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About this book

This volume highlights current research and developments on organizations and (their) performance against the background of ubiquitous complexity. It investigates some of the challenges and trends dominating the complex world of nowadays and the ways organizations are dealing with them in their continuous search for performance. The papers in the volume cover a series of hot and/or emerging topics (i.e. sustainable development, corporate social responsibility, green marketing, digital revolution, social media, global trade, intangible assets, economic intelligence and innovation).
Built on an interdisciplinary perspective and a multi-level approach―global (trade, power, sustainable development), regional (EU, BRICS), national (country-based systems, cultures, policies, practices), industry (airlines, pharma, luxury, retailing, banking, tourism), local (communities, destinations), and organization (entrepreneurship, MNEs, public organizations: national and local)―the volume uniquely addresses issues of high interest for researchers, practitioners and policymakers.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

The Dynamics of the Stock Exchange Investments After Publishing Financial Reports by the Bucharest Stock Exchange Listed Companies

The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the cognitive value of the annual financial reports. We want to see how investor behavior changes in relation to the information published in these reports. In this respect, we chose to analyze the first five most traded listed companies on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BVB). Certainly, investors, regardless of the stock they trade, act differently. Everyone uses his/her own calculation mode by applying different interpretations to the financial indicators or may consider differently which information is more or less relevant. However, investors can share common goals and values, central behaviors and decisions that lead to a “profit-making” universal goal. Starting from the premise that the investment decision is not a simple process of buying an object, we believe that investors need to develop complex analyzes based on the data provided by the financial reports made transparent by the companies.

Paul-Gheorghe Băhnean, Ovidiu Constantin Bunget

Identifying the Optimum Social Site that Could Serve eLearning Purposes: A Preliminary Analysis

Nowadays, an increasingly attractive research domain is represented by the integration of eLearning systems with the Social Media tools. However, identifying the proper Social Media platform to serve educational purposes could be an extremely hard task, mainly due to the variations from platform to platform. Thus, the first aim of this article is to identify the optimum typology that could be successfully integrated with eLearning systems. Moving forward, a classification of the top 20 most popular Social Media sites at global level in terms of their main objectives will be required in order to asses a specific typology of each of this. Thereafter, we propose a preliminary model of comparison among the Social Media sites that comply with the identified typology. The process consists in analyzing the main perspectives on these sites, by discussing some established key points and classifying the platforms by their capacity to serve educational purposes.

Ioana Andreea Bogoslov, Radu Mircea Georgescu

Dark Spots in Trade Theory: Early Testing Attempts

The beginnings of the economic theory correspond to philosophers’ attempts to explain why and how do countries trade with each other. Yet even more puzzling was the question how should countries trade? It is no surprise that despite the formidable developments of the theory in the last 200 years plus, there still are dark spots in the economics of trade. Globalization has rendered the issue even murkier. Beside the fact that international trade cannot be insulated from other economic domains, which makes it inadequate for experiments, but even testing itself is cumbersome. Only, evidence on such a complex field as international trade is by no means easy to come by.

Sorin Burnete

Specialized Applications Used in the Mobile Application Security Implementation Process

In the paper, authors aim to determine the extent to which open source applications can replace specialized security applications for mobile applications. In this respect, open source components are selected at which level the implemented security features are identified, based on which a completeness-determining indicator is calculated. The value of this indicator is then compared to the value obtained for the .NET CF3 framework, with a hierarchy of the components being treated according to this indicator. Based on the same selected components or components derived from them, to which other components have been added, the issue of ensuring their quality is dealt with by calculating the complexity of each.

Marian Pompiliu Cristescu, Julian Andreev Vasilev

The Impact of Cultural Orientation on the Societal Motivations of Luxury Good Consumption of IT Professionals in Sri Lanka

The primary objective of the study is to examine the impact of cultural orientation on the societal motivations of luxury good consumption of IT professionals in Sri Lanka. Thus, the study has used a sample of 103 IT practitioners in Sri Lanka. Correlation and regression analysis have been used to achieve the primary objectives. Consequently, among the four independent variables; horizontal individualism, vertical individualism, horizontal collectivism and vertical collectivism, only vertical individualism has a significant and positive relationship towards the societal motivation of luxury good consumption. The other variables have negative none significant relationship towards social luxury good consumption. Regression analysis concludes that only vertical individualism is a significant predictor of social luxury good consumption motivation of IT professionals. The other variables are not significant predictors.

