Skip to main content
Top
Published in: Journal of Chinese Political Science 3/2023

11-03-2023 | Research Article

Party-building and Government Funding: The Effect of the Chinese Communist Party on Non-governmental Organizations

Authors: Huan Wang, Ying Wang

Published in: Journal of Chinese Political Science | Issue 3/2023

Log in

Activate our intelligent search to find suitable subject content or patents.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has been increasing its permeation of the social sphere through party-building in non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in recent years. In this study, we explore the impact of this party-building on NGOs’ access to government funding using a party–state–society framework. From the analysis of a dataset drawn from the China Foundation Annual Report from 2019 to 2020, we found that the establishment of party branches in NGOs significantly increased their levels of government funding. Among NGOs that had already established party branches, the number of party-building activities was not associated with increased government funding. A further cross-regional comparative analysis found that party-building had a greater effect on NGOs’ access to government funding in non-eastern regions of China than in the eastern region of the country. Our findings point to an implementation paradox of the current party-building campaign in China’s third sector: the CCP has increased the presence of party branches, but it is unclear whether this party-building campaign has actually strengthened the Party’s control over the sector.

Dont have a licence yet? Then find out more about our products and how to get one now:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Literature
1.
go back to reference Anheier, H., and S. Toepler. 1999. Philanthropic Foundations: An International Perspective. In H. Anheier & S. Toepler (Eds.), Private Funds, Public Purpose: Philanthropic Foundations in International Perspectives. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Anheier, H., and S. Toepler. 1999. Philanthropic Foundations: An International Perspective. In H. Anheier & S. Toepler (Eds.), Private Funds, Public Purpose: Philanthropic Foundations in International Perspectives. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
2.
go back to reference Blackwood, A.S., K.L. Roeger, and S. Pettijohn. 2012. The Nonprofit Sector in Brief: Public Charities, Giving, and Volunteering. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Blackwood, A.S., K.L. Roeger, and S. Pettijohn. 2012. The Nonprofit Sector in Brief: Public Charities, Giving, and Volunteering. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
4.
go back to reference Chen, L. 2022. Embedded Creation of Party Building in Social Organizations: A Preliminary Analytical Framework. Qiushi 1: 58–67 (in Chinese). Chen, L. 2022. Embedded Creation of Party Building in Social Organizations: A Preliminary Analytical Framework. Qiushi 1: 58–67 (in Chinese).
5.
go back to reference DiMaggio, P.J., and W.W. Powell. 1983. The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields. American Sociological Review 48 (2): 147–160. CrossRef DiMaggio, P.J., and W.W. Powell. 1983. The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields. American Sociological Review 48 (2): 147–160. CrossRef
6.
go back to reference Feng, X. 2015. China’s Charitable Foundations: Development and Policy-Related Issues. The China Economy 48: 130–154. CrossRef Feng, X. 2015. China’s Charitable Foundations: Development and Policy-Related Issues. The China Economy 48: 130–154. CrossRef
7.
go back to reference Gao, B. 2000. Problems Related to the Legitimization of Associations in China. Social Sciences in China 2: 100–109+207 (in Chinese). Gao, B. 2000. Problems Related to the Legitimization of Associations in China. Social Sciences in China 2: 100–109+207 (in Chinese).
8.
go back to reference Gazley, B., and J.L. Brudney. 2007. The Purpose (and Perils) of Government-nonprofit Partnership. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 36 (3): 389–415. CrossRef Gazley, B., and J.L. Brudney. 2007. The Purpose (and Perils) of Government-nonprofit Partnership. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 36 (3): 389–415. CrossRef
9.
go back to reference Gazley, B., C. LaFontant, and Y (Daniel). Cheng. 2020. Does Coproduction of Public Services Support Government’s Social Equity Goals? The Case of U.S. State Parks. Public Administration Review 80 (3): 349–359. CrossRef Gazley, B., C. LaFontant, and Y (Daniel). Cheng. 2020. Does Coproduction of Public Services Support Government’s Social Equity Goals? The Case of U.S. State Parks. Public Administration Review 80 (3): 349–359. CrossRef
11.
go back to reference Grønbjerg, K.A. 1993. Understanding Nonprofit Funding: Managing Revenues in Social Services and Community Development Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc Pub. Grønbjerg, K.A. 1993. Understanding Nonprofit Funding: Managing Revenues in Social Services and Community Development Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc Pub.
