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Published in: Journal of Business and Psychology 3/2022

06-10-2021 | Original Paper

Organizational Benefits of Onboarding Contingent Workers: an Anchoring Model Approach

Authors: Claire E. Smith, Russell A. Matthews, Maura J. Mills, Yeong-Hyun Hong, Stacy Sim

Published in: Journal of Business and Psychology | Issue 3/2022

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Abstract

Organizations rarely invest in contingent employees, at least relative to the human resources efforts commonly afforded to permanent workers — but should they? Traditional social exchange theory suggests that motivation and loyalty should be difficult to cultivate in short-term, fixed-term relationships like contingent employment. However, a novel social exchange model (i.e., the anchoring model) suggests that socioemotional exchange relationships can develop quickly in response to highly salient “anchoring events.” We position employee onboarding as a positive anchoring event that can quickly and durably drive contingent workers’ socioemotional exchange in the form of work engagement, self-reported task performance, and intent to return to the employing organization. Specifically, we develop and test a temporally grounded process model based on the three proposed stages of the anchoring model. Our model was supported across two studies, an initial cross-sectional evaluation of the basic model within a heterogenous sample of contingent workers (n = 121), followed by a three-wave evaluation of the more detailed process model among an organizational sample of seasonal workers (n = 378). Findings provide evidence that the anchoring model, including the expanded framework developed here, explains contingent workers’ attitudinal and behavioral responses to human resources initiatives in a way that traditional organizational theories have not fully achieved. Finally, recommendations for effectively managing contingent workers, through onboarding as well as through other efforts such as training and development, are also discussed.
Footnotes
1
A preliminary four-factor confirmatory factor analysis was conducted, with one latent factor for each construct, with items as indicators. While full result available upon request, the model demonstrated modest fit [χ2(84) = 171.19, p < .001, CFI = .90, RMSEA = .09, SRMR = .08]. Review of the results suggest there was significant residual error between two of the onboarding effectiveness items. Allowing these two items to covary resulted in a good fitting model [χ2(83) = 128.48, p < .001, CFI = .95, RMSEA = .07, SRMR = .06], and one that fit the data significantly better than the initial model [Δχ2(1) = 42.71, p < .01]. All items loaded at .64 or above on their respective latent factor.
 
2
At the request of the organization, new seasonal hires onboarded since time 1 were also invited to participate (but were not included in analyses).
 
3
Supplementary data analyses using a convenience sample (N = 215) recruited through MTurk suggest that the six-item measure used correlates highly (r = .94, p < .001) with the three-item measure used in study 1 (additional details available upon request).
 
4
A preliminary measurement model (i.e., seven-factor confirmatory factor analysis) was conducted, with one latent factor for each construct, with items as indicators. While full result available upon request, the model demonstrated good fit [χ2(329) = 601.35, p < .001, CFI = .96, RMSEA = .05, SRMR = .06]. All items loaded at .48 or above on their respective latent factor.
 
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Metadata
Title
Organizational Benefits of Onboarding Contingent Workers: an Anchoring Model Approach
Authors
Claire E. Smith
Russell A. Matthews
Maura J. Mills
Yeong-Hyun Hong
Stacy Sim
Publication date
06-10-2021
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Journal of Business and Psychology / Issue 3/2022
Print ISSN: 0889-3268
Electronic ISSN: 1573-353X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-021-09757-0

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