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About this book

This book demonstrates a novel, efficient and automated scheme to design and evaluate the performance of electronic oscillators, operating at the 100s of Megahertz to 10s of Gigahertz frequencies. The author describes a new oscillator design and performance evaluation scheme that addresses all the issues associated with the traditional S parameter (large, small signal) based oscillator design technique by exploiting the properties of a new breed of RF or microwave transistors, the powerful Discrete Fourier Transform and the SPICE tool's transient analysis. Readers will benefit from an exhaustive set of detailed, step-by-step oscillator (feedback, negative resistance, crystal and differential) design examples, as well as the software tools (C executables) used to create the design examples. Designers will be enabled to eliminate the complexities of the traditional oscillator design/performance evaluation scheme using S (large, small) parameter, resulting in accurate, robust and reliable designs.

Describes an efficient, automated oscillator design and performance evaluation scheme that addresses all the challenges associated with the traditional S parameter (large, small signal) based oscillator design;Provides numerous step-by-step design examples, illustrating the details of the new scheme presented;Includes C executables that run on both Linux and Windows, which the reader can use to experiment and design any oscillator (feedback common emitter or base, negative resistance common emitter or base or differential).

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction and Problem Statement

Abstract
This chapter introduces electronic oscillator design and most importantly its performance evaluation. An autonomous, input signal-free, self-excited circuit, an electronic oscillator is unique, and generates the periodic, time-varying current and voltage waves that trigger and drive all other electronic circuits. These unique characteristics make the design and performance evaluation of these circuits a major challenge—more so because other than a negative resistance-based oscillator, there is no necessary and sufficient condition that guarantees oscillations. That is a feedback oscillator designer might find himself or herself with a design that will oscillate, but never start up!! These very exciting issues are introduced in this chapter. How to tackle them will be elaborated in subsequent chapters.
Amal Banerjee

Chapter 2. Electronic Oscillator Fundamentals

Abstract
This chapter provides a brief overview of traditional oscillator theory, which has been examined in minute detail in available text and specialized electronic engineering books, as well as numerous conference and journal papers. The main focus is on the S parameter (small, large signal)-free electronic oscillator design and performance evaluation scheme. It starts with examination of the loop equations, open- and closed-loop gain, and Barkhausen and Nyquist criteria. Next, the concept of negative resistance and its application to oscillators is examined, followed by detailed enumeration of common emitter feedback, common-base feedback, common-emitter negative resistance, and differential oscillator design equations and steps. The chapter also examines in detail main oscillator noise problem, phase noise, starting with the key concepts, followed by the linear Leeson’s noise model, its drawbacks, and various modifications to include the nonlinearities of an oscillator. The discrete Fourier transform, the key tool to analyze oscillator output in the frequency domain (using the oscillator output’s power spectrum), is also examined in detail.
Amal Banerjee

Chapter 3. Automated S Parameter-Free Electronic Oscillator Design, Performance Evaluation Scheme, and Step-by-Step Design Examples Using SPICE, Discrete Fourier Transform

Abstract
The automated S parameter-free oscillator design and performance evaluation scheme is examined in detail in this chapter. The differences between the new scheme and the traditional S parameter-based technique are highlighted. An exhaustive set of step-by-step design examples is provided to illustrate the sequence of design calculations of the S parameter-free oscillator design and performance evaluation technique. The design calculation steps are performed by simple C computer language executables. The performance evaluation is done with the gold standard SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) and a simple C language program that implements the powerful discrete Fourier transform (DFT). SPICE provides time domain start-up and steady-state performance characteristics, while DFT generates the frequency domain performance characteristics of the oscillator. The design examples illustrate oscillators operating at the RF and microwave frequency range (100s of MHz–10s of GHz).
Amal Banerjee

Chapter 4. Conclusions and Future Work

Abstract
This book has demonstrated an S parameter (small, large signal)-free scheme to design and evaluate the performance characteristics of electronic oscillators operating in the RF–microwave frequency range (100s of MHz–10s of GHz). The concept of an electronic signal, as a periodic time-varying current and voltage wave, is meaningless without the device that generates it—the electronic oscillator. This S parameter-free electronic oscillator design scheme works only because of a new breed of transistors that do not require the circuit designer to use any S parameters (small, large signal) in the design calculations. This is a tremendous advantage, as S parameters are complex numbers, and all calculations involving them are extremely complicated, time consuming, and thereby totally error prone. All calculations involving S parameters (small, large signal) are best done with dedicated in-house software or expensive CAD tools, with steep learning curves. The new breed of transistors that do not require any S parameters (small, large signal) in the circuit design calculations completely circumvent the complexities of traditional electronic oscillator design calculations. In addition, to guarantee the accuracy and reliability of the S parameter-free electronic oscillator design calculations, two sets of C computer language executables have been supplied, respectively, for the popular Linux and Windows operating systems.
Amal Banerjee

Backmatter

Additional information