L. D. A. D. Dissanayake

EMS Implementation: A Theoretical Process Design Approach

The organizational sustainability orientation represents the current context need to sustain the future. Hence all the organizational process must integrate a sustainable behavior—that could be fulfilled by implementing an Environmental management system (EMS). The organizational processes identification is not an automatic procedure, but an approach to interpret the company operation. The integration regarding a predefined activity set in a certain process is a choice based on phenomenon monitoring and not on the phenomenon objective existence. Likewise, to implement an EMS through a process perspective it’s very complicated because the literature is limited regarding information’s/knowledge associated with this correlation. Therefore, the main research objective is to develop/propose a theoretical framework regarding the EMS implementation seen as an organizational complex process.

Ionuț Viorel Herghiligiu, Ioan-Bogdan Robu

Information Areas in Logistics Supply Chain Management

Proper identification of information needs in logistics activities contributes to the improvement of both the entire logistics supply chain and its individual links. The importance of information in logistics processes is increasing. We are dealing with the growing pace of the information process itself. The effects of proper management of logistics information are visible especially in such areas as: inventory management, storage or distribution. Information flows are an integral part of any logistics supply chain. The article presents selected results of research on information areas important for the functioning and management of the logistics supply chain, implemented in enterprises in southern Poland. Empirical research was performed on the basis of anonymous data obtained from surveys addressed to selected 53 companies functioning in supply chains as chain links. The questionnaire form was addressed individually to the staff responsible for management in over 900 companies in 2017–2018. Fifty-three complete surveys were included as the basis for empirical research.

Marta Kadłubek

Measuring Female Entrepreneurs’ Happiness from Online Feedback

Entrepreneurship provides an important solution to the unemployment problem. This is also very important in economic growth. It has financial, psychological and social risks while taking the situation into consideration. In addition, women’s participation in the work force has a vital importance in Turkey’s national income. Nearly 8.5% of women are in management, or in decision-making positions. It is important to measure happiness of these female workforce in order to understand and manage their feelings. Our previous study investigated successful women happiness and ideas about being entrepreneurial women in Turkey to discover the factors of the happy women entrepreneurs’ success in business life.In this research, depending from the previous study, we measure Turkish women entrepreneurs’ happiness by using the Turkish happiness dictionary, which was developed a set of normative emotional ratings for the Turkish language and culture. We re-collect 26 Turkish successful women entrepreneurs’ online feedback by using the extracted categories of women entrepreneurs from a different 3rd party organization. Natural language processing methods and text mining are used. We automatically measure the average happiness of each feedback of a woman and the average happiness of Turkish successful female entrepreneurs. In addition, we cluster scores according to categories which present the common factors contributing to the success of happy female entrepreneurs.

Esra Kahya Ozyirmidokuz, Kumru Uyar, Eduard Alexandru Stoica

Modelling of Population Consumption in Conditions of Instability

The analysis of consumption plays an important role in both macroeconomic theory and empirical research. The matter of macroeconomic instability is one of the main points in modern macroeconomics. The tasks of the paper are: to reveal the essence of the population consumption as an economic category; to assess consumer attitudes in different countries, to determine the number of factors that affect the level of consumption and its structural elements under instability; and to construct the models of population consumption patterns. The analysis of the changes in consumer attitudes over the world during the period of instability was conducted. We observed the dynamics and structure of household consumption spending in the United States, Canada, Japan, the European Union, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. It has been resolved that over the past few years the global trend has improved, which is characterized by an increase in the consumer confidence index for most countries. We made a focus on the post-crisis period only for Ukraine, not considering the war period due to missed data. Nevertheless, we found out that the Consumer Confidence Index in Ukraine has dropped sharply over the past two years. Ukrainians still negatively assess the economic trend due to the difficult macroeconomic situation in the country. We built the models of the dependence of the consumption growth rate on the permanent and temporary incomes growth rate, the rate of inflation and the percentage deviation from the long-term equilibrium in the period of instability based on the samples for the United States, Canada, Japan, the Russian Federation and European countries.

