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About this book

Welcome to the 5th International Conference on Open Source Systems! It is quite an achievement to reach the five-year mark – that’s the sign of a successful enterprise. This annual conference is now being recognized as the primary event for the open source research community, attracting not only high-quality papers, but also building a community around a technical program, a collection of workshops, and (starting this year) a Doctoral Consortium. Reaching this milestone reflects the efforts of many people, including the conference founders, as well as the organizers and participants in the previous conferences. My task has been easy, and has been greatly aided by the hard work of Kevin Crowston and Cornelia Boldyreff, the Program Committee, as well as the Organizing Team led by Björn Lundell. All of us are also grateful to our attendees, especially in the difficult economic climate of 2009. We hope the participants found the conference valuable both for its technical content and for its personal networking opportunities. To me, it is interesting to look back over the past five years, not just at this conference, but at the development and acceptance of open source software. Since 2004, the business and commercial side of open source has grown enormously. At that time, there were only a handful of open source businesses, led by RedHat and its Linux distribution. Companies such as MySQL and JBoss were still quite small.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Keynote Speakers

Open Source Is Changing the Way Work Gets Done

Open source software is changing not only the way the software industry works, but also the way work gets done. In the open source software model, individuals and companies collaborate together to produce software. They learn new ways of getting work done that are based on meritocracy and little management. In addition, they learn ways of communication that work well across large groups and virtual environments. These new ways of communicating and getting work done are changing the nature of work across all industries, not just the software industry, industries like mobile technology providers and medical equipment. Come learn how the open source software model is changing the way individuals and companies work and collaborate.

Stormy Peters

How Open Source Can Still Save the World

Many of the worlds’ major problems - economic distress, natural disaster responses, broken health care systems, education crises, and more - are not fundamentally information technology issues. However, in every case mentioned and more, there exist opportunities for Open Source software to uniquely change the way we can address these problems. At times this is about addressing a need for which no sufficient commercial market exists. For others, it is in the way Open Source licenses free the recipient from obligations to the creators, creating a relationship of mutual empowerment rather than one of dependency. For yet others, it is in the way the open collaborative processes that form around Open Source software provide a neutral ground for otherwise competitive parties to find a greatest common set of mutual needs to address together rather than in parallel. Several examples of such software exist today and are gaining traction. Governments, NGOs, and businesses are beginning to recognize the potential and are organizing to meet it. How far can this be taken?

Brian Behlendorf

Papers

Domain Drivers in the Modularization of FLOSS Systems

The classification of software systems into types has been achieved in the past by observing both their specifications and behavioral patterns: the SPE classification, for instance, and its further supplements and refinements, has identified the S-type (

i.e.

, fully specified), the P-type (

i.e.

, specified but dependent on the context) and the E-type (

i.e.

, addressing evolving problems) among the software systems.

In order to detect types, and establish similarities, among Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) systems, this paper considers three modular characteristics (functions, files and folders) and their evolution: how they are evolving with size, if they are constant across systems, and whether recurring evolutionary patterns are observed. Using these various-grained characteristics, a set of models for the evolution of modularization are extracted from evolving systems, and then used to extract similarities and types from a wide sample of FLOSS projects.

This paper provides three contributions: first, it shows that several models are needed to encompass the variety of modularization patterns; second, it provides three types of models (uni-variate, bi-variate and tri-variate) for the evolution of modularization, with significant goodness-of-fit’s. Finally, it shows that two of these patterns alone can interpolate the modular characteristics of the vast majority of a random choice of FLOSS projects.

Andrea Capiluppi

Design Evolution of an Open Source Project Using an Improved Modularity Metric

Modularity of an open source software code base has been associated with community growth, incentives for voluntary contribution, and a reduction in free riding. As a theoretical construct, it links open source software to other domains of research, including organization theory, the economics of industry structure, and new product development; however, measuring the modularity of an open source software design has proven difficult, especially for large and complex systems. Building on previous work on Design Structure Matrices (DSMs), this paper describes two contributions towards a method for examining the evolving modularity of large-scale software systems: (1) an algorithm and new modularity metric for comparing code bases of different size; and (2) evolution analysis of Apache Tomcat to illustrate the insights gained from this approach. Over a ten-year period, the modularity of Tomcat continually increased, except in three instances: with each major change to the architecture or implementation, modularity first declined, then increased in the subsequent version to fully compensate for the decline.

