but a few. Whilst these contributions touch upon intersecting issues (society and environment; law and economics, and so on) they remained centered on particular disciplinary and scientific offerings to understanding the seabed and prospect of seabed mining. This chapter offers a thoroughly ‘joined up’ approach, which presents a prism through which to better understand the issues at stake in venturing to the new vertical frontiers of ocean extraction.
Wenting Chen, Kimberley Peters, Diva Amon, Maria Baker, John Childs, Marta Conde, Sabine Gollner, Kristin Magnussen, Aletta Mondre, Ståle Navrud, Pradeep A. Singh, Philip Steinberg, Klaas Willaert

Open Access

Chapter 13. Societal Transformations and Governance Challenges of Coastal Small-Scale Fisheries in the Northern Baltic Sea
Abstract
Our chapter adds a northern dimension to the discussion about the past, present and future of small-scale fisheries and their governance. For centuries, extraction of fish resources has been of utmost importance in many coastal areas of the Baltic Sea and small-scale fisheries have survived due to the robustness of the social institutions that have helped them adapt throughout periods of economic and social upheaval. Lately, the fishing livelihood has been undergoing a continuous process of contraction and concentration in terms of vessel numbers and employment. Leisure use of water areas, nature conservation and science-based governance systems have challenged fishers’ access to fish resources. Especially in the northern parts of the Baltic Sea, the viability and future of coastal small-scale fisheries is severely challenged by problems caused by fish-eating animals, mainly grey seals and cormorants. We draw upon interactive governance theory to compare experiences on Finnish and Swedish small-scale fisheries governance. Our conclusion is that the present governance system is incompatible with the small-scale fisheries context, and propose creating new co-governance arrangements where small-scale fishers’ interests, values and local knowledge are better integrated into a governance system.
Pekka Salmi, Milena Arias-Schreiber, Kristina Svels

Open Access

Chapter 14. The Plastic Bag Habit and the Ocean Bali: From Banana Leaf Wrappings to Reusable Bags
Abstract
The pollution of the oceans by plastic waste is a growing threat to marine life, ecosystems, livelihoods of coastal communities and the health of human beings in general. Indonesia is the world’s second largest source of marine plastic pollution. As an island state, plastic litter is regularly flushed into the sea. In this study we explore some behavioural and cultural reasons for the high consumption and pollution by plastic bags on Bali and locally adapted solutions. The data was collected from interviews and surveys with shop owners and customers, religious leaders, students, lecturers and activists during 3 years of research in the region. The analysis is structured in three parts: first, understanding the relevant concepts that inform Balinese perception of the natural environment; second, analysing the popularity and aversions among local Balinese in regard to plastic bags; third, investigating a local initiative working towards a ban of plastic bags. Based on these three parts we identified promising approaches that can effectively support local initiatives and awareness campaigns.
Roger Spranz, Achim Schlüter

Open Access

Chapter 15. Futuring ‘Nusantara’: Detangling Indonesia’s Modernist Archipelagic Imaginaries
Abstract
Archipelagic identities have long patterned Indonesian historic imaginaries, collective memory, and its postcolonial modernist narratives on nation-building. This chapter examines and puts into conversation two distinct and interrelated concepts undergirding archipelagic thinking – ‘Nusantara’ and the lesser studied ‘Tanah Air’ – against speculative visions of Indonesia’s developmental trajectories. These concepts intersect with Indonesia’s aspirational vision as a maritime nation that is to take its place within a regional and globalist paradigm of ocean-centric economic growth. Inspired by critical ocean studies and by drawing on narrative analysis, we begin by considering the paradoxes within Indonesia’s contemporary blue economy growth visions in relation to its older land-based biases in planning and nation-building. In critically engaging with Indonesia’s own oceanic turn towards a blue growth orthodoxy, we consider three aspects of its futuring trajectory, namely industrialization, infrastructural development, and its recent choice of relocating its administrative capital to east Kalimantan. While engaging with paradigmatic land-locked biases and political path dependencies that unwittingly entrench ‘Java-centric’ development, we illustrate how Indonesia’s distinct archipelagic thinking has co-evolved in recent history, and with what cultural resonance for its nation-building vision in the decades to come.
Hendricus A. Simarmata, Irina Rafliana, Johannes Herbeck, Rapti Siriwardane-de Zoysa

Open Access

Chapter 16. Market Initiatives of Small-Scale Fisheries in the Mediterranean: Innovation in Support of Sustainable Blue Economy
Abstract
The study of traditional marine stakeholders, such as small-scale fishers in the Mediterranean, represents a site of a changing seascape. This is characterized by impeding factors of the past but also a possibility for improved future trajectories. Small-scale fisheries (SSF) have played a crucial socio-economic role in the Mediterranean for decades, and they continue to comprise over 80% of the fishing fleets and provide direct and indirect economic contributions to coastal communities. Their contribution to blue economy has so far been described as low, but this is largely due to a narrow conception both of benefits to be drawn from the development of maritime sectors (which have focused strongly on economic growth) and types of innovation that are capable of supporting the transition to sustainability (which have overlooked social innovation). This chapter outlines the multi-scale contributions of the small-scale fisheries and presents innovative approaches of the sector towards the markets, both of which support the inclusion of SSF in the blue economy sector. The chapter focuses on key instances of recently developed initiatives by the SSF across the Mediterranean with impacts on the supply chain and the marketing of their products. We argue that these market interventions contribute to the ultimate governance objectives, and challenge the conception of SSF as a non-innovative sector. We propose that a richer engagement with the blue economy paradigm supports the perception of the SSF as a prospective sector, to match the promotion of aquaculture among others.
Jerneja Penca, Alicia Said

Open Access

Chapter 17. Towards Just and Sustainable Blue Futures: Small-Scale Fisher Movements and Food Sovereignty
Abstract
Oceans and seas have been vital food sources for both coastal and terrestrial communities for thousands of years. Traditionally, the main actors were small-scale fishers adopting more ecologically-benign fishing practices either for their own subsistence or small-scale commercial use and livelihood. Members of small-scale fishing communities frequently combine other socioeconomic activities such as small-scale agriculture and animal husbandry with their fishing activity as well. Thus, they usually have broader and different understandings and narratives regarding their relations and interdependency with the fish and the seas compared with industrial capture fisheries targeting the most profitable commercial fish species using more destructive gears and high technological capacities. In this chapter, we aim to shed light on their past and present—as well as highlight their existence as a rather neglected and marginalized social group, their political agency and their global movement for food sovereignty in order to uncover their social, political and ecological roles for the future of oceans, coastal communities, and the society in general. Our research methodology relies on participant observation and action methods based on 3 years of continuous work with small-scale fishing cooperatives in Turkey, Spain and Europe, as well as following and collaborating with the WFFP (World Forum of Fisher People) members both in Europe and globally. We conducted more than 80 interviews with key actors from fisheries sector including policy makers, NGOs, members of fishing cooperatives, and fisheries and marine scientists that inform this investigation. We claim that even though small-scale fishing communities are usually neglected actors of the ‘present’ in most mainstream marine policies, narratives and agendas such as the Blue Economy, their ‘presence’ in ocean governance is of utmost importance and their future existence needs to be ensured for an ecologically, socially and economically just ocean governance.
Irmak Ertör, Pinar Ertör-Akyazi

Open Access

Chapter 18. Ocean Acidification as a Governance Challenge in the Mediterranean Sea: Impacts from Aquaculture and Fisheries
Abstract
Despite the progress in the international and regional governance efforts at the level of climate change, ocean acidification (OA) remains a global problem with profoundly negative environmental, social, and economical consequences. This requires extensive mitigation and adaptation effective strategies that are hindered by current shortcomings of governance. This multidisciplinary chapter investigates the risks of ocean acidification (OA) for aquaculture and fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea and its sub-basins and the role of regional adaptive governance to tackle the problem. The identified risks are based on the biological sensitivities of the most important aquaculture species and biogenic habitats and their exposure to the current and future predicted (2100) RCP 8.5 conditions. To link OA exposure and biological sensitivity, we produced spatially resolved and depth-related pH and aragonite saturation state exposure maps and overlaid these with the existing aquaculture industry in the coastal waters of the Mediterranean basin to demonstrate potential risk for the aquaculture in the future. We also identified fisheries’ vulnerability through the indirect effects of OA on highly sensitive biogenic habitats that serve as nursery and spawning areas, showing that some of the biogenic habitats are already affected locally under existing OA conditions and will be more severely impacted across the entire Mediterranean basin under 2100 scenarios. This provided a regional vulnerability assessment of OA hotspots, risks and gaps that created the baseline for discussing the importance of adaptive governance and recommendations for future OA mitigation/adaptation strategies. By understanding the risks under future OA scenarios and reinforcing the adaptability of the governance system at the science-policy interface, best informed, “situated” management response capability can be optimised to sustain ecosystem services.
Nina Bednarsek, Bleuenn Guilloux, Donata Melaku Canu, Charles Galdies, Roberta Guerra, Simona Simoncelli, Richard A. Feely, Greg Pelletier, Blaženka Gašparović, Jelena Godrijan, Alenka Malej, Cosimo Solidoro, Valentina Turk, Serena Zunino
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Ocean Governance
Editors
Stefan Partelow
Maria Hadjimichael
Anna-Katharina Hornidge
Copyright Year
2023
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-20740-2
Print ISBN
978-3-031-20739-6
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-20740-2