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About this book

This book presents recent research on natural fibers extracted from pineapple leaves. Covering several extraction processes, properties of pineapple leaf fibers and comparisons with other natural fibers, and their applications, it provides up-to-date information on the subject of natural fibers from prominent researchers in academia and industry as well as government/private research laboratories across the world. The book is a comprehensive reference resource for university and college faculties, professionals, postdoctoral research fellows, undergraduate/graduate students, researchers and scientists working in the areas of non-forest product utilization, natural fibers, and biomass materials.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Pineapple Leaf Fibre: Cultivation and Production

Abstract
A pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) is classified according to the sources in plants, where they occur and from which they are extracted. PALF is considered to be superior in texture than any other vegetable fibre. It helps in climate restoration and soil quality by preventing soil erosion. This chapter includes pineapple cultivation practices, plant anatomy, varieties, diseases, nutritional needs, usefulness and its production at a global level. Plant distribution, varieties, fruit and fibre yield potential are also envisioned in this chapter. Post-harvest operations, decorticating practices, fibre retting, finishing, chemical composition and physico-chemical properties are reported. It also explains plant benefits to farmers, consumers and the environment.
Pintu Pandit, Ritu Pandey, Kunal Singha, Sanjay Shrivastava, Vandana Gupta, Seiko Jose

Anatomical Structure of Pineapple Leaf Fiber

Abstract
The use of natural fibers, such as pineapple, sisal, banana, coir, sun hemp, mesta, or jute, in polymer composite materials has expanded fundamentally in recent years. Today, pineapple fiber is enormously popular among the composite research community due to its various advantages including its smoothed and scaled morphology, low thickness, firmness, reduced weight, and superior mechanical properties. In addition, pineapple fiber is completely/partially biodegradable and recyclable, cheap to produce, and easy to make. Its various mechanical testing characterization values, including tensile strength, spilt tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength, peeling test, and compressive strength, represent benchmarks compared with other, currently available natural fibers. In this chapter we will extensively discuss the various anatomical structures of pineapple leaf fiber and the effects these have on thermal and mechanical characteristics—observed via scanning electron microscope imaging of surface morphology and the mechanical fracture patterns identified via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and XRD. Consideration is given to external loading and molecular characterization and crystallography of pineapple fiber to better understand its mechanical and thermal behavior.
Kunal Singha, Pintu Pandit, Sanjay Shrivastava

Effect of Extraction on the Mechanical, Physical and Biological Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fibres

Abstract
Natural fibres have been acknowledged as potential material in many countries and widely used in vast application due to its specific properties and positive environmental impact. Selection of natural fibres for research or applications is categorized as per availability in particular region. Pineapple leaf fibres (PALF) are well-known fibre in South-East Asia. Pineapple leaf contains only 2.5–3.5% fibre, covered by a hydrophobic waxy layer. Suitable extraction method is the main challenged to obtain good quality PALF for future applications. The methods for PALF extraction were classified into three main categories, manual, mechanical and retting method. Physical and mechanical properties of PALF may differ from the other PALF due to the different extraction method. Extraction of thousands of tons of PALF can be done only after harvesting the fruit. The extraction method was chosen based on different criteria that involve cost of manufacturing, PALF stiffness, physical appearances and time consumption. This topic aims to indicate different extraction methods to obtain PALF and discussed on its physical and mechanical properties.
A. Rafiqah, K. Abdan, M. Nasir, M. Asim

Improving the Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fibres by Chemical Treatments

Abstract
Natural fibres such as pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) have the advantages of low density, lightweight, low cost, biodegradability and renewability. Recently, many research works have been conducted all over the world on utilization of natural fibres as a reinforcing material for composites for variety of applications. Nonetheless, the inherent lack of good compatibility of natural fibre towards the polymer matrices limits the utilization of natural fibre for reinforcing agent in composites less attractive. For that reason, chemical treatments are considered in modifying the fibre properties which aimed at improving the compatibility of fibre and the polymer matrix. Chemical treatments of PALF can help clean the fibre surface, modify the surface and increase the surface roughness. Ultimately, moisture absorption is reduced in the treated fibre reinforced composites which results in enhancements of mechanical properties. In this article, effect of chemical treatment on the properties of PALF and PALF-reinforced polymer composites is discussed and different chemical treatment with their functions is listed. Recent studies dealing with chemical-treated PALF-reinforced composites have also been cited.
R. Siakeng, M. Jawaid, Paridah Md. Tahir, S. Siengchin, M. Asim