Roberto Milev, Steven Muegge, Michael Weiss

Software Engineering in Practice: Design and Architectures of FLOSS Systems

Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) practitioners and developers are typically also users of their own systems: as a result, traditional software engineering (SE) processes (

e.g.

, the requirements and design phases), take less time to articulate and negotiate among FLOSS developers. Design and requirements are kept more as informal knowledge, rather than formally described and assessed. This paper attempts to recover the SE concepts of software design and architectures from three FLOSS case studies, sharing the same application domain (i.e., Instant Messaging). Its first objective is to determine whether a common architecture emerges from the three systems, which can be used as shared knowledge for future applications. The second objective is to determine whether these architectures evolve or decay during the evolution of these systems. The results of this study are encouraging: albeit no explicit effort was done by FLOSS developers to define a high-level view of the architecture, a common shared architecture could be distilled for the Instant Messaging application domain. It was also found that, for two of the three systems, the architecture becomes better organised, and the components better specified, as long as the system evolves in time.

Andrea Capiluppi, Thomas Knowles

Beyond the Business Model: Incentives for Organizations to Publish Software Source Code

The software stack opened under Open Source Software (OSS) licenses is growing rapidly. Commercial actors have released considerable amounts of previously proprietary source code. These actions beg the question why companies choose a strategy based on giving away software assets? Research on outbound OSS approach has tried to answer this question with the concept of the “OSS business model”. When studying the reasons for code release, we have observed that the business model concept is too generic to capture the many incentives organizations have. Conversely, in this paper we investigate empirically what the companies’ incentives are by means of an exploratory case study of three organizations in different stages of their code release. Our results indicate that the companies aim to promote standardization, obtain development resources, gain cost savings, improve the quality of software, increase the trustworthiness of software, or steer OSS communities. We conclude that future research on outbound OSS could benefit from focusing on the heterogeneous incentives for code release rather than on revenue models.

Juho Lindman, Juha-Pekka Juutilainen, Matti Rossi

Opening Industrial Software: Planting an Onion

This paper studies the problem of building open source communities for industrial software that was originally developed as closed source. We present a conceptual framework for planning the early stages of the release process highlighting the main stakeholders and concerns involved. The framework is illustrated by means of three industrial software platforms reporting first experiences of the community building process. In order to measure the effectiveness of the approach, the use of a quantitative and qualitative evaluation framework is advocated.

Petri Sirkkala, Timo Aaltonen, Imed Hammouda

Providing Commercial Open Source Software: Lessons Learned

Even though companies like Sun, IBM, MySQL and others have released several commercial Open Source Software (OSS) products, little evidence exist of how to successfully launch such products and establish a living community around them. This paper presents a case study from a small software company succeeding at establishing a business model and a vivid community around their own OSS products. Based on this case study, the paper presents lessons learned which could help other OSS providers.

Øyvind Hauge, Sven Ziemer

Analysis of Open Source Software Development Iterations by Means of Burst Detection Techniques

A highly efficient bug fixing process and quick release cycles are considered key properties of the open source software development methodology. In this paper, we study the relation between code activities (such as lines of code added per commit), bug fixing activities, and software release dates in a subset of open source projects. To study the phenomenon, we gathered a large data set about the evolution of 5 major open source projects. We compared activities by means of a burst detection technique to discover temporal peaks in time-series. We found quick adaptation of issue tracking activities in proximity of releases, and a distribution of coding activities across releases. Results show the importance of the application type/domain for the evaluation of the development process.