12.
go back to reference Hildebrandt, T. 2013. Social Organizations and the Authoritarian State in China. Cambridge University Press. CrossRef Hildebrandt, T. 2013. Social Organizations and the Authoritarian State in China. Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
13.
go back to reference Hodge, M.M., and R.F. Piccolo. 2005. Funding Source, Board Involvement Techniques, and Financial Vulnerability in Nonprofit Organizations: A Test of Resource Dependence. Nonprofit Management and Leadership 16 (2): 171–190. CrossRef Hodge, M.M., and R.F. Piccolo. 2005. Funding Source, Board Involvement Techniques, and Financial Vulnerability in Nonprofit Organizations: A Test of Resource Dependence. Nonprofit Management and Leadership 16 (2): 171–190. CrossRef
14.
go back to reference Howell, J. 1995. Prospects for NGOs in China. Development in Practice 5 (1): 5–15. CrossRef Howell, J. 1995. Prospects for NGOs in China. Development in Practice 5 (1): 5–15. CrossRef
15.
go back to reference Howell, J. 2015. Shall We Dance? Welfarist Incorporation and the Politics of State–labour NGO Relations. The China Quarterly 223: 702–723. CrossRef Howell, J. 2015. Shall We Dance? Welfarist Incorporation and the Politics of State–labour NGO Relations. The China Quarterly 223: 702–723. CrossRef
16.
go back to reference Hsu, J.Y., C.L. Hsu, and R. Hasmath. 2017. NGO Strategies in An Authoritarian Context, and Their Implications for Citizenship: The Case of the People’s Republic of China. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 28 (3): 1157–1179. CrossRef Hsu, J.Y., C.L. Hsu, and R. Hasmath. 2017. NGO Strategies in An Authoritarian Context, and Their Implications for Citizenship: The Case of the People’s Republic of China. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 28 (3): 1157–1179. CrossRef
17.
go back to reference Ji, Y. 2017. From “Two-Way Embedding” To “Two-Way Empowerment”: The Case of Community Social Organizations in City N-A Reconstruction of State-society Relations in Contemporary China. Zhejiang Academic Journal 1: 49–56 (in Chinese). Ji, Y. 2017. From “Two-Way Embedding” To “Two-Way Empowerment”: The Case of Community Social Organizations in City N-A Reconstruction of State-society Relations in Contemporary China. Zhejiang Academic Journal 1: 49–56 (in Chinese).
18.
go back to reference Johnson, J.M., and N. Ni. 2015. The Impact of Political Connections on Donations to Chinese NGOs. International Public Management Journal 18 (4): 514–535. CrossRef Johnson, J.M., and N. Ni. 2015. The Impact of Political Connections on Donations to Chinese NGOs. International Public Management Journal 18 (4): 514–535. CrossRef
20.
go back to reference Kang, X., and H. Han. 2008. Graduated Controls: The State–society Relationship in Contemporary China. Modern China 34 (1): 36–55. CrossRef Kang, X., and H. Han. 2008. Graduated Controls: The State–society Relationship in Contemporary China. Modern China 34 (1): 36–55. CrossRef
21.
go back to reference Lee, Y.J. 2021. Nonprofit Marketing Expenses: Who Spends More than Others? Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing 33 (3): 385–402. CrossRef Lee, Y.J. 2021. Nonprofit Marketing Expenses: Who Spends More than Others? Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing 33 (3): 385–402. CrossRef
22.
