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About this book

This book explores how enterprises adapt to challenges in their business environments. It focuses on the critical elements within organisations that every executive must address in order to remain competitive. It takes a pluralist approach in trying to broaden our knowledge on organisational adaptations. It also offers an exploratory delve into existing literature of organisational study. This is biased for content, context and process framework and processual analytic approach in order to identify, determine, understand the intricacies of adaptations going on in various business organisations. The book also includes a case study of how Kodak and Fujifilm responded to digitalisation of photographic film industry, which is an example of major adaptation change. Many global brands are often contending with similar issues and real life challenges. Simply put, today’s business environment demands a new way of doing business that challenges brand’s existing core business philosophy.
Organisations are ‘individual’ entities in their own rights. Businesses have devised ways of surviving their environments. They do this by downsizing, merger and acquisition, business ecosystems, other forms of collaborations and strategic alliances. While this is true, current research works into generic predictors and/or concepts that enhance the transformation process are scarce. It is particularly important to align the theories and concepts of organisational adaptations with realities in the business environment. This book delves deep and explains adaptations in organisations, but also offers insight for how executives can adapt and thrive in their dynamic business environments.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

This chapter presents an organisation as a business entity containing various components and perspectives that continuously interact with one another and the environment. By nature, organisations are complex systems as they consist of individuals, teams and business units that interact with one another through feedback mechanisms. This implies holding a single view of the organisation is tantamount to having a myopic view of the firm. This will be detrimental to understanding the intricacies and important factors that help constitute and influence not only organisational performance but also its survival. In instances, where the key components/factors are not considered or known to influence the survival of the organisation or the firm, the management risks the chance of being outperformed and become extinct particularly in a dynamic business environment.
Oluwaseun E. Adegbite, Antonis C. Simintiras, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Kemefasu Ifie

Chapter 2. The Organisation Business Environment

Business does not operate in vacuum. It operates in the ambit of environment. Organisation environment has been described as the aggregate of tangible and intangible factors that impact on the decision-making behaviours of individuals in the organisations (Duncan, 1972; Fahey & Narayanan, 1986; Frishammar, 2006; Rosenzweig & Singh, 1991).
"These [organisations] systems change and reorganize their component parts to adapt themselves to the problems posed by their surroundings. This is the main reason the systems are difficult to understand and control. They constitute a 'moving target'. [Holland, 1992:18, emphasis added]
Oluwaseun E. Adegbite, Antonis C. Simintiras, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Kemefasu Ifie

Chapter 3. Organisational Concepts and Theories of Adaptation

An extensive theoretical inquiry into existing body of knowledge applicable to organisational adaptations will provide a robust platform in broadening our understanding of the key issues in organisational adaptations. A pluralistic approach is adopted in the course of this inquiry. Adopting a pluralistic approach provides a unique opportunity of reviewing relevant organisational theories that help expand our scholarly understanding of this important organisational concept. This is very important because organisational adaptation being a multifaceted phenomenon demands a multisided approach to aid understanding.
Oluwaseun E. Adegbite, Antonis C. Simintiras, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Kemefasu Ifie

Chapter 4. Adaptive Behaviour Paradigms

This chapter highlights the conceptualisation and importance of adaptive behaviour paradigms (ABPs). Paradigm connotes an implicit or explicit view of reality (Morgan, 1980); it is a ‘way of seeing’ (Morgan, 1979:137). An important way of viewing the organisation is by identifying its inherent characteristics. By nature behavioural aspect of organisation is prominent and important in the consideration of any organisational concept (Cyert & March, 1963). Based on this assertion, we posit adaptive behaviour paradigms as way(s) of viewing basic constituents of organisational adaptation. Also, paradigmatic analysis is a generic method of analysing any subject or field of study (Farhoomand, 1987; Hazlett, McAdam, & Gallagher, 2005). The reasons for undertaking a paradigmatic approach in this monograph are the following:
1.
To facilitate the comprehension of many perspectives associated with organisational adaptations
 