Bruno Rossi, Barbara Russo, Giancarlo Succi

Heartbeat: Measuring Active User Base and Potential User Interest in FLOSS Projects

This paper presents a novel method and algorithm to measure the size of an open source project’s user base and the level of potential user interest that it generates. Previously unavailable download data at a daily resolution confirms hypothesized patterns related to release cycles. In short, regular users rapidly download the software after a new release giving a way to measure the active user base. In contrast, potential new users download the application independently of the release cycle, and the daily download figures tend to plateau at this rate when a release has not been made for some time. An algorithm for estimating these measures from download time series is demonstrated and the measures are examined over time in two open source projects.

Andrea Wiggins, James Howison, Kevin Crowston

Estimating Commit Sizes Efficiently

The quantitative analysis of software projects can provide insights that let us better understand open source and other software development projects. An important variable used in the analysis of software projects is the amount of work being contributed, the commit size. Unfortunately, post-facto, the commit size can only be estimated, not measured. This paper presents several algorithms for estimating the commit size. Our performance evaluation shows that simple, straightforward heuristics are superior to the more complex text-analysis-based algorithms. Not only are the heuristics significantly faster to compute, they also deliver more accurate results when estimating commit sizes. Based on this experience, we design and present an algorithm that improves on the heuristics, can be computed equally fast, and is more accurate than any of the prior approaches.

Philipp Hofmann, Dirk Riehle

The Importance of External Support in the Adoption of Open Source Server Software

IT managers seem to be hesitant to adopt OSS in the absence of professional support. Previous qualitative studies have indeed suggested that the availability of external support is important for the adoption of OSS. Therefore, we feel it is interesting to gain more insight into the role of external support in the adoption process. To this end, we performed a web survey involving 95 Belgian organizations. Our data suggests a balanced picture. As expected, our results show that the majority of organizations in our sample rely on commercial support such as vendor or third party support. Even organizations that have deployed OSS to a large extent—and that are therefore likely to have some experience and familiarity with OSS—rely on commercial support. Nevertheless, a considerable proportion of organizations indicated not to rely on commercial support, which suggests that internal expertise can be sufficient for successful adoption. Finally, and most surprisingly, we have found that the OSS community is used by a large proportion of organizations. This indicates that the OSS community is a valuable source of external support for organizations. Nevertheless, it appears that it is primarily used by organizations with a rather strong background in IT.

Kris Ven, Jan Verelst

Customization of Open Source Software in Companies

Most papers related to Open Source Software (OSS) discuss the development of OSS, licensing issues, and motivations of developers. Research in the area of customization of OSS is rare, however. The process after the deployment of an OSS within a company remains unknown. There is a danger that it is often unstructured and error-prone since OSS develops in a more complex way than proprietary software. Based on our literature study, modifications of open source code do occur also in organizations outside of the software industry. Customization of applications is more common than customization of infrastructure software in these organizations. Therefore, we examine the process of deployment and adaptation of an OSS application software over several update iterations in great detail. This examination shows that this process has similarities with the process of deployment of proprietary software but it also exhibits important differences. Based on this case study, we also suggest a process model for customization of OSS applications in user organizations.

Steffen Keßler, Paul Alpar

Choosing Open Source ERP Systems: What Reasons Are There For Doing So?

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems attract a high attention and open source software does it as well. The question is then if, and if so, when do open source ERP systems take off. The paper describes the status of open source ERP systems. Based on literature review of ERP system selection criteria based on Web of Science articles, it discusses reported reasons for choosing open source or proprietary ERP systems. Last but not least, the article presents some conclusions that could act as input for future research. The paper aims at building up a foundation for the basic question: What are the reasons for an organization to adopt open source ERP systems.

Björn Johansson, Frantisek Sudzina

Reporting Empirical Research in Open Source Software: The State of Practice

Background:

The number of reported empirical studies of Open Source Software (OSS) has continuously been increasing. However, there has been no effort to systematically review the state of the practice of reporting empirical studies of OSS with respect to the recommended standards of performing and reporting empirical studies in software engineering. It is important to understand, how to report empirical studies of OSS in order to make them useful for practitioners and researchers.