go back to reference Li, H., S. Tang, and C.W.H. Lo. 2018. The Institutional Antecedents of Managerial Networking in Chinese Environmental NGOs. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 47 (2): 325–346. CrossRef Li, H., S. Tang, and C.W.H. Lo. 2018. The Institutional Antecedents of Managerial Networking in Chinese Environmental NGOs. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 47 (2): 325–346. CrossRef
23.
go back to reference Li, S., and M. Wang. 2021. Party co-optation and Changes of the Chinese State-NGO Relationship in Local Governance. Comparative Economic and Social Systems 2: 171–180 (in Chinese). Li, S., and M. Wang. 2021. Party co-optation and Changes of the Chinese State-NGO Relationship in Local Governance. Comparative Economic and Social Systems 2: 171–180 (in Chinese).
24.
go back to reference Li, S. 2018. The Power of Co-optation: Party, Political Capital and the Development of NGOs: A Comparative Case Study in H City, Z Province. Chinese Journal of Sociology 1: 160–185. Li, S. 2018. The Power of Co-optation: Party, Political Capital and the Development of NGOs: A Comparative Case Study in H City, Z Province. Chinese Journal of Sociology 1: 160–185.
25.
go back to reference Liu, Y., J. Martinez-Vazquez, and A.M. Wu. 2017. Fiscal Decentralization, Equalization, and Intra-Provincial Inequality in China. International Tax and Public Finance 24 (2): 248–281. CrossRef Liu, Y., J. Martinez-Vazquez, and A.M. Wu. 2017. Fiscal Decentralization, Equalization, and Intra-Provincial Inequality in China. International Tax and Public Finance 24 (2): 248–281. CrossRef
26.
go back to reference Ljubownikow, S., and J. Crotty. 2014. Civil Society in A Transitional Context: The Response of Health and Educational NGOs to Legislative Changes in Russia’s Industrialized Regions. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 43 (4): 759–776. CrossRef Ljubownikow, S., and J. Crotty. 2014. Civil Society in A Transitional Context: The Response of Health and Educational NGOs to Legislative Changes in Russia’s Industrialized Regions. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 43 (4): 759–776. CrossRef
27.
go back to reference Lu, J. 2015. Which Nonprofit Gets More Government Funding? Nonprofits’ Organizational Attributes and Their Receipts of Government Funding. Nonprofit Management and Leadership 25 (3): 297–312. CrossRef Lu, J. 2015. Which Nonprofit Gets More Government Funding? Nonprofits’ Organizational Attributes and Their Receipts of Government Funding. Nonprofit Management and Leadership 25 (3): 297–312. CrossRef
28.
go back to reference Luo, W., W. Zheng, and Y. Long. 2022. Relational Work and Its Pitfalls: Nonprofits’ Participation in Government-Sponsored Voluntary Accreditation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 33 (1): 63–79. CrossRef Luo, W., W. Zheng, and Y. Long. 2022. Relational Work and Its Pitfalls: Nonprofits’ Participation in Government-Sponsored Voluntary Accreditation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 33 (1): 63–79. CrossRef
29.
go back to reference Ma, J., and S. DeDeo. 2018. State Power and Elite Autonomy in A Networked Civil Society: The Board Interlocking of Chinese Non-Profits. Social Networks 54: 291–302. CrossRef Ma, J., and S. DeDeo. 2018. State Power and Elite Autonomy in A Networked Civil Society: The Board Interlocking of Chinese Non-Profits. Social Networks 54: 291–302. CrossRef
30.
go back to reference Ma, J. 2020. Funding Nonprofits in A Networked Society: Toward a Network Framework of Government Support. Nonprofit Management and Leadership 31 (2): 233–257. CrossRef Ma, J. 2020. Funding Nonprofits in A Networked Society: Toward a Network Framework of Government Support. Nonprofit Management and Leadership 31 (2): 233–257. CrossRef
32.
go back to reference Ma, Q. 2002. The Governance of NGOs in China Since 1978: How Much Autonomy? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 31 (3): 305–328. CrossRef Ma, Q. 2002. The Governance of NGOs in China Since 1978: How Much Autonomy? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 31 (3): 305–328. CrossRef
37.
go back to reference Minzner, C.F. 2009. Riots and Cover-Ups: Counterproductive Control of Local Agents in China. University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law 31: 53–123. Minzner, C.F. 2009. Riots and Cover-Ups: Counterproductive Control of Local Agents in China. University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law 31: 53–123.