Ganna Kharlamova, Andriy Stavytskyy, Oleksandr Chernyak

Organizational Commitment and Entrepreneurial Intentions Among Employed Persons: Serbian Case

The paper presents the results of the study of the impact of dimensions of organizational commitment on individual entrepreneurial orientation dimensions, achievement dimension and the theory of planned behaviour dimensions. Respondents were wage-employed persons in organizations in Serbia. The sample included 540 respondents, out of 72 organizations. It has been shown that all three dimensions of organizational commitment have a statistically significant and negative impact on entrepreneurial intentions, with the strongest negative impact being the dimension of Organizational Loyalty. Likewise, regression analysis has shown that the dimension Organizational Loyalty assumes a predictive effect and that the effect of this dimension is statistically significant and negative. Thus, there is a strong negative link between the dimension Organizational loyalty with the dimension Subjective norm, attitude towards entrepreneurship, proactivity and need for achievement dimension. Organizational Identification dimension has a statistically significant and positive predictive effect on the dimensions Innovation and Subjective norm and the dimension Organizational involvement has a statistically significant and positive predictive effect on the dimensions Proactivity and Need for achievement.

Predrag Mali, Edit Terek, Milan Nikolić

Considerations on Financial Technology and the Impact on Financial System

As a result of digital evolution, business innovations have had a strong impact on economic growth. This paper aims to highlight the influence of technological developments, and especially the impact that financial technology has had and/or it will have on the financial system. The first part of the paper focuses on the main developments of financial system. Further, I introduced the notion of FinTech and the impact that this technology has on financial system, followed by an analysis of the benefits and risks implied. Understanding the threats and opportunities brought by FinTech to the financial sector is essential, especially from central bank’s point of view which needs to protect the interests of society, as well as the financial stability and macroeconomic stability. Even though it is currently unlikely that virtual coins will overwhelm sovereign currency, this hypothesis is not excluded, and it is necessary for the central banks to pay more attention to these issues.

Monica-Ionelia Mărgărit

Does the National Cultural Dimensions Influence on the Economic Freedom?

For the last two years the authors researched the influence of the national cultural dimensions on the economic development of the country. In their works they studied the influence of the national mentality on the efficiency of the import of the securities market institutional support. They modeled the connection between the indicators of the economic freedom and the national mentality dimensions using the correlation and regression analysis; determined the country place on the world mentality map. This Paper is continuation of the authors’ previous researches. On the one hand, using the correlation analysis the authors proved the hypothesis of the presence of the connection between the index of economic freedom and national cultural dimensions (after Hofstede). On the other hand, they proved it between some indicators of the economic freedom and national cultural dimensions (after Hofstede) using the program Curve Fitting Toolbox (Mathlab). The analysis was done using 19 indicators from 35 European countries: 6 indicators of the national cultural dimension and 13 indicators of economic freedom. This research helped to find out, which indicators of the national cultural dimensions can influence on the development of economic freedom in the country. The authors managed to confirm the calculations carried out in the previous study, as well as to receive new insights. In a further search for the answer to the question “How can the nation’s mentality affect the level of economic freedom in the country?” the authors plan to study deeper the mental characteristics of the nation, in particular to test the mental performance of S. Schwartz, C. Hampden-Turner, F. Trompenaars.