Research aim:

The aim of our research is to gain insights in the state of the practice of reporting empirical studies of OSS in order to identify the gaps to be filled for improving the quality of evidence being provided for OSS.

Method:

To that end, we decided to systematically review the empirical studies of OSS. A total of 63 papers reporting empirical studies were selected from the four editions of the Proceedings of the International Conference on Open Source Systems. The data were extracted and synthesised from the selected papers for analysis.

Results and conclusions:

We have found that the quality of the reported OSS-related empirical studies needs to be significantly improved. Based on the results of our systematic review and general principles of reporting good empirical research, we present a set of guidelines for reporting OSS-related empirical studies. The suggested guidelines are expected to help the research community to improve the quality of reported studies.

Klaas-Jan Stol, Muhammad Ali Babar

What Does It Take to Develop a Million Lines of Open Source Code?

This article presents a preliminary and exploratory study of the relationship between size, on the one hand, and effort, duration and team size, on the other, for 11 Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects with current size ranging between between 0.6 and 5.3 million lines of code (MLOC). Effort was operationalised based on the number of active committers per month. The extracted data did not fit well an early version of the closed-source cost estimation model COCOMO for proprietary software, overall suggesting that, at least to some extent, FLOSS communities are more productive than closed-source teams. This also motivated the need for FLOSS-specific effort models. As a first approximation, we evaluated 16 linear regression models involving different pairs of attributes. One of our experiments was to calculate the

net size

, that is, to remove any suspiciously large outliers or jumps in the growth trends. The best model we found involved effort against net size, accounting for 79 percent of the variance. This model was based on data excluding a possible outlier (Eclipse), the largest project in our sample. This suggests that different effort models may be needed for certain categories of FLOSS projects. Incidentally, for each of the 11 individual FLOSS projects we were able to model the net size trends with very high accuracy (

R

2

 ≥ 0.98). Of the 11 projects, 3 have grown superlinearly, 5 linearly and 3 sublinearly, suggesting that in the majority of the cases accumulated complexity is either well controlled or don’t constitute a growth constraining factor.

Juan Fernandez-Ramil, Daniel Izquierdo-Cortazar, Tom Mens

An Empirical Study of the Reuse of Software Licensed under the GNU General Public License

Software licensing is a complex issue in free and open source software (FOSS), specially when it involves the redistribution of derived works. The creation of derivative works created from components with different FOSS licenses poses complex challenges, particularly when one of the components is licensed under the terms of one of the versions of the GNU General Public License (GPL). This paper describes an empirical study of the manner in which GPLed licensed software is combined with components under different FOSS licenses. We have discovered that FOSS software developers have found interesting methods to create derivative works with GPLed software that legally circumvent the apparent restrictions of the GPL. In this paper we document these methods and show that FOSS licenses interact in complex and unexpected ways. In most of these cases the goal of the developers (both licensors and licensees) is to further increase the commons of FOSS.

Daniel M. German, Jesús M. González-Barahona

Quality of Open Source Software: The QualiPSo Trustworthiness Model

Trustworthiness is one of the main issues upon which the decision whether to adopt an Open-Source Software (OSS) product is based. The work described here is part of an activity that has the goals of 1) defining an adequate notion of trustworthiness of software products and artifacts and 2) identifying a number of factors that influence it. Specifically, this paper reports about the identification of the “dimensions” of trustworthiness, i.e., of the high-level qualities that software products and artefacts have to posses in order to be considered trustworthy. These dimensions are described by means of a conceptual model of trustworthiness, which comprises the representation of the factors that affect the user’s perception of trustworthiness, as well as the objective characteristics of the products that contribute to “build” trustworthi-ness. The aforementioned model is equipped with a measurement plan that de-scribes, at the operational level, how to perform the evaluation of the trustwor-thiness of OSS products. The proposed model provides the basis to build quantitative models of the trustworthiness of OSS products and artifacts that are able to explain the relationships between the (objectively observable) characteristics of OSS products and the level of trustworthiness perceived by the users of such products.