38.
go back to reference Mosley, J.E. 2011. Institutionalization, Privatization, and Political Opportunity: What Tactical Choices Reveal about the Policy Advocacy of Human Service Nonprofits. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 40 (3): 435–457. CrossRef Mosley, J.E. 2011. Institutionalization, Privatization, and Political Opportunity: What Tactical Choices Reveal about the Policy Advocacy of Human Service Nonprofits. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 40 (3): 435–457. CrossRef
39.
go back to reference Ni, N., and X. Zhan. 2017. Embedded Government Control and Nonprofit Revenue Growth. Public Administration Review 77 (5): 730–742. CrossRef Ni, N., and X. Zhan. 2017. Embedded Government Control and Nonprofit Revenue Growth. Public Administration Review 77 (5): 730–742. CrossRef
40.
go back to reference Nie, L., and J. Wu. 2022. Strategic Responses of NGOs to the New Party-Building Campaign in China. China Information 36 (1): 46–67. CrossRef Nie, L., and J. Wu. 2022. Strategic Responses of NGOs to the New Party-Building Campaign in China. China Information 36 (1): 46–67. CrossRef
41.
go back to reference Pearson, M.M. 1994. The Janus Face of Business Associations in China: Socialist Corporatism in Foreign Enterprises. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 31: 25–46. CrossRef Pearson, M.M. 1994. The Janus Face of Business Associations in China: Socialist Corporatism in Foreign Enterprises. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 31: 25–46. CrossRef
42.
go back to reference Pfeffer, J., and G.R. Salancik. 1978. The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective. New York: Harper & Row. Pfeffer, J., and G.R. Salancik. 1978. The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective. New York: Harper & Row.
43.
go back to reference Polanyi, K. 1944. The Great Transformation. Boston: Beacon. Polanyi, K. 1944. The Great Transformation. Boston: Beacon.
45.
go back to reference Rosenbaum, P.R., and D.B. Rubin. 1983. The Central Role of the Propensity Score in Observational Studies for Causal Effects. Biometrika 70 (1): 41–55. CrossRef Rosenbaum, P.R., and D.B. Rubin. 1983. The Central Role of the Propensity Score in Observational Studies for Causal Effects. Biometrika 70 (1): 41–55. CrossRef
46.
47.
go back to reference Saich, T. 2000. Negotiating the State: The Development of Social Organizations in China. The China Quarterly 161: 124–141. CrossRef Saich, T. 2000. Negotiating the State: The Development of Social Organizations in China. The China Quarterly 161: 124–141. CrossRef
48.
go back to reference Salamon, L.M. 1987. Of Market Failure, Voluntary Failure, and Third-Party Government: Toward a Theory of Government-Nonprofit Relations in the Modern Welfare State. Journal of Voluntary Action Research 16 (1–2): 29–49. CrossRef Salamon, L.M. 1987. Of Market Failure, Voluntary Failure, and Third-Party Government: Toward a Theory of Government-Nonprofit Relations in the Modern Welfare State. Journal of Voluntary Action Research 16 (1–2): 29–49. CrossRef
49.
go back to reference Schmitter, P.C. 1974. Still the Century of Corporatism? The Review of Politics 36 (1): 85–131. CrossRef Schmitter, P.C. 1974. Still the Century of Corporatism? The Review of Politics 36 (1): 85–131. CrossRef
50.
