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2024 | Book

Particle Packing Method for Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Subhasis Pradhan, Shailendra Kumar, Sudhirkumar V. Barai

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

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About this book

This book highlights the use of commercially available recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) extracted from multiple construction and demolition sites, considering it as a viable alternative to conventional aggregate. It further describes the advanced techniques, such as, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray microtomography shedding light on the deep-rooted causes of inferior macro-mechanical performance of RAC and the advantages of particle packing method design approach in this regard. It then describes the improved properties of RAC with the help of macro-mechanical performance studies, microstructural characterization and fracture analysis. The systematic and in-depth presentation of the use of recycled coarse aggregate as an alternative to conventional aggregate for the preparation of structural concrete will guide researchers on subsequent research in RAC and provide assistance to structural engineers and concrete manufacturers for the usage of RAC.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Background on Techniques for Sustainable Use of Recycled Aggregate and Application of Particle Packing Method
Abstract
Concrete is an attested building material because of its versatility and cost-effectiveness. Thus, it is the second most consumed material in the world after water (ISO/TC 71, 2005; Weil et al., 2006; Knoeri et al., 2013). Its production and use is escalated by about 12 times since the Second World War and in present scenario the yearly per capita concrete production is about 4.8 tonnes (Monkman and MacDonald, 2017).
Subhasis Pradhan, Shailendra Kumar, Sudhirkumar V. Barai

Materials Processing and Characterization

Frontmatter
Chapter 2. Production and Processing of Aggregates
Abstract
In India, the extensive use of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures happened in the second half of the nineteenth century. At the time of construction, the reuse of building waste after their service life was not thought about. The destruction of structures due to natural disasters is inevitable. Moreover, replacement of old structures with new and higher capacity structures is essential in order to satisfy the need of the growing population and traffic. Uncontrolled demolition of old structures is a problem owing to the improper waste management. At the same time, the waste concrete from ready-mix plant, laboratory-tested specimens, and rejected precast concrete members aggravate this issue.
Subhasis Pradhan, Shailendra Kumar, Sudhirkumar V. Barai
Chapter 3. Characterization of Materials
Abstract
Concrete is a composite material and a heterogeneous mixture of cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, water, and chemical admixture. The behaviour and performance of concrete in the fresh as well as hardened stages largely depend on the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of its constituents. Hence, it is important to determine the characteristics of the raw materials prior to the designing of concrete mix for their intended application. This book aims to compare the performance of concrete, prepared using two different types of coarse aggregates (natural coarse aggregate (NCA) and recycled coarse aggregate (RCA)). The subsequent sections exclusively discuss the differences in physical and mechanical properties between NCA and RCA.
Subhasis Pradhan, Shailendra Kumar, Sudhirkumar V. Barai

Concrete Mix Proportioning and Mixing

Frontmatter
Chapter 4. Particle Packing Method of Mix Proportioning and Modified Mixing Approach
Abstract
One of the main industries responsible for the rapid depletion of natural resources and the production of greenhouse gases in order to obtain the essential raw materials is the construction industry. To ease the strain on natural aggregate mining, aggregates, which make up around 70—80% of the volume of concrete, must be replaced with a sustainable alternative. Additionally, the construction industry and the generation of C &D trash go hand in hand. Natural aggregate can potentially be replaced with recycled aggregate (RA), which is produced from leftover concrete from the C &D waste. RA can be divided into RCA and RFA categories according to size. The use of RCA alone for structural concrete preparation is the exclusive focus of this work.
Subhasis Pradhan, Shailendra Kumar, Sudhirkumar V. Barai