Vieri del Bianco, Luigi Lavazza, Sandro Morasca, Davide Taibi

Challenges of the Open Source Component Marketplace in the Industry

The reuse of Open Source Software components available on the Internet is playing a major role in the development of Component Based Software Systems. Nevertheless, the special nature of the OSS marketplace has taken the “classical” concept of software reuse based on centralized repositories to a completely different arena based on massive reuse over Internet. In this paper we provide an overview of the actual state of the OSS marketplace, and report preliminary findings about how companies interact with this marketplace to reuse OSS components. Such data was gathered from interviews in software companies in Spain and Norway. Based on these results we identify some challenges aimed to improve the industrial reuse of OSS components.

Claudia Ayala, Øyvind Hauge, Reidar Conradi, Xavier Franch, Jingyue Li, Ketil Sandanger Velle

A Survey on Firms’ Participation in Open Source Community Projects

The role of firms in commercial Open Source projects (e.g., former MySQL, EnterpriseDB, SugarCRM) is a consolidated and generally accepted fact. On other hand, community Open Source projects, which are built upon communities and not directly associated with firms, are commonly perceived to be based mainly on the work of volunteers. Up to now, firms’ role in these projects has been poorly investigated. We conducted a survey on 1,302

SourceForge.net

projects to inquire about the level and the typology of involvement of firms. We propose three different models for firm participation and provide empirical evidence on their diffusion in

SourceForge.net

.

Eugenio Capra, Chiara Francalanci, Francesco Merlo, Cristina Rossi Lamastra

FLOSS UX Design: An Analysis of User Experience Design in Firefox and OpenOffice.org

We describe two cases of open user experience (UX) design using the Firefox web browser and OpenOffice.org office suite as case studies. We analyze the social complexity of integrating UX practices into the two open source projects using activity awareness, a framework for understanding team performance in collective endeavors of significant scope, duration, and complexity. The facets of activity awareness are common ground, community of practice, social capital, and human development. We found that differences between the communities include different strategies for community building, UX status in the community, type of open UX design, and different ways to share information.

Paula M. Bach, John M. Carroll

Integrating HCI Specialists into Open Source Software Development Projects

Typical open source software (OSS) development projects are organized around technically talented developers, whose communication is based on technical aspects and source code. Decision-making power is gained through proven competence and activity in the project, and non-technical end-user opinions are too many times neglected. In addition, also human-computer interaction (HCI) specialists have encountered difficulties in trying to participate in OSS projects, because there seems to be no clear authority and responsibility for them. In this paper, based on HCI and OSS literature, we introduce an extended OSS development project organization model that adds a new level of communication and roles for attending human aspects of software. The proposed model makes the existence of HCI specialists visible in the projects, and promotes interaction between developers and the HCI specialists in the course of a project.

Henrik Hedberg, Netta Iivari

A Survey of Usability Practices in Free/Libre/Open Source Software

A review of case studies about usability in eight Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects showed that an important issue regarding a usability initiative in the project was the lack of user research. User research is a key component in the user-centered design (UCD) process and a necessary step for creating usable products. Reasons why FLOSS projects suffered from a lack of user research included poor or unclear project leadership, cultural differences between developer and designers, and a lack of usability engineers. By identifying these critical issues, the FLOSS usability community can begin addressing problems in the efficacy of usability activities and work towards creating more usable FLOSS products.

Celeste Lyn Paul

Reassessing Brooks’ Law for the Free Software Community

Proponents of Free Software have argued that some of the most established software engineering principles do not fully apply when considered in an open, distributed approach. Among these principles, “Brooks’ Law” has been questioned in the Free Software context: large teams of developers, contrary to the law, will not need an increasingly growing number of communication channels. As advocates claim, this is due to the internal characteristics of the Free Software process: the high modularity of the code helps developers to work on comparted sections, without the need to coordinate with all other contriutors.