Chemical, Physical and Biological Treatments of Pineapple Leaf Fibres

Abstract
Pineapple leaves are known as organic wastes that left behind after pineapple fruit have been harvested. In Malaysia, waste management of these leaves is improving time to time, whereby the leaves are collected and consigned for research and industry utilization. Based on studies, pineapple leaf contains an amount of 2.5–3.5% of fibres that layered by hydrophobic waxy substances. The fibres of pineapple leaf (PALF) are extracted and beneficial in textile industry since eighteenth century. In order to optimised the usage of the PALF in high technology application which not only in textile industry, thus, numerous chemicals, physicals and biological or even combination of fibre treatments are applied by researchers and industrial players. For instance, the PALF is recognized as suitable candidates as reinforcing agent in polymeric matrices due to its high specific strength and sustainability. It is proved that attributable to inexpensive, abundant and good mechanical strength obtained by controlling the treatment methods has positioned the PALF as popular fibres in the development of functionalized smart and intelligent products.
F. N. M. Padzil, Z. M. A. Ainun, Naziratulasikin Abu Kassim, S. H. Lee, C. H. Lee, Hidayah Ariffin, Edi Syams Zainudin

Physical, Morphological, Structural, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fibers

Abstract
Natural fibers have drawn significant attention globally for its adverse effect on the environment, lower cost and superior performance. Leaf or hard fibers are tough plant fibers, extracted from leaves of a monocotyledonous plant which has parallel-veined leaves. Pineapple leaf fibers (PALFs) are usually disposed of with an extremely low value due to lack of adequate skills. With a suitable platform, it can be fully utilized. PALF was found to be very high in cellulose contents which contribute to high strength performance. However, various factors make it perform differently. The changes in density and diameter of PALF had been found closely related to its strength. Apart from this, surface morphology of PALF reviewed that the location of leaf fiber and surface conditions provided various interlocking quality and optimum applications. On the other hand, PALF treatment observed better strength properties with evidence under infrared spectroscopy. The nanofibrils PALF from acid hydrolysis treatment provided better adhesion force and higher crystallinity index but high hydrophilicity verified by high moisture absorptions. Higher crystallinity index provided the fiber a good strength performance and an excellent spinnability, which allows it to be used in yarn and textile industries. On the contrary, high cellulose content of PALF has a promising fire-retardant behavior. PALF has a high potential for advanced material substitutions. Unfortunately, underutilized PALF is only disposed of as landfills and low-cost feedstock. The development and utilization of PALF could be the solution for the disposal problem as well as to increase the national income of a country.
C. H. Lee, A. Khalina, S. H. Lee, F. N. M. Padzil, Z. M. A. Ainun

Improving Flame Retardancy of Pineapple Leaf Fibers

Abstract
Pineapple leaf fibers (PALF) are very suitable to act as reinforcing composite matrixes. Nevertheless, PALF is highly susceptible to the risk of fire hazard. Therefore, priority is often being placed in order to improve the fire retardancy of the PALF and its composite products. This chapter discusses the behavior of natural fibers in fire and various fire properties testing methods that can evaluate the fire performance of natural fibers. Different conventional fire retardant additives and its effects to the PALF fibers and its resultant composites are also been reviewed. Aluminum trihydroxide is the most popular flame retardant in the world. However, due to the prohibition of halogenated retardants, phosphorus-based flame retardants are expected to witness a gratifying market gains in the next few years. Flame retardants that are commonly used in improving flame retardancy of a material could be divided into reactive retardants, active fillers, and inert fillers. It also can be categorized based on their chemical nature, namely phosphorus-, halogen-, silicon-, and mineral-based flame retardants as well as nanometric particles. Different types of flame retardants have different mode of action and, therefore, is also functioned differently, where the mode of action of a flame retardant can be conveniently classified into physical action and chemical action.
S. H. Lee, C. H. Lee, Z. M. A. Ainun, F. N. M. Padzil, Wei Chen Lum, Zakiah Ahmad

Green Acoustic Absorber from Pineapple Leaf Fibers

Abstract
The environmental issue becomes the central topic in the discussion for the last decade. Scientific works to overcome the problems are thus progressing including finding the alternative natural materials to replace the conventional synthetic ones. This chapter discusses the use of natural fibers extracted from pineapple leaf as natural acoustic absorber. The preparation for absorber samples is discussed, and the effects of fiber density, sample thickness, and introduction of backed air gap were measured using normal field incidence method in an impedance tube. The measured results reveal that the pineapple fibers can have good sound absorption above 500 Hz for thickness of 30 mm and density of 117 kg/m3. Almost the same performance can be achieved for thickness of 20 mm by introducing backed air gap of 20 mm. The effect of the quarter-wavelength with the presence of backed air gap can be clearly observed where this can be used as the design guide to determine the required thickness of the absorber.
Azma Putra, Iwan Prasetiyo, Zulkefli Selamat