Multi-Scale Performance Assessment of Concrete Mixes

Frontmatter
Chapter 5. Macro-level Performance Assessment of Concrete: Conventional Approach
Abstract
The performance of concrete is significantly impacted by its constituents and their composition. As a result, it is expected that the usage of different coarse aggregate, namely, NCA and RCA, will cause the performance of NAC and RAC to vary. The physical and mechanical properties of RCA that are detailed in Chapter 3 are inferior to NCA. Thus, it is also anticipated that concrete’s performance at the macro-level will suffer as a result of aggregate’s weaker qualities. In Chapter 4, a new mix design approach, i.e. PPM, is suggested and discussed in order to address this problem. The performance of PPM mix-designed concrete in the fresh and hardened stages is covered in this chapter, along with a comparison to mixes made using the standard IS: 10262 (2009) method. The performance of four various concrete mixes in both the fresh and hardened stages is described in the following sections.
Subhasis Pradhan, Shailendra Kumar, Sudhirkumar V. Barai
Chapter 6. Macro-level Performance Assessment of Concrete: Experimental Fracture Analysis
Abstract
Natural coarse aggregate (NCA) can potentially be replaced with recycled coarse aggregate (RCA), which is derived from the leftover concrete from construction and demolition (C &D) projects. However, RCA has drawbacks of its own, notably because of the porous mortar layer and micro-cracks. This motivates academics throughout the world to reduce the impact of the RCA’s inherent drawbacks in recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). Different mix design techniques, mixing procedures, the addition of fibres, and the addition of mineral admixtures are suggested in this context.
Subhasis Pradhan, Shailendra Kumar, Sudhirkumar V. Barai
Chapter 7. Performance Assessment of Concrete: Meso-, Micro-, Nano-level, and Physio-chemical Analysis
Abstract
The effect of microstructural characteristics on the macro-mechanical properties of concrete has been the subject of research over the last few decades. In chapters “Macro-level Performance Assessment of Concrete: Conventional Approach” and “Macro-level Performance Assessment of Concrete: Experimental Fracture Analysis”, it was examined how the type of aggregates, mix design techniques, and mixing methodologies affected macro-mechanical properties, which are thought to also affect meso-, micro-, and nano-level characteristics. Therefore, the current chapter focuses on how the aforementioned parameters affect the features and degree of hydration at the microstructure and mesostructure level. Additionally, both the ITZ and the entire specimen’s pore content and distribution are examined. The impact of each of these micro- and meso-level variables on the macro-mechanical properties is then examined at various curing times.
Subhasis Pradhan, Shailendra Kumar, Sudhirkumar V. Barai

Sustainability Assessment of Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Frontmatter
Chapter 8. Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis
Abstract
The researchers suggested various mix design techniques and mixing strategies to prepare RAC with acceptable mechanical characteristics.
Subhasis Pradhan, Shailendra Kumar, Sudhirkumar V. Barai

Structural Applications

Frontmatter
Chapter 9. Structural Applications: Beam
Abstract
The fundamental characteristics of RCA and how it is used to create RAC were covered in prior chapters. In this context, the influence of the PPM mix design technique was explored.
Subhasis Pradhan, Shailendra Kumar, Sudhirkumar V. Barai
Chapter 10. Structural Applications: Column
Abstract
The basic characterization of RAC prepared by the combined approach of PPM mix design and TSMA confirmed better performance in comparison to the conventional mix design method. This motivated to incorporate the PPM mix-designed concrete in the reinforced structural members to examine their behaviour.
Subhasis Pradhan, Shailendra Kumar, Sudhirkumar V. Barai
Chapter 11. Structural Applications: Slab
Abstract
The performance of RAC in both the fresh and hardened stages is adversely affected by the inherent inferior material qualities of RCA caused by the existence of micro-cracks and attached mortar layer. PPM mix design approach is used in conjunction with the TSMA to reduce the impact of RCA and enhance the quality of RAC, as detailed in Chapters 4 and 5. Results from the experimental research on the punching shear performance of RAC slabs with 100% RCA use were inconsistent.
Subhasis Pradhan, Shailendra Kumar, Sudhirkumar V. Barai
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Particle Packing Method for Recycled Aggregate Concrete
Authors
Subhasis Pradhan
Shailendra Kumar
Sudhirkumar V. Barai
Copyright Year
2024
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-9975-16-7
Print ISBN
978-981-9975-15-0
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-7516-7