This paper examines Brooks’ Law in a Free Software context, and it studies the interaction of contributors to a large Free Software project, KDE. The network of interactions is analyzed and a summary term, the “compaction”, is dynamically evaluated to test how the coordination mechanism evolves over time in the project. This paper argues that the claim of advocates holds true, but with limitations: in the KDE project, the few initial developers needed a significant amount of communication. The growth of KDE brought the need to break the number of overall communication channels to a significant extent. Finally, an established amount of 300 developers currently needs the same amount of communication as when the developers were only 10. We interpret this result by arguing that Brooks’ Law holds true among the core developers of any large Free Software project.

Andrea Capiluppi, Paul J. Adams

“Peeling the Onion”

The Words and Actions That Distinguish Core from Periphery in Bug Reports and How Core and Periphery Interact Together

According to the now widely accepted “onion-model” of the organization of open source software development, an open source project typically relies on a core of developers that is assisted by a larger periphery of users. But what does the role of the periphery consist of? Raymond’s Linus’s Law which states that “given enough eyeballs all bugs are shallow” suggests at least one important function: the detection of defects. Yet, what are the ways through which core and periphery interact with each other? With the help of text-mining methods, we study the treatment of bugs that affected the Firefox Internet browser as reflected in the discussions and actions recorded in Mozilla’s issue tracking system Bugzilla. We find various patterns in the modes of interactions between core and peripheral members of the community. For instance, core members seem to engage more frequently with the periphery when the latter proposes a solution (a patch). This leads us to conclude that Alan Cox’s dictum “show me the code”, perhaps even more than Linus’s law, seems to be the dominant rule that governs the development of software like Firefox.

Héla Masmoudi, Matthijs den Besten, Claude de Loupy, Jean-Michel Dalle

Group Maintenance Behaviors of Core and Peripherial Members of Free/Libre Open Source Software Teams

Group Maintenance is pro-social, discretionary, and relation-building behavior that occurs between members of groups in order to maintain reciprocal trust and cooperation. This paper considers how Free/libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) teams demonstrate such behaviors within the context of e-mail, as this is the primary medium through which such teams communicate. We compare group maintenance behaviors between both core and peripheral members of these groups, as well as behaviors between a group that remains producing software today and one which has since dissolved. Our findings indicate that negative politeness tactics (those which show respect for the autonomy of others) may be the most instrumental group maintenance behaviors that contribute to a FLOSS group’s ability to survive and continue software production.

Michael J. Scialdone, Na Li, Robert Heckman, Kevin Crowston

What Constitutes Open Source? A Study of the Vista Electronic Medical Record Software

Strictly speaking, Open Source Software is any program that is covered by an Open Source Software license. However, the notion of Open Source Software Development conjures images of high-quality, market dominating products developed by armies of volunteer programmers, who work only for the joy of programming. Certainly, banner projects like Apache, the Linux kernel, and Mozilla/Firefox resemble this notion, even if they do employ significant numbers of paid programmers.

This paper examines three Open Source Software projects related to the Vista Electronic Medical Record system developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and released to the public domain. While all three claim to be “Open Source” projects, there is considerable deviation from the strong community-oriented model that Linux, Apache, and Mozilla represent.

John Noll

Openness to Standard Document Formats in Swedish Public Sector Organisations

There is a strong movement in Europe to promote products that support open, well-documented standards. Directives and proposals at European and national levels have been developed in this area. There is in particular an increasing recognition of the need for governmental organisations to support and promote standard document formats. This vision can stand in stark contrast with the reality of those document formats which can currently be accepted and produced by those organisations. In this paper we address the question: to what extent can and do Swedish governmental organisations respond appropriately when presented with a document in a format that conforms to an open standard? We find that a small minority of organisations can actually do so, whereas all are willing and able to accept documents in a proprietary format. The study also highlights a lack of transparency in organisations regarding formats which should be accepted and used for communication with the general public.

Björn Lundell, Brian Lings

Using FLOSS Project Metadata in the Undergraduate Classroom

This paper describes our efforts to use the large amounts of data available from public repositories of free, libre, and open source software (FLOSS) in our undergraduate classrooms to teach concepts that would have previously been taught using other types of data from other sources.

Megan Squire, Shannon Duvall

Undergraduate Research Opportunities in OSS

Using Open Source Software (OSS) in undergraduate teaching in universities is now commonplace. Students use OSS applications and systems in their courses on programming, operating systems, DBMS, web development to name but a few. Studying OSS projects from both a product and a process view also forms part of the software engineering curriculum at various universities. Many students have taken part in OSS projects as well as developers.

At the University of Lincoln, under the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Scheme (UROS), undergraduate student researchers have the chance to work over the summer embedded within an existing research centre on a UROS project. Here two such projects within the Centre for Research in Open Source Software (CROSS) are described: Collaborative Development for the XO Laptop (CODEX) and Software Modularity in Open Source Software (SoMOSS). The CODEX project focused on creating resources to support students undertaking software application development for the XO laptop, and the SoMOSS project focused on architectural studies of OSS instant messaging software.

Both projects achieved successful research outcomes; more importantly, both student researchers benefited directly from the encouragement and concrete assistance that they received through interaction with the wider OSS research community. Both projects are ongoing and present further research opportunities for students.

Cornelia Boldyreff, Andrea Capiluppi, Thomas Knowles, James Munro

Workshops

4th International Workshop on Public Data about Software Development

Libre (free, open source) projects offer publicly available data sources. The research community is starting to produce, use and exchange large data sets of information. These data sets have to be retrieved, purged, described, and can be published for public consumption by other groups. Their availability allows for the decoupling of research activities, the reproducibility of research results, and even the collaboration (and competition) in the analysis of data.

This activity is frequently presented at workshops and conferences, but since the focus of these conferences is not specific to the use of public data, discussions of techniques and experiences are not as deep and fruitful as they could be. This workshop is once again (for the fourth year in a row) such a place. We will host discussions specifically about these sorts of public data sets about software development, how they are retrieved, how they can be analyzed and mined, how they can be exchanged and extended.

Jesús M. González-Barahona, Megan Squire, Daniel Izquierdo-Cortázar

First International Workshop on Building Sustainable Open Source Communities (OSCOMM 2009)

The First International Workshop on Building Sustainable Open Source Communities aims at building a community of researchers and practitioners to share experiences and discuss challenges involved in building and maintaining open source communities.

Imed Hammouda, Timo Aaltonen, Andrea Capiluppi

1st International Workshop on: ‘Designing for Participatory Learning’ Building from Open Source Success to Develop Free Ways to Share and Learn

The Open Source world shows how volunteer collaboration can lead to great products and to great learning. We want to further explore at this workshop what happens using approaches from that community to break barriers between teachers and learners for today’s Internet-savvy young people to design and co-construct sites for participatory learning. The aim of this workshop is to explore the barriers for this type of learning in higher education settings. Content creation, knowledge exchange, community dynamics, and the impact on the boundary between formal and informal education are key subjects of this workshop.

Andreas Meiszner, Ioannis Stamelos, Sulayman K. Sowe

A Joint Workshop of QACOS and OSSPL

The OSS movement, which originated from a pragmatic need to share code among individuals, has grown to become a major force behind inter-organizational reuse of platforms, components and code. The use of open source software to build single or family of systems (i.e., product line development) appears to be a profitable way to quality software products. On the other hand, because of the diverse use of open source software, product line development is an attractive way of working in open source communities. The configuration mechanisms used in open source communities may be applicable within software product lines variability management. In addition, product line organizations are usually involved in distributed development, which works very efficiently within open source communities, leading to high quality products. However, at present, there is limited interaction between the open source and product line development communities.

Muhammad Ali Babar, Björn Lundell, Frank van der Linden

NESSI OSS Workshop

The NESSI Technology Platform aims to provide a unified view for European research and development in Services Architectures and Software Infrastructures that will define technologies for new, open, industrial solutions and societal applications that enhance the safety, security and well-being of citizens.