Physicochemical Properties of Nanocellulose Extracted from Pineapple Leaf Fibres and Its Composites

Abstract
Significant advancement on cellulose-based biomaterial research has also led to the development of nano-sized pineapple leaf cellulose fibres with wide application potentials. The present chapter presents the comprehensive review of cellulose fibre structure extracted from different pineapple varieties, covering some aspects related to the structure of this natural cellulose in terms of its morphology, chemical, physical and mechanical properties. This chapter also briefly introduces the fundamentals of nanocellulose and discussed the isolation and properties of pineapple leaf cellulose nanofibrils, nanofibrillated cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals in view to open further areas of composite study on the ideal selection of these nanomaterials for industrial use.
Ismail Muhamad Fareez, Nazmul Haque, Der Juin Ooi, Ainil Hawa Jasni, Fauziah Abd Aziz

Cellulose Nanostructures Extracted from Pineapple Fibres

Abstract
The fibres from pineapple plant leaves and pineapple crown leaves are unprocessed wastes with high cellulose content (74–83 wt%) that are environmentally and economically interesting as source to extract cellulose nanostructures (CNs). CNs are materials with unique and remarkable properties that can be used in several high value-added applications. This chapter covers the main topics related to the isolation of CN from pineapple fibres. The main types of CN (cellulose nanocrystals, cellulose nanofibres, amorphous nanocellulose, hairy nanocrystalline cellulose and cellulose nanoyarn) are presented. The advantages of using pineapple fibre wastes to produce CN are addressed. The hierarchical structure and chemical composition of the lignocellulosic fibres are described, as well as the existing pretreatment and treatment methods (chemical, enzymatic and mechanical) for extracting CN from pineapple fibres. This chapter also covers the characterization, modification and potential applications of CN isolated from pineapple fibres, such as in the production of biomedical devices and biodegradable bio-nanocomposites.
Karen S. Prado, Asaph A. Jacinto, Márcia A. S. Spinacé

Tensile Behaviour of Centrally Holed Pineapple Fibre Reinforced Vinyl Ester Composites

Abstract
The composite parts having holes need to experimentally examined for understanding their behaviour under mechanical loading conditions. So, an initial attempt was made to reinforce the locally available pineapple leaf fibre in as-is condition and after chemical treatment into vinyl ester matrix for preparation of the composites according to ASTM D5766/5766M—07 standard by rolling cum hand lay-up technique. Drilling holes of 3, 6 and 8 mm in diameter was performed slowly and carefully without disturbing the fibres in matrix. Fibres were examined under SEM and its diameter is in the range of 3.12–16.6 µm. Unwanted impurities cum waxy materials washed away from the fibre after alkali treatment and were confirmed from the SEM image. Plain, untreated pineapple leaf fibre composites tensile strength was decreased up to 6 mm hole and thereafter, it was increased. Similar trend was observed after determination of modulus of the composites. However, treated fibre composites tensile strength and modulus were improved beyond the 3 mm hole. Tensile fractured specimens revealed the fibre–matrix interactions.
Nadendla Srinivasababu

Micromechanical Modelling and Evaluation of Pineapple Leaves Fibre (PALF) Composites Through Representative Volume Element Method

Abstract
Owing to the present scenario of industries, a massive demand for sustainable green materials made of natural fibre is provoking. Besides, the cost involved in experimental trails could be reduced. Perhaps, experimental never reflects the ideal conditions of any materials system due to their natural heterogeneity. In the present study, an attempt is made to develop a representative volume element (RVE)-based micromechanical model to evaluate mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) composites numerically before being fabricated really. A 3D model of RVE is prepared using finite element analysis software ANSYS®15 in the unit cell. To model the perfect fibre–matrix bonding, RVE modelled with both the square and hexagonal array of packaging. Results on longitudinal modulus, transverse modulus, in-plane Poisson’s ratio and shear modulus of PALF composites as a function of varying fibre loading (10–50 wt% in steps of 10) have been done. Present numerical prediction (RVE) for PALF composites is compared with different analytical models like parallel and series model, Hirsah’s model and Halpin–Tsai model and concluded with proper agreements.
Yashwant S. Munde, Ravindra B. Ingle, Avinash S. Shinde, Siva Irulappasamy

Fabrication of Pineapple Leaf Fibers Reinforced Composites

Abstract
Consumers are more aware of environmental impacts and climatic problems, which leads to a greater demand for products with technological innovations. Research has the aim to replace and reduce raw materials from fossil sources to renewable sources, such as the natural fibers. Natural fiber composites result from the blending of two materials: one is the plastic and the other a fiber, from agricultural waste in most of the cases. Compared to polymers from fossil sources, this new material has three main advantages: they have an environmental approved; low cost and its physical and mechanical properties are superior. The cultivation of this fruit is large in many tropical countries. After harvesting, the fruit and shoots are removed, and the rest needs to be cut and removed from the soil. This material, most leaves, becomes waste and goes to disposal. However, the use of pineapple leaf fibers as a raw material for natural fiber composites production helps to reduce the pollution caused by these residues and can increase the income of pineapple producers making a channel to new business. To have success in producing NFC, it is necessary to understand process techniques; to the adhesion between fiber and the polymer; the ratio of polymer and natural fiber; and the market (automotive, construction, etc.). But, after reading this chapter, it will be possible to conclude that there is a huge opportunity to improve the natural fibers market in front of the other reinforcements because of their properties.
I. Cesarino, M. B. Carnietto, G. R. F. Bronzato, A. L. Leao

Pineapple Leaf Fibres for Automotive Applications

Abstract
Fibre-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) are playing a significant role in manufacturing of goods/products in service for lightweight applications. Among FRPCs, natural fibre-reinforced polymer composites (NFRPCs) are one in forefront and replacing both the conventional and unconventional reinforced composites since they are eco friendly in nature and have several benefits like low price, ease of manufacturing, denseness, biodegradability, etc. In this chapter, a solemn attempt is made to study the pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) bolstered with polymer matrix composites (PMCs). PALFs are rich in cellulose, comparatively cheap and extravagantly available. PALFs reinforced with polymers such as thermoplastic/thermoset matrices are widely used in automotive sectors. PALF-reinforced polymer matrix composites have a wide range of applications in automotive industries, manufacturing of dashboards, package trays, door panels, headliners, seat backs, interior parts and many other parts. This chapter also explores the type of NFRPCs used by several automotive organizations.
Beyanagari Sudheer Reddy, M. Rajesh, Edwin Sudhakar, Ariful Rahaman, Jayakrishna Kandasamy, M. T. H. Sultan

Pineapple Leaf Fibers: Potential Green Resources for Pulp and Paper Production

Abstract
In recent decades, advances in pulp and paper making involve immense chopping of trees, which consecutively leads to clearing of forests. Rising contest for provisions of wood fibers combined with progressively increasing expenses of wood has caused increased attention in the consumption of agricultural residues for pulp and paper manufacturing in the developed and developing nations. The utilization of natural cellulosic plant residues in pulping and paper production might be necessary since it avoids the necessity for clearance, which presently rises the expenditures of farming and induces ecological deterioration by toxic wastes. The significant goals of this chapter are threefold; (1) to examine the requirements for utilization and improvement of natural cellulosic plant fibers in pulping and paper making; (2) to recognize the various issues related with the utilization of natural plant residues in pulp and paper production, and remedies accessible; and (3) to examine the prospects of various natural cellulosic plant fibers for pulp and paper making and recognize the potential of using pineapple leaf fiber as an alternate source materials in pulp and paper manufacturing mills. Better mechanical characteristics, a renewable resource, and reasonable price are some of the leading aspects that make great prospective of pineapple leaf fibers to be employed as a replacement for conventional wood fibers in pulp and paper production industries.
A. Praveen Kumar

Performance of Surface Modified Pineapple Leaf Fiber and Its Applications

Abstract
Development of pineapple leaf fiber (PALF)-based polymer composites has gain interests due to sustainable and environmental benefits when compared with synthetic-based non-degradable fibers. However, the hydrophilic PALF has poor interfacial bonding with the thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers which are hydrophobic. Moreover, this hydrophilic nature of PLAF leads to more moisture absorption rate, which results in degradation of overall properties. This issue can be addressed by modifying the surface of the fibers. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the effect of fiber surface modification on various properties and adhesion with polymers is a key for improving the performance of the PALF and its composites. In this context, the performance of surface modified PALF and its applications are elaborately discussed in this chapter.
G. Rajeshkumar, S. Ramakrishnan, T. Pugalenthi, P. Ravikumar
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