go back to reference Shen, Y., J. Yu, Y. Li, and B. Huang. 2019. Government Funding and Nonprofit Revenues in China: A Cross-Regional Comparison. Public Performance and Management Review 42 (6): 1372–1395. CrossRef Shen, Y., J. Yu, Y. Li, and B. Huang. 2019. Government Funding and Nonprofit Revenues in China: A Cross-Regional Comparison. Public Performance and Management Review 42 (6): 1372–1395. CrossRef
51.
go back to reference Shen, Y., J. Yu, and J. Zhou. 2020. The Administration’s Retreat and the Party’s Advance in the New Era of Xi Jinping: The Politics of the Ruling Party, the Government, and Associations in China. Journal of Chinese Political Science 25 (1): 71–88. CrossRef Shen, Y., J. Yu, and J. Zhou. 2020. The Administration’s Retreat and the Party’s Advance in the New Era of Xi Jinping: The Politics of the Ruling Party, the Government, and Associations in China. Journal of Chinese Political Science 25 (1): 71–88. CrossRef
52.
go back to reference Shue, V., Szu-chien, H., Kellee, S. T., and Chun-chih C., eds. 2021. Evolutionary Governance in China: State-Society Relations under Authoritarianism. Journal of Chinese Political Science 26: 767-768. Shue, V., Szu-chien, H., Kellee, S. T., and Chun-chih C., eds. 2021. Evolutionary Governance in China: State-Society Relations under Authoritarianism. Journal of Chinese Political Science 26: 767-768.
53.
go back to reference Smith, S.R., and M. Lipsky. 1993. Nonprofits for Hire: The Welfare State in the Age of Contracting. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. CrossRef Smith, S.R., and M. Lipsky. 1993. Nonprofits for Hire: The Welfare State in the Age of Contracting. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. CrossRef
54.
go back to reference Snape, H., and W. Wang. 2020. Finding A Place for the Party: Debunking the “Party-State” and Rethinking the State-Society Relationship in China’s One-Party System. Journal of Chinese Governance 5 (4): 477–502. CrossRef Snape, H., and W. Wang. 2020. Finding A Place for the Party: Debunking the “Party-State” and Rethinking the State-Society Relationship in China’s One-Party System. Journal of Chinese Governance 5 (4): 477–502. CrossRef
56.
go back to reference Spires, A.J. 2011. Contingent Symbiosis and Civil Society in An Authoritarian State: Understanding the Survival of China’s Grassroots NGOs. American Journal of Sociology 117 (1): 1–45. CrossRef Spires, A.J. 2011. Contingent Symbiosis and Civil Society in An Authoritarian State: Understanding the Survival of China’s Grassroots NGOs. American Journal of Sociology 117 (1): 1–45. CrossRef
58.
go back to reference Teets, J.C. 2014. Civil Society Under Authoritarianism: The China model. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef Teets, J.C. 2014. Civil Society Under Authoritarianism: The China model. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
59.
go back to reference Thornton, P.M. 2013. The Advance of the Party: Transformation or Takeover of Urban Grassroots Society? The China Quarterly 213: 1–18. CrossRef Thornton, P.M. 2013. The Advance of the Party: Transformation or Takeover of Urban Grassroots Society? The China Quarterly 213: 1–18. CrossRef
60.
go back to reference Thornton, P. M. 2015. Experimenting with Party-led “People’s Society”: Four Regional Models. In NGO Governance and Management in China 151–164. Routledge. Thornton, P. M. 2015. Experimenting with Party-led “People’s Society”: Four Regional Models. In NGO Governance and Management in China 151–164. Routledge.