Workshop – Serious Games and Open Source: Practice and Futures

Computer games are increasingly used throughout our society with people playing on the bus, at home and at work. Computer games thus affect larger and larger number of people and areas in the society of today. There are even scholars who advocate that games create better environments for learning than traditional classrooms. This situation motivates the use of games and game technology for additional purposes, e.g. education, training, health care or marketing.

Per Backlund, Björn Lundell, Walt Scacchi

Posters

Assurance Evaluation for OSS Adoption in a Telco Context

Software Assurance (SwA) is a complex concept that involves different stages of a software development process and may be defined differently depending on its focus, as for instance software quality, security, or dependability. In Computer Science, the term assurance is referred to all activities necessary to provide enough confidence that a software product will satisfy its users’ functional and non-functional requirements.

Claudio A. Ardagna, Massimo Banzi, Ernesto Damiani, Nabil El Ioini, Fulvio Frati

Assessing FLOSS Communities: An Experience Report from the QualOSS Project

This paper presents work done in the QualOSS (Quality of Open Source Software) research project,which aims at building a methodology and tools to help in the assessment of the quality of FLOSS (free, libre, open source software) endeavors. In particular, we introduce the research done to evaluate the FLOSS endeavor communities. Following the Goal-Question-Metric paradigm, QUALOSS describes goals, the associated questions and then metrics that allow to answer the questions.

Daniel Izquierdo-Cortazar, Gregorio Robles, Jesús M. González-Barahona, Jean-Christophe Deprez

Release Mismanagement in Open Source

To a user, unreleased software is nonexistent software, even in open source projects which make the source code readily accessible. Every project requires regular software releases to encourage adoption and attract developers. Different projects approach the task of releasing software in variousways [2], and many experience breakdowns in their release process at some point during their evolution [3]. This poster presents examples of these instances, and how projects are learning from and improving upon them.

Hyrum K. Wright, Dewayne E. Perry

Libre Software in Spanish Public Administrations

Libre software started to be used in Public Administrations in Spain during the 1990s, in some isolated but interesting experiences.During the early 2000s, and specially in some regional governments, libre software started to be considered as an integral part of ITrelated policies. In 2007, it was evident that many experiences related to libre software were running in Public Administrations with different levels of success. However, no study had looked into the details of these experiences, and no comprehensive analysis had been performed to better understand the different factors that affect them.

Felipe Ortega, Isabel Lafuente, Jose Gato, Jesús M. González-Barahona

The Case Study of an F/OSS Virtualization Platform Deployment and Quantitative Results

In this paper we present practical experiences and results from the deployment of an F/OSS virtualization platform. EKT’s (NDC) core IT infrastructure was transformed to a virtualized one, using exclusively F/OSS, while severe budget and timing constraints were in place. This migration was initiated in order to better cope with EKT’s services requirements, while accommodating at the same time the need for the in house development of a large scale open access infrastructure. The benefits derived from this migration were not only generic virtualization benefits, such as the quantifiable reduced power consumption and cost reduction through consolidation, but also F/OSS virtualization specific ones.

Panagiotis Stathopoulos, Alexandros Soumplis, Nikos Houssos

Panels

Panel: Open Source in the Public Sector

Open Source Software (OSS) is becoming mainstream, and it is perhaps not surprising that public sector organisations seek to explore the potential of OSS in financially difficult times. Today, OSS has become an issue of strategic importance for many public sector organisations. In addition, related to OSS, many organisations and governments are also acknowledging Open Standards as important for addressing various lock-in scenarios.

Björn Lundell, Morten Amundsen, Rishab Aiyer Ghosh, Jean-Luc Hardy, Per-Ola Sjöswärd

Panel: Governance in Open Source Projects and Communities

“Although considerable research has been devoted to the growth and expansion of open source communities and the comparison between the efficiency of corporate structures and community structures in the field of software development, rather less attention has been paid to their governance structures (control, monitoring, supervision)” (Lattemann and Stieglitz 2005).

Francesco Bolici, Paul de Laat, Jan Ljungberg, Andrea Pontiggia, Cristina Rossi Lamastra

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