Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Journal of Business Ethics 2/2022

04-01-2021 | Original Paper

Place Matters: (Dis)embeddedness and Child Labourers’ Experiences of Depersonalized Bullying in Indian Bt Cottonseed Global Production Networks

Authors: Premilla D’Cruz, Ernesto Noronha, Muneeb Ul Lateef Banday, Saikat Chakraborty

Published in: Journal of Business Ethics | Issue 2/2022

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

Engaging Polanyi’s embeddedness–disembeddedness framework, this study explored the work experiences of Bhil children employed in Indian Bt cottonseed GPNs. The innovative visual technique of drawings followed by interviews was used. Migrant children, working under debt bondage, underwent greater exploitation and perennial and severe depersonalized bullying, indicative of commodification of labour and disembeddedness. In contrast, children working in their home villages were not under debt bondage and underwent less exploitation and occasional and mild depersonalized bullying, indicative of how civil society organizations, along with the state, attempt to re-embed economic activities in the social context. Polanyi’s double movement was evident. ‘Place’ emerged as the pivotal factor determining children’s experiences. A ‘protective alliance’ of community controls and social power, associated with in-group affiliations and cohesive ties, stemming from a common village and tribal identity, aided children working at home for Bhil farmers. ‘Asymmetric intergroup inequality’ due to pronounced social identity and class differences, coupled with locational constraints and developmental disadvantage, made migrant children vulnerable targets. Social embeddedness influences how child workers are treated because it forces employers to be ethical and not engage in bullying. However, by shifting production to children’s home villages, there is an attempt to obscure the difference between child labour and child work. Thus, the seeds of disembeddedness are sown through the very act of re-embeddeding, potentially hampering future interventions.
Footnotes
1
The Bhils are one of the major Adivasi (first people) groups of Western and Central India. They consist of multiple sub-groups such as Bhilalas, Barelas and Naiks (Sinha 2017). These groups typically retain their own traditional and cultural practices and are marginalized from mainstream Hindu ritual praxis (Roche 2000). The Bhils inhabit the largely hilly regions of Northeastern Maharashtra, Eastern Gujarat, Southern Rajasthan and Western Madhya Pradesh. This is denoted as the ‘Bhil culture zone’ because the Bhils once shared a common language, Bhili. The Bhili dialect of Wagdi, spoken in the Southern Rajasthan region where our participants came from, incorporates features of Gujarati [the regional language], dialects such as Mewari and Malvi as well as elements of Hindi [the national language] (Phillips 2012).
 
2
Depersonalized bullying involves employers’ adoption of abuse and aggression in their interactions with employees as the former pursue profits. Depersonalized bullying lacks a target orientation but is impersonal and applied uniformly across the workforce by business owners, leaders, managers and supervisors, as a means of ensuring employee task performance in the quest for competitiveness (D’Cruz and Noronha 2009).
 
3
Names of all 5 villages included in the study are withheld to maintain confidentiality.
 
4
The removal of stamens/anthers or the killing of pollen grains of a flower is done with the thumbnail in a single twirl. This action, without damaging the fragile pistil or the ovaries of the flower, is known as emasculation. The pistil of the emasculated bud is tagged with a red plastic square. The purpose of emasculation is to prevent self-fertilization in the female parent flowers (Ramamurthy 2011; Venkateswarlu 2004).
 