Zoriana Matsuk, Vira Shyiko

Evaluation of the Economic Values of the Heritage Buildings in the Historical Center of Bucharest Municipality

Heritage buildings have a certain economic value that overlaps with socio-cultural values. The aim of the study is to evaluate the economic values of use and non-use of heritage buildings of the historical center of Bucharest Municipality. Methodologically, assessing the economic value of the heritage is complex and difficult. For the elaboration of the study, the contingent valuation method was used to evaluate the non-used economic value. At the same time, indicators related to real estate values and to the use of heritage properties in the study area were selected to assess their economic value. The preliminary results show higher prices of the real estate values of the historical buildings. On the other hand, it is noticed that the reuse of heritage buildings is strongly influenced by the development of the cultural tourism in the historic center of the capital city (trade, tourism and cultural services).

Florentina-Cristina Merciu, Andreea-Loreta Cercleux, George-Laurențiu Merciu, George Secăreanu

Economic Intelligence: Using Innovation to Reinvent the Business

This paper is about showing how economic intelligence could be a tool for relevant innovation decision support and how its integration within the firm can strengthen its innovation capabilities, protect itself from competitors and ensure an essential competitive edge. Innovation is a difficult concept to identify. It’s a complex process that involves all of the firm’s behaviors. Innovation is a decisive choice and risk-taking. Today, it holds a prominent place in corporate strategy. Innovative firms need information about their environments that are characterized by stiffer competition, resulting in the need to keep abreast of competitors’ movements, vendor characteristics and changing technologies. These data are in perpetual evolution, it is necessary to evaluate trends and identify changes in order to be able to anticipate and remain innovative. Economic intelligence is a collection of concepts, methods and tools that unify all the coordinated actions of research, acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of information relevant to firms. This is one of the key success factors of firm projects and decision support. In addition, it offers an absorptive capacity that highlights the existence of a new need and therefore ensures the existence of a market for future innovation. It thus promotes the success of an innovation process by developing interfirm networks for the production of new resources.

Liviu Mihăescu

Corporate Social Responsibility of Large Retailers: An International Comparison

Nowadays, as companies are usually a part of a network of relationship, they need legitimacy to operate in an increasingly international competition market. The world is increasing its focus on environmental, ethical and social issues, and this has recently prompted companies to draw up their own annual activity and corporate responsibility report in order to create added value for their stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to analyze six major retailers listed in Deloitte’s global ranking of retailers and compare their corporate social responsibility policies using a conceptual model composed of four areas: (1) company, (2) products and assortments, (3) social commitment, and (4) environmental commitment. The comparative analysis shows up some differences between retailers from different countries of origin and proposes a new starting point for future research.

Fabio Musso, Margherita Angioni

Balneary Tourism, a Chance for Sustainable Regional Development

The Balneary tourism is part of the other forms of tourism due to the many social and economic benefits that it derives from the positive effects it has on the physical and mental health of people. Under the current conditions in which the trend of gradual replacement of allopathic treatments with some milder, less toxic ones such as those based on natural factors of cleanliness, parallel to the shift of the center of gravity from treatment to prevention, the role of spa tourism is becoming more and more important. This all the more so, the global trends show a positive evolution of the demand for the wellness component of the health tourism.

Virgil Nicula, Simona Spânu

Raising Awareness on SDGs. A Multi-Stakeholder Approach

Over the past few decades we have witnessed an increasing importance given to sustainable development and to the need of integrating it in our lives. United Nations was one of the first leading authorities to take action, and it has been constantly working on finding ways to draw attention upon sustainable development. Adopting the 2030 Agenda as of 2015 is proof of it and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through the 169 targets stand a bold challenge ahead all countries. Due to their complexity, the SDGs require a multi-faceted approach, and in ensuring their implementation, multiple stakeholders at multiple levels and from multiple sectors need to participate. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the key stakeholders involved in advancing the SDGs and argue their activities in support of meeting the targets.

Nancy Diana Panța

The Profile of the Project Manager in Academia

The universities are the organizations that use projects to a great extent as instruments of change. The literature highlights a direct link between the project manager’s competences and the success of the project. This paper aims at identifying the main characteristics of the project managers from universities, starting from an extensive documentation of all development projects implemented within a representative university of the Romanian academic environment, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi. In this context, characteristics related to gender, occupation, and level of academic career were analyzed. This study, through a focus group, captures the particular aspects of the appointment of the project managers by project category, and highlights the difficulties encountered and the adequacy of the held competences to overcome these. The conclusions focus on the synthesis of the main features of the project managers’ competences, as well as the recommendations for improving their appointment in the university environment.