61.
go back to reference Tsai, K.S. 2006. Adaptive Informal Institutions and Endogenous Institutional Change in China. World Politics 59 (1): 116–141. CrossRef Tsai, K.S. 2006. Adaptive Informal Institutions and Endogenous Institutional Change in China. World Politics 59 (1): 116–141. CrossRef
62.
go back to reference Tobin, J. 1958. Estimation of Relationships for Limited Dependent Variables. Econometrica 26 (1): 24–36. CrossRef Tobin, J. 1958. Estimation of Relationships for Limited Dependent Variables. Econometrica 26 (1): 24–36. CrossRef
63.
go back to reference Unger, J., and A. Chan. 1995. China, Corporatism, and the East Asian Model. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 33: 29–53. CrossRef Unger, J., and A. Chan. 1995. China, Corporatism, and the East Asian Model. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 33: 29–53. CrossRef
64.
go back to reference Wang, C. 2021. Legal and Political Practices in China’s Central-Local Dynamics. Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences 14: 523–547. CrossRef Wang, C. 2021. Legal and Political Practices in China’s Central-Local Dynamics. Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences 14: 523–547. CrossRef
65.
go back to reference Wang, Y. 2017. The Function Realization Mechanism of the Communist Party Organization Embedded in Social Organizations from the Perspective of Structural Functionalism—A Case Study on the Communist Party Building of Social Organizations. Socialism Studies 2: 119–126 (in Chinese). Wang, Y. 2017. The Function Realization Mechanism of the Communist Party Organization Embedded in Social Organizations from the Perspective of Structural Functionalism—A Case Study on the Communist Party Building of Social Organizations. Socialism Studies 2: 119–126 (in Chinese).
66.
go back to reference Wei, Q. 2020. From Direct Involvement to Indirect Control? A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Influencing Chinese Foundations’ Capacity for Resource Mobilization. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 31 (4): 762–778. CrossRef Wei, Q. 2020. From Direct Involvement to Indirect Control? A Multilevel Analysis of Factors Influencing Chinese Foundations’ Capacity for Resource Mobilization. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 31 (4): 762–778. CrossRef
67.
go back to reference White, G., J. Howell, and X. Shang. 1996. In Search of Civil Society: Market Reform and Social Change in Contemporary China. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef White, G., J. Howell, and X. Shang. 1996. In Search of Civil Society: Market Reform and Social Change in Contemporary China. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
68.
go back to reference Wu, A.M., L. Ye, and H. Li. 2019. The Impact of Fiscal Decentralization on Urban Agglomeration: Evidence from China. Journal of Urban Affairs 41 (2): 170–188. CrossRef Wu, A.M., L. Ye, and H. Li. 2019. The Impact of Fiscal Decentralization on Urban Agglomeration: Evidence from China. Journal of Urban Affairs 41 (2): 170–188. CrossRef
69.
go back to reference Xin, G., and J. Huang. 2022. Party Building in An Unlikely Place? The Adaptive Presence of the Chinese Communist Party in the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO). Journal of Contemporary China 31 (135): 428–444. CrossRef Xin, G., and J. Huang. 2022. Party Building in An Unlikely Place? The Adaptive Presence of the Chinese Communist Party in the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO). Journal of Contemporary China 31 (135): 428–444. CrossRef
70.
go back to reference Xu, J. 2016. China Social Organization Assessment Development Report (2016). Beijing: Social Science Academic Press (China). (in Chinese) Xu, J. 2016. China Social Organization Assessment Development Report (2016). Beijing: Social Science Academic Press (China). (in Chinese)
71.
go back to reference Yep, R. 2000. The Limitations of Corporatism for Understanding Reforming China: An Empirical Analysis in A Rural County. Journal of Contemporary China 9 (25): 547–566. CrossRef Yep, R. 2000. The Limitations of Corporatism for Understanding Reforming China: An Empirical Analysis in A Rural County. Journal of Contemporary China 9 (25): 547–566. CrossRef
72.
go back to reference Ye, S., and X. He. 2021. Can a Social Organization Board Improve its Performance?–An Empirical Study Based on 691 Social Service Organizations in China. Journal of Public Administration 14 (1): 132–150 (in Chinese). Ye, S., and X. He. 2021. Can a Social Organization Board Improve its Performance?–An Empirical Study Based on 691 Social Service Organizations in China. Journal of Public Administration 14 (1): 132–150 (in Chinese).
73.
go back to reference Young, D.R. 2000. Alternative Models of Government-Nonprofit Sector Relations: Theoretical and International Perspectives. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 29 (1): 149–172. CrossRef Young, D.R. 2000. Alternative Models of Government-Nonprofit Sector Relations: Theoretical and International Perspectives. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 29 (1): 149–172. CrossRef
74.
go back to reference Yu, J., Y. Shen, and Y. Li. 2021. Understanding the Effect of Central Government Funding on the Service and Advocacy Roles of Nonprofit Organizations in China: A Cross-Regional Comparison. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 50 (1): 186–212. CrossRef Yu, J., Y. Shen, and Y. Li. 2021. Understanding the Effect of Central Government Funding on the Service and Advocacy Roles of Nonprofit Organizations in China: A Cross-Regional Comparison. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 50 (1): 186–212. CrossRef
75.
go back to reference Yu, J., J. Zhou, and H. Jiang. 2012. A Path for Chinese Civil Society: A Case Study on Industrial Associations in Wenzhou. China: Lexington Books. Yu, J., J. Zhou, and H. Jiang. 2012. A Path for Chinese Civil Society: A Case Study on Industrial Associations in Wenzhou. China: Lexington Books.
76.
go back to reference Zhan, X., and S. Tang. 2016. Understanding the Implications of Government Ties for Nonprofit Operations and Functions. Public Administration Review 76 (4): 589–600. CrossRef Zhan, X., and S. Tang. 2016. Understanding the Implications of Government Ties for Nonprofit Operations and Functions. Public Administration Review 76 (4): 589–600. CrossRef
77.
go back to reference Zhang, J. 2007. Business Associations in China: Two Regional Experiences. Journal of Contemporary Asia 37 (2): 209–231. CrossRef Zhang, J. 2007. Business Associations in China: Two Regional Experiences. Journal of Contemporary Asia 37 (2): 209–231. CrossRef
78.
go back to reference Zhang, Y., and Z. Shao. 2022. Civil Servants’ Preferences for Nonprofit Contractors: A Conjoint Analysis. Governance 35 (4): 1049–1075. CrossRef Zhang, Y., and Z. Shao. 2022. Civil Servants’ Preferences for Nonprofit Contractors: A Conjoint Analysis. Governance 35 (4): 1049–1075. CrossRef
79.
go back to reference Zhao, R., Z. Wu, and C. Tao. 2016. Understanding Service Contracting and Its Impact on NGO Development in China. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 27 (5): 2229–2251. CrossRef Zhao, R., Z. Wu, and C. Tao. 2016. Understanding Service Contracting and Its Impact on NGO Development in China. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 27 (5): 2229–2251. CrossRef
80.
go back to reference Zhu, J., and H. Deng. 2022. Governance to Absorb Philanthropy: The General Characteristics of Chinese Philanthropy in the New Era. Nankai Journal: Philosophy, Literature and Social Science Edition 286 (2): 71–81 (in Chinese). Zhu, J., and H. Deng. 2022. Governance to Absorb Philanthropy: The General Characteristics of Chinese Philanthropy in the New Era. Nankai Journal: Philosophy, Literature and Social Science Edition 286 (2): 71–81 (in Chinese).
Metadata
Title
Party-building and Government Funding: The Effect of the Chinese Communist Party on Non-governmental Organizations
Authors
Huan Wang
Ying Wang
Publication date
11-03-2023
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
Journal of Chinese Political Science / Issue 3/2023
Print ISSN: 1080-6954
Electronic ISSN: 1874-6357
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11366-023-09850-6

Other articles of this Issue 3/2023

Journal of Chinese Political Science 3/2023 Go to the issue