5
I: Interviewer; P: Participant
 
Literature
go back to reference Ballet, J., & Bhukuth, A. (2010). About the worst forms of child labour. Briefing Notes in Economics, 82, 1–7. Ballet, J., & Bhukuth, A. (2010). About the worst forms of child labour. Briefing Notes in Economics, 82, 1–7.
go back to reference Ballet, J., Bhukuth, A., & Carimentrand, A. (2014). Child labor and responsible consumers: From boycotts to social labels, illustrated by the Indian hand-knotted carpet industry. Business & Society, 53(1), 71–104. Ballet, J., Bhukuth, A., & Carimentrand, A. (2014). Child labor and responsible consumers: From boycotts to social labels, illustrated by the Indian hand-knotted carpet industry. Business & Society, 53(1), 71–104.
go back to reference Banday, M. U. L., Chakraborty, S., D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2018). Abuse faced by child labourers: Novel territory in workplace bullying. In P. D’Cruz, E. Noronha, A. Mendonca, & N. Mishra (Eds.), Indian perspectives on workplace bullying: A decade of insights (pp. 173–204). Singapore: Springer. Banday, M. U. L., Chakraborty, S., D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2018). Abuse faced by child labourers: Novel territory in workplace bullying. In P. D’Cruz, E. Noronha, A. Mendonca, & N. Mishra (Eds.), Indian perspectives on workplace bullying: A decade of insights (pp. 173–204). Singapore: Springer.
go back to reference Beale, D., & Hoel, H. (2011). Workplace bullying and the employment relationship: Exploring questions of prevention, control and context. Work, Employment and Society, 25(1), 5–18. Beale, D., & Hoel, H. (2011). Workplace bullying and the employment relationship: Exploring questions of prevention, control and context. Work, Employment and Society, 25(1), 5–18.
go back to reference Block. F. (2001). Introduction. In: K. Polanyi (Eds),  The great transformation: The political and economic origins of our time (pp. xviii–xxxviii). Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Block. F. (2001). Introduction. In: K. Polanyi (Eds),  The great transformation: The political and economic origins of our time (pp. xviii–xxxviii). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
go back to reference Bolton, S. C., & Laaser, K. (2013). Work, employment and society through the lens of moral economy. Work, Employment and Society, 27(3), 508–525. Bolton, S. C., & Laaser, K. (2013). Work, employment and society through the lens of moral economy. Work, Employment and Society, 27(3), 508–525.
go back to reference Brauer, M., & Bourhis, R. Y. (2006). Social power. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36(4), 601–616. Brauer, M., & Bourhis, R. Y. (2006). Social power. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36(4), 601–616.
go back to reference Breman, J., & Van der Linden, M. (2014). Informalizing the economy: The return of the social question at a global level. Development and Change, 45(5), 920–940. Breman, J., & Van der Linden, M. (2014). Informalizing the economy: The return of the social question at a global level. Development and Change, 45(5), 920–940.
go back to reference Broussine, M. (Ed.). (2008). Creative methods in organizational research. New Delhi: Sage. Broussine, M. (Ed.). (2008). Creative methods in organizational research. New Delhi: Sage.
go back to reference Buckingham, D. (2009). Creative visual methods in media research: Possibilities, problems and proposals. Media, Culture & Society, 31(4), 633–652. Buckingham, D. (2009). Creative visual methods in media research: Possibilities, problems and proposals. Media, Culture & Society, 31(4), 633–652.
go back to reference Buğra, A. (2007). Polanyi’s concept of double movement and politics in the contemporary market society. In A. Bugra & K. Agartan (Eds.), Reading Karl Polanyi for the twenty-first century (pp. 173–189). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Buğra, A. (2007). Polanyi’s concept of double movement and politics in the contemporary market society. In A. Bugra & K. Agartan (Eds.), Reading Karl Polanyi for the twenty-first century (pp. 173–189). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
go back to reference Burawoy, M. (2010). From Polanyi to Pollyanna: The false optimism of global labor studies. Global Labor Journal, 1(2), 301–314. Burawoy, M. (2010). From Polanyi to Pollyanna: The false optimism of global labor studies. Global Labor Journal, 1(2), 301–314.
go back to reference Chaulia, S. (2002). Social clause in WTO: Cases for and against. Economic and Political Weekly, 37(7), 613–616. Chaulia, S. (2002). Social clause in WTO: Cases for and against. Economic and Political Weekly, 37(7), 613–616.