2.
To generate possible integrated interdisciplinary research directions
 
3.
To provide a basis for analytical examination of various components of organisational adaptation
 
4.
To aid the development of a firm foundation for the design of organisational adaptation processes and approaches
 
Oluwaseun E. Adegbite, Antonis C. Simintiras, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Kemefasu Ifie

Chapter 5. Dynamic Capabilities: Drivers of Organisational Adaptations

'Dynamic capabilities contrast with ordinary (or operational) capabilities by being concerned with change’ (Winter, 2003:992). A lot has been written on this important concept. For instance, a search performed on Google Scholar for keywords ‘dynamic capabilities’ generated 2.76 million scholarly work within 0.07 s! Dynamic capabilities have been studied with different approaches by scholars from different research backgrounds. Additionally, scholars with varying focal interest and disciplinary training have applied the concept of dynamic capabilities in their research. This might explain why there is no consensus definition for the concept. However, some early studies that have significant influence in this field of research include the works of Nelson and Winter (1982), Eisenhardt and Martin (2000), Zollo and Winter (2002), Helfat and Peteraf (2003), Teece (2007) and Teece, Pisano and Shuen (1997). Also dynamic capabilities have been applied in various disciplines; some of these include marketing (Bruni & Verona, 2009), sales (Guenzi, Sajtos, & Troilo, 2016), entrepreneurship (Acıkdilli & Ayhan, 2013), service innovation (Kindström, Kowalkowski, & Sandberg, 2013), business network and relationships (Mitrega, Forkmann, Ramos, & Henneberg, 2012) and supply chain (Rai, Patnayakuni, & Seth, 2006).
Oluwaseun E. Adegbite, Antonis C. Simintiras, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Kemefasu Ifie

Chapter 6. Adaptations in Management Studies and Methodological Approaches in Adaptations

In the preceding chapters, we have examined the business environment, relevant theories, concepts, and their implications in organisational adaptations. We have also examined the inherent adaptive behaviour paradigms and dynamic capabilities including their roles in adaptation processes. This present chapter is divided into three sections. In Sect. 1, we examine forms and types of adaptations in various fields of management. Under Sect. 2, the relevance and suitability of content, context, process (CCP) and processual analysis in organisational adaptations are discussed. This section offers a general overview of content, context and process (CCP) framework, processual analysis and case study method. Lastly in Sect. 3, we review series of market dynamics in the photographic industry from 1960 to 2016 and how firms in the industry have managed to adapt to the changes particularly the challenge of technology discontinuity. Two reputable photographic firms, namely, Kodak and Fujifilm, are examined in the light of the earlier conceptualised adaptive behaviour paradigms. We based our analysis on Pettigrew’s content, context, process (CCP) framework; processual analysis; and case study method to show the application of these methods in practice.
Oluwaseun E. Adegbite, Antonis C. Simintiras, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Kemefasu Ifie

Chapter 7. Summing Up Organisational Adaptations

A lot has been discussed about organisational adaptations in the preceding chapters. Each chapter has expounded new insight about adaptations in organisations. We did this primarily to further our scholarly understanding of organisational adaptations through the lens of pluralism. Our view and call for pluralistic perspective is to articulate a panoramic view of the organisation and its environment. We hope this perspective will lead to a broadened, elaborate, relevant and expanded insight into firm and its environment than what a single perspective offers. This is beneficial to practitioners and academia in the sense that sole reliance upon singular perspective or theory might lead to the application of strategies, business models and solutions that are too narrow on a practical level or too weak to effect the desired change (Frishammar, 2006). Adaptation being a complex firm concept necessitates a multi-paradigm perspective for good understanding of the problem and to be better positioned to offer the most appropriate solution.
Oluwaseun E. Adegbite, Antonis C. Simintiras, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Kemefasu Ifie

Backmatter

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