Stanislav Percic, Irina Teodora Manolescu

E-Government Overview: Evidence of Theoretical and Empirical Models

The article tries to systematize the potential developments in the Public Sector, resulting from the evolution of e-government processes. These profound organizational changes will have significant impacts in many areas, such as the public ethics, the rationalization of public spending and the public accountability.The structure of the article provides a two-part articulation: a methodological systematization related to the New Public Management Theory that is the due premise to the E-Government overview presentation, providing evidence on theoretical and empirical models.

Massimo Pollifroni, Gheorghe Militaru, Adrian Ioana

Mihail Manoilescu, A Researcher Who Tipped the Development and International Trade Theory: Sketch Portrait

Who was Mihail Manoilescu? What are the main dimensions of his scientific work? How did the researcher tilt the industrial development theory, that specializes in international trade, according to David Ricardo’s theory of comparative costs and the H.O.S. theory? What was his place in the world economy? What current significations may one find in Manoilescu’s theses? Here are questions that these lines are designed to answer sketching a portrait of the Romanian economist.

Dan Popescu

Convergence of Romanian Accounting Regulations with IFRS in the Context of Globalization

The primary role of accounting is to provide high quality financial information to a wide range of users. In today’s economy characterized by the globalization of financial markets and the cross-border development of the main transactions between business partners, the comparability of the indicators presented by the financial statements of the entities is essential in the decision-making process. That is why at the level of the international accounting regulators an important issue is the process of harmonization and convergence of the relevant legislation. Based on these prerequisites, we have compiled a comparative study between Romanian accounting regulations and IFRS, considering the main business transactions conducted by entities. The results reflect a high level of accounting convergence in our country and can be a starting point for a quantitative analysis based on statistic correlation coefficients. At the same time, a survey-based approach may still be useful in determining the perception of the business environment on the process of accounting harmonization.

Daniela Pordea

The Direct Contribution of Tourism to the Gross Domestic Product of Romania

Tourism, as one of the secondary activity sectors of the economy, with a strong involvement and presence on the active labor market, has a particular dynamics in the context of GDP formation and determination. In Romania, tourism is and will be an activity that raises many questions, curiosities, in terms of oscillations, fluctuations in capital inflows and outflows, cash, labor force, active material base, etc. In the present paper I considered the study of the weight of the cash inflows in their various forms (cash, cash, meal vouchers, vacation vouchers), materialized in the sale of tourist services by non-residents in large part but also by residents.

Adrian Şerban Comănescu

The Influence of Intangible Assets in the Company Performance: The Case of the World’s Most Profitable Corporations

Intangible assets are no longer a competitive advantage, but a must if a company wants to create value for the long-term and maintain performance at a high level compared with its peers. Due to the various factors that contribute to the performance of a company, there are a plethora of methods to measure the impact of each one. This paper’s objective is to measure the performance of the company, with a focus on the contribution of the intangible assets. To fulfil this objective, financial ratios will be used, and a method (‘Calculated Intangible Value’) to quantify the impact of intangible assets. By applying a multiple discriminant analysis, two functions will result, a general one, and another considering the sector of activity, which will be used to calculate a score for the 259 companies, from the Global Fortune 500 most profitable companies in the world.

Radu-Alexandru Șerban

Circular Place Specific Innovative Solutions in a Complex and Dynamic World: Circular, Vital and Connected Local Communities

The main goal of the chapter is to highlight the importance of local development and polycentric urbanization for circular, vital and more connected local communities. From a methodological point of view, the chapter is design as a conceptual one designed based mostly on a desk research. Taking into account the international and cross disciplinary structure of our team the chapter is also based on sharing examples of based practices among co-authors. Despite its theoretical background, the chapter supports a strategic and pragmatic vision based on the eco-innovation strategies and solutions. The most important message of our chapter is to promote modern approaches, including the local, territorial dimension of a smart, sustainable and inclusive development within the context of a complex and dynamic world. One of the main challenges our turbulent world has to face refers to the expected further development concerning the territorial & spatial dimension of sustainability within circular, vital & connected local communities. We promote mostly the idea of co-creation, co-working and co-operation based on public–private partnerships and cross disciplinary projects targeting connected communities being awarded about the emergence of complexity within turbulent and dynamic economic, social, political local environments.

Marta-Christina Suciu, Andreas Kolodziejak, Eppe Jan Postma, Adrian Petre

Ways to Effectively Manage the Risks Associated with Transfer Pricing

The issue of transfer pricing is a priority one for multinational companies or for those having related party transactions. This work presents and analyses theoretical aspects related to the the way transfer pricing legislation influences a company’s tax policy and practical aspects, contributing to the efficient management of the risks associated with transfer pricing.By documenting on the existing bibliography in the field, processing and interpreting statistical data or by comparative analysis of data, our paper arrives at the conclusion that, to effectively manage the risks associated with transfer pricing the following points are essential: appropriate management that defines a transfer pricing policy based on a critical analysis of the main risk areas, taking into consideration the possibility of resorting to an advance pricing agreement and the availability for ensuring and training staff that prepares, manages, monitors and is accountable to the supervisory authorities for transfer pricing documentation.

Ileana Tache, Mihaela Paraschiva Luca

Marketing Automation Systems as Part of the Management Information Systems Evolution

This paper is following up on management information systems through their eras of evolution towards cloud computing, where newly established systems generically named marketing automation systems are starting to play an important role in the enterprise applications of cloud computing based information systems. Given their novelty, their classification is loose to most measure, their features or desired applications overlapping with other types of enterprise software and this paper will look into all its defining characteristics and pinpoint its specifics and classification amongst the already established management information systems classification.

Codrin Teiu

Flights Delay Compensation 261/2004: A Challenge for Airline Companies?

Globally, the large number of tourists, insufficient number of pilots, strikes or high traffic at airports, have generated an increase in the number of delayed flights. In the first 6 months of 2018, it is estimated that around 4.5 million passengers (compared to 3.2 million passengers in the first semester of 2017) were affected by cancellations, delays and overbookings of flights, while the eligible value compensation is approaching 2 billion euros. For these events, principally attributable to the air carrier, certain passenger rights have been established at European Union level, detailed in EC Regulation No 261/2004 establishing common rules for passenger compensation and aid in the case of refused boarding and cancelation or lengthy delay of flights and repealing Regulation (EEC) 295/91. Although the regulation applies only to passengers, airline companies suffer huge losses owing to a volatile setting that included incidents which cannot be attributed to them such as airport, ATC, third parties strikes, unforeseen technical issues, understaffed ATC personnel or bad weather conditions.

Cosmin Tileagă, Oana Oprișan

The Manifestation of Power: An Analysis of Ten Best Economies of the World

The power manifestation within the world economy creates many debates due to its various forms of definitions and implications. In a multipolar world, power is shared between states and international non-state actors. The phenomenon determines the need to know the intensity with which each actor influences the world economy. This study seeks to respond to this dilemma from states perspective, extending the comparison between the best ten economies of the world according to Gross Domestic Product classification. The analyze is meant to reflect the power by various dimensions, starting with economic and financial, continuing with investments, labor market and social aspects, and finishing with commercial, migration and military. Even if Chinese economy has the highest value of GDP based on purchasing power parity, the competition for power manifesting between China and United States is in a low level, as the finding of this research reveals.

Ștefan Cătălin Topliceanu

Tax Burden, as Determining Factor of Tax Morale in Romania and European Union

Tax burden and tax morale are economic variables that influence each other. Tax morale is one of the basic components of compliance decisions and fiscal pressure expresses the intensity with which revenue from taxpayers is collected from individuals and legal persons. The tax morale determines the taxpayer to voluntarily comply with the declaration and payment of taxes due to the budget. Any form of collection, other than voluntary compliance, entails additional costs that implicitly increase budget expenditures, and consequently reduce the standard of living. The creation and proper functioning of a control system, as well as voluntary compliance are imperative for achieving a high level of compliance with laws. It is essential to build trust in state authorities and create a culture of compliance with rules. Therefore, the study aims to analyze the factors that influence the fiscal morale, the most important of which is the level of tax burden.

Mihai Aristotel Ungureanu, Bianca Cristina Ciocanea

Tax Evasion: Part of the Underground Economy in Romania

The economies of developed or emerging countries have a component not subject to the eyes of the authorities, the underground economy, the size of which is likely to produce many imbalances and inequities. The attempt to mitigate state revenues by exploiting legislative imperfections or by using ingenious methods to avoid the payment of taxes is called tax evasion. The weight of the underground economy in Romania’s GDP is significant, with the percentage ranging from 22.4% to 28.4%. The European Union average is 10 p.p. lower than the level at which Romania is located, at the opposite end being Austria, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. The underground economy is predominantly dominated by black work and non-tax revenue. Measures taken at European and national level aim at eliminating legislative breaches, encouraging card payments, increasing compliance by improved tax morale and an effective monitoring and control system by the authorities.

Mihai Aristotel Ungureanu, Ioan Cosmin Pițu

Segmenting Customers Based on Key Determinants of Online Shopping Behavior

Consumers have an increasingly higher predisposition to engage in online shopping, therefore this topic is of great interest for academics and marketing managers, alike, in order to establish the right premises to offer a great consumer experience and generates repeat business. Thus, this empirical paper aims to discover segments of online shoppers based on various constructs that include online consumers behavior, such as attitude, perceived risk, perceived price, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, privacy issues, trust, utilitarian value, hedonic value, and satisfaction. This study’s results showed that consumers are mostly interested in obtaining utilitarian value from online shopping and appreciate the convenience, the wide variety of products accessible in a digital environment, and the ability to compare different offers in an e-setting. Further, this paper concludes with its theoretical contributions, managerial implications and the restrictions of this current study, as well as the proposed avenues for future research.

Simona Vinerean, Alin Opreana

Presence of Severe Injuries and Financial Burden of Hospitalization: A Case of Vietnam

Using Vietnam’s Household Living Standard Survey of 2014 and a multivariate regression analysis, this paper compares inpatient out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure among individuals reporting at least one severe injury and those reporting no severe injuries during the 12 months preceding the survey (n = 2771). Presence of severe injuries is found to increase inpatient OOP expenditure by 60% and the increase in OOP expenditure is more pronounced for contacts at a central hospital (154.7%) than at a district hospital (45.4%). Our findings suggest that the financial protection of health insurance is modest, reducing OOP expenditure by 31.5% for a contact at a central hospital and by 44–50% for a contact at district and provincial/city hospitals. Measures should be taken to strengthen the injury care at the community level while broadening the breadth and depths of insurance coverage.

Phuong Vu, Ardeshir Sepehri

Causes of Public Expenditure Inefficiency and Proposals for Their Streamlining

The public sector has continually developed, as new needs of the population have been identified and the expectations of the population regarding the quantity and the quality of the provided services have already been rising. Unlike private management, the public administration has not always been concerned with the way results have been achieved, but, particularly with the results themselves, and, as long as these have been satisfying for the population, the resources employed for obtaining the results were of no much concern. The public administration monopoly in the provision of some services has led to the possibility of generating imbalances between the quality of the provided services, the financial resources employed, and the degree of satisfaction expected by the beneficiaries of these services. This is a matter of public expenditure inefficiency and, identifying solutions to counteract it and make it more efficient is a top priority. So, the transparent management of public actions has the effect of reducing corruption, bureaucracy, generating the economic growth that the society expects.

Cătălin Zeti, Loredana Andreea Cristea
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