go back to reference Coe, N. M., Dicken, P., & Hess, M. (2008). Global production networks: Realizing the potential. Journal of Economic Geography, 8(3), 271–295. Coe, N. M., Dicken, P., & Hess, M. (2008). Global production networks: Realizing the potential. Journal of Economic Geography, 8(3), 271–295.
go back to reference Czaban, L., & Henderson, J. (2003). Commodity chains, foreign investment and labour issues in Eastern Europe. Global Networks, 3(2), 171–196. Czaban, L., & Henderson, J. (2003). Commodity chains, foreign investment and labour issues in Eastern Europe. Global Networks, 3(2), 171–196.
go back to reference Dale, G. (2011). Positivism and ‘functional theory’ in the thought of Karl Polanyi, 1907–1922. Sociology Compass, 5(2), 148–164. Dale, G. (2011). Positivism and ‘functional theory’ in the thought of Karl Polanyi, 1907–1922. Sociology Compass, 5(2), 148–164.
go back to reference D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2009). Experiencing depersonalized bullying: A study of Indian call centre agents. Work Organization, Labour and Globalization, 3(1), 26–46. D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2009). Experiencing depersonalized bullying: A study of Indian call centre agents. Work Organization, Labour and Globalization, 3(1), 26–46.
go back to reference De Neve, G. (2009). Power, inequality and corporate social responsibility: The politics of ethical compliance in the South Indian garment industry. Economic and Political Weekly, 44(2), 63–71. De Neve, G. (2009). Power, inequality and corporate social responsibility: The politics of ethical compliance in the South Indian garment industry. Economic and Political Weekly, 44(2), 63–71.
go back to reference De Neve, G. (2014). Fordism, flexible specialization and CSR: How Indian garment workers critique neoliberal labour regimes. Ethnography, 15(2), 184–207. De Neve, G. (2014). Fordism, flexible specialization and CSR: How Indian garment workers critique neoliberal labour regimes. Ethnography, 15(2), 184–207.
go back to reference DeLamater, J. D., & Myers, D. J. (2007). Social psychology. Belmont, CA: Thomson. DeLamater, J. D., & Myers, D. J. (2007). Social psychology. Belmont, CA: Thomson.
go back to reference Delaney, A., Burchielli, R., & Tate, J. (2016). Corporate CSR responses to homework and child labour in the Indian and Pakistan leather sector. In K. Grosser, L. McCarthy, & M. Kilgour (Eds.), Gender equality and responsible business (pp. 170–184). Leeds: Greenleaf. Delaney, A., Burchielli, R., & Tate, J. (2016). Corporate CSR responses to homework and child labour in the Indian and Pakistan leather sector. In K. Grosser, L. McCarthy, & M. Kilgour (Eds.), Gender equality and responsible business (pp. 170–184). Leeds: Greenleaf.
go back to reference Ellem, B., & Shields, J. (1999). Rethinking “regional industrial relations”: Space, place and the social relations of work. Journal of Industrial Relations, 41(4), 536–560. Ellem, B., & Shields, J. (1999). Rethinking “regional industrial relations”: Space, place and the social relations of work. Journal of Industrial Relations, 41(4), 536–560.
go back to reference England, K. V. (1994). Getting personal: Reflexivity, positionality, and feminist research. The Professional Geographer, 46(1), 80–89. England, K. V. (1994). Getting personal: Reflexivity, positionality, and feminist research. The Professional Geographer, 46(1), 80–89.
go back to reference Gómez-Paredes, J., Alsamawi, A., Yamasue, E., Okumura, H., Ishihara, K. N., Geschke, A., & Lenzen, M. (2016). Consuming childhoods: An assessment of child labor’s role in Indian production and global consumption. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 20(3), 611–622. Gómez-Paredes, J., Alsamawi, A., Yamasue, E., Okumura, H., Ishihara, K. N., Geschke, A., & Lenzen, M. (2016). Consuming childhoods: An assessment of child labor’s role in Indian production and global consumption. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 20(3), 611–622.
go back to reference Guillemin, M. (2004). Understanding illness: Using drawings as a research method. Qualitative Health Research, 14(2), 272–289. Guillemin, M. (2004). Understanding illness: Using drawings as a research method. Qualitative Health Research, 14(2), 272–289.
go back to reference Harvey, D. (2014). The seventeen contradictions and the end of capitalism. London: Profile Books. Harvey, D. (2014). The seventeen contradictions and the end of capitalism. London: Profile Books.
