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About this book

This book provides an insight into the complexities of weaning Nigeria from its fossil fuels addiction while growing the economy on low carbon trajectory. Nigeria faces a carbon catch 22 with the proliferation of renewable energy alternatives and scale-up of electric vehicles. The dilemma Nigeria is confronted with is to grow its fossil-led economy or face the challenge of its fossil infrastructure becoming stranded assets. It is a roadmap for plotting an environmentally benign path out of the country’s economic, social and environmental crises. This book is, therefore, a valuable resource for students, Civil Society Organizations, policymakers, academics and climate change adaptation practitioners who are interested in finding an environmentally sensitive path out of Nigeria’s economic cul-de-sac fostered by the decarbonization of the global energy economy. Findings of this study will trigger a national conversation on the looming exit from fossil fuels. In doing so, accelerate the integration of renewable energy into the Nigerian national development plan while building a carbon neutral society. Lessons learnt from the handling of Nigeria’s precarious circumstance will be of immense benefit to other oil prospecting, oil producing and non-producing nations who are interested in finding an equitable way of pursuing two inversely related goals of meeting their decarbonization commitments while simultaneously growing their economies in the post-Paris era.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Dawn of a New Age

Abstract
Transformation of the global energy economy is underway. The world is increasingly weaning from its fossil fuels addiction. Climate change and other associated risks are fostering this change. Nigeria made progress towards realization of the Kyoto Protocol mandate as a non-Annex I country. One of the key achievements is the awareness created on climate change within the country. But this is not solely the fallout of government policies of the past two decades. What factors gave vent to the change in public perception of climate change? What reform measures at global level are associated with the drive towards carbon abatement in the country? Is Nigeria’s post fossil society taking shape? Chapter one examines these contending issues.
Augustine Sadiq Okoh

Chapter 2. COVID-19 and Nigeria

Abstract
The world faces series of interrelated crisis in the years to come. COVID-19 is redefining relations changing social relations of production. As the world grapples with the pandemic, there is the imperative to forge a common approach for the cross-cutting and complexly interwoven crises of climate change and COVID-19. This chapter examines the nexus of the two scourges before proffering an eco-sufficient and climate resilient path for navigating the murky waters of these scourges while also ensuring economic recovery in the post-COVID-19 era.
Augustine Sadiq Okoh

Chapter 3. Political Economy of Fossil Fuel Exit

Abstract
Chapter 3 examines the political economy of fossil fuel consumption and extraction in other to ascertain the effect of fossil fuel elimination from the global energy economy on Nigeria. It found that there is the imperative to set the bar on ambition to reduce fossil fuel consumption since climate-related risk is exacerbating depletion of natural resources. It further found that fossil capitalists’ preoccupation with profit largely informed the nature and form of solutions proffered to mitigate climate change. Though there are solutions for endogenous growth this is no panacea to stave off fossil fuel consumption. Fossil fuel consumption will grow at the same pace with renewables but its cost competiveness is dwindling with new technologies deployed to reduce carbon upload. Even then the influence of capital is growing ushering in a new age of demagoguery wherein eco-efficient solutions are hijacked to serve private ends.
Augustine Sadiq Okoh

Chapter 4. Fossil Fuel Exit: Which Way Nigeria?

Abstract
Nigeria, an oil producing country is suffering from an acute dose of the ‘paradox of the plenty.’ Over the years the country has been both villain and victim of its own economic complexities. Why is a country blessed with abundant resources suffering from the ‘paradox of the plenty’? Can a country with promising potentials still be one of the most economically troubled and also conflict-ridden states in the world? Where did the country derail? What makes oil a cursed resource in Nigeria and is a source of blessing to others? How can we overcome the ‘King Midas problem’? These are the questions chapter four answers. Nigeria is not committed to exiting fossil fuel since its golden goose. This golden goose is equally the country albatross pushing it towards exploitation of nature neglectful of other resources; an action that made her susceptible to uncertainties of the market place which an army of rent seekers cashed in on to subvert economic development.
Augustine Sadiq Okoh

Chapter 5. Making the Post-vision 20:2020 and NDC Blueprints Efficient as Phase-Out Strategies

Abstract
How to make the phase out of fossil fuels energy efficient is the analytic fulcrum of Chap. 5. It explores the why, what and how of Nigeria's transition to a clean energy future. It ascertains Nigeria’s preparedness to exit fossil fuel by examining the NDC, ERGP and the NESP blueprint in other to confirm whether the nascent low carbon revolution is catching on as fossil dependent societies are drawn toward finding new alternatives. It demonstrates that the zero carbon pathways embarked on is the right path but will not bring about significant change. As such the much desired green nirvana is still an optical illusion as a combination of geopolitical, economic and social constraints have conspired to derail the country's decarbonization drive.
Augustine Sadiq Okoh

Chapter 6. Roadmap to Nigeria’s Future Without Oil

Abstract
Different roadmaps are floating around as exit strategies for exiting fossil fuels. In this chapter economic diversification as Fossil Fuel Exit Strategy is examined in the light of competing blueprints. It found that policy implementation gap on diversification bedevil Nigeria’s energy transition thus requiring policies refocusing towards the looming economic doldrums. Making the future without oil energy eco-efficient is the central plank of this chapter if Nigeria must move towards an inclusive green growth society. This will require using bamboos as tool for building a post-fossil society. For bamboos role of strengthening low carbon growth has not being mainstreamed into development planning. There is the imperative for a national policy on bamboo to cash in the burgeoning market which will also act as economic diversification in the post-oil age.
Augustine Sadiq Okoh

Chapter 7. Gender Relations and Forest Resource Management in Post-COVID-19 Age

Abstract
Gender relation will play critical role in exiting fossil fuel while also ensuring the post-COVID-19 age is aligned with the global mechanism such as the Paris Agreement and SDGs. How different genders participate in the decarbonization measures is critical to building a climate resilient society. But this faces several constraints. Gender sensitive forest resources management in Nigeria has not fully taken shape as resources management is dominated by androcentric agenda. Through the use of power this patriarchal society has succeeded in preventing women from equitably participating in the flow of forest resources. Thus, has placed women in silos that require men gifting them participation in forest resources use. It finds that the problem is not so much want of policies formulated to deal with this dichotomous relationship but more of the hegemonic tendency of the externally driven rationalization of nature causing an inconstant role of women in forest management. To eliminate gender bias forest resources management in the Coronavirus age must be based on equity where all resources are sustainably utilized by all such that it does not hamper its regenerative potential.
Augustine Sadiq Okoh

Chapter 8. Green Economic Recovery in Post-COVID-19 Era

Abstract
COVID-19 is the defining challenge of modern age. It is not only a public health emergency but is equally an economic crisis. It is bringing personal tragedy into households across the globe as well as economic crisis. GDP and government revenues are falling as unemployment and poverty rise. Nigerian government has sketched a stimulus package targeted at sectors deflated by coronavirus externalities. They are typically designed to mobilize money quickly; ensure that expenditure is temporary; and target a specific problem such as recapitalizing banks or boosting consumer spending. This is the theory but not practice as the stimulus is placing funds not in where it ought. In some cases it is dumping money into the hands of a select few while in others it dumping money in the real economy but is guided by panic rather than purpose. There is need to promote clean energy transition at the same time with COVID-19 risk reduction in the economic recovery scheme of government. In COVID time, a unified moral purpose should guide national effort of building a low-carbon, resilient and inclusive economy thereby maximizing clean energy transition in the green economic recovery plan.
Augustine Sadiq Okoh

Chapter 9. Aligning the New NDC with NESP

Abstract
Is the NESP roadmap aligned with the NDC in building a carbon neutral and energy just transition in the post-COVID-19 NDC submission? What are the potentials and barriers for integrating the NDC and NESP and how can the integration strategy be aligned with national development policies, programmes and strategies, designed to ensure sustainable development while also meeting the ambitious goals in Nigeria’s new NDC submission of 2020? Are the institutional arrangements for different sectors consistent with the ultimate goal of Nigeria for reducing emission intensity of the economy while nurturing green growth and how can these diverse objectives best aligned with national development plan and the new NDC submission of the country? What are the viable options for building Nigeria’s post-carbon society and curbing threats of climate change/COVID-19? This chapter will answer these difficult questions.
Augustine Sadiq Okoh

Chapter 10. Beyond Oil Age

Abstract
Chapter draws a curtain on the book by pointing out salient issues the study uncovered. It observed that oil in its current form is a mortal resource susceptible to the vagaries of oil market. But oil mortality hinges not only on price volatility but immanent exit from fossil fuels which is ushering new alternatives that are now redefining how oil is utilized and its share of the global energy economy. Nigeria being unprepared for this looming danger is in for hard times as its legion of fossil fuel assets face uncertain future. The way ahead for Nigeria is to diversify its economy with bamboos and other renewable energy the engine of growth. COVID-19 has added a new dimension to the looming danger by reducing the economic viability of the economy. The post-Carbon future Nigeria would need is based on the Food Sufficiency Economy principle which ensures that there is harmonious relationship between human and nature. It is in line circular economy, food sovereignty and food sufficiency economy but a home-grown solution based on Africa’s cultural values. Here, Nigeria’s ecological requirements shall be met within the country’s biophysical limits while ensuring eco-development does not totally derail its economic growth.
Augustine Sadiq Okoh

Backmatter

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