go back to reference Herod, A., Rainnie, A., & McGrath-Champ, S. (2007). Working space: Why incorporating the geographical is central to theorizing work and employment practices. Work, Employment and Society, 21(2), 247–264. Herod, A., Rainnie, A., & McGrath-Champ, S. (2007). Working space: Why incorporating the geographical is central to theorizing work and employment practices. Work, Employment and Society, 21(2), 247–264.
go back to reference Hess, M. (2004). Spatial relationships? Towards a reconceptualization of embeddedness. Progress in Human Geography, 28(2), 165–186. Hess, M. (2004). Spatial relationships? Towards a reconceptualization of embeddedness. Progress in Human Geography, 28(2), 165–186.
go back to reference Hess, M., & Coe, N. M. (2006). Making connections: Global production networks, standards, and embeddedness in the mobile-telecommunications industry. Environment and Planning A, 38(7), 1205–1227. Hess, M., & Coe, N. M. (2006). Making connections: Global production networks, standards, and embeddedness in the mobile-telecommunications industry. Environment and Planning A, 38(7), 1205–1227.
go back to reference ILO. (2018). Ending child labour by 2025: A review of policies and programmes. Geneva: ILO. ILO. (2018). Ending child labour by 2025: A review of policies and programmes. Geneva: ILO.
go back to reference Kalleberg, A. (2009). Precarious work, insecure workers: Employment relations in transition. American Sociological Review, 74(1), 1–22. Kalleberg, A. (2009). Precarious work, insecure workers: Employment relations in transition. American Sociological Review, 74(1), 1–22.
go back to reference Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H. R. (2008). Social psychology. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning. Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H. R. (2008). Social psychology. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.
go back to reference Kolk, A., & Van Tulder, R. (2002). The effectiveness of self-regulation: Corporate codes of conduct and child labour. European Management Journal, 20(3), 260–271. Kolk, A., & Van Tulder, R. (2002). The effectiveness of self-regulation: Corporate codes of conduct and child labour. European Management Journal, 20(3), 260–271.
go back to reference Lane, C., & Probert, J. (2006). Domestic capabilities and global production networks in the clothing industry: A comparison of German and UK firms’ strategies. Socio-Economic Review, 4(1), 35–67. Lane, C., & Probert, J. (2006). Domestic capabilities and global production networks in the clothing industry: A comparison of German and UK firms’ strategies. Socio-Economic Review, 4(1), 35–67.
go back to reference Lane, C., & Probert, J. (2009). National capitalisms, global production networks: Fashioning the value chain in the UK, US, and Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lane, C., & Probert, J. (2009). National capitalisms, global production networks: Fashioning the value chain in the UK, US, and Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Langthaler, E., & Schüßler, E. (2019). Commodity studies with Polanyi: Disembedding and re-embedding labour and land in contemporary capitalism. Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie, 44(2), 209–223. Langthaler, E., & Schüßler, E. (2019). Commodity studies with Polanyi: Disembedding and re-embedding labour and land in contemporary capitalism. Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie, 44(2), 209–223.
go back to reference LaVan, H., & Martin, W. M. (2008). Bullying in the US workplace: Normative and process-oriented ethical approaches. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(2), 147–165. LaVan, H., & Martin, W. M. (2008). Bullying in the US workplace: Normative and process-oriented ethical approaches. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(2), 147–165.
go back to reference LaVan, H., & Martin, W. M. (2018). Ethical challenges in workplace bullying and harassment: Creating ethical awareness and sensitivity. In P. D’Cruz, E. Noronha, G. Notelaers, & G. Rayner (Eds.), Handbooks of workplace bullying, emotional abuse and harassment (Vol. 1). Singapore: Springer. LaVan, H., & Martin, W. M. (2018). Ethical challenges in workplace bullying and harassment: Creating ethical awareness and sensitivity. In P. D’Cruz, E. Noronha, G. Notelaers, & G. Rayner (Eds.), Handbooks of workplace bullying, emotional abuse and harassment (Vol. 1). Singapore: Springer.
go back to reference LeBaron, G., & Gore, E. (2019). Gender and forced labour: Understanding the links in global cocoa supply chains. The Journal of Development Studies, 56(6), 1095–1117. LeBaron, G., & Gore, E. (2019). Gender and forced labour: Understanding the links in global cocoa supply chains. The Journal of Development Studies, 56(6), 1095–1117.
go back to reference Lewis, H., Dwyer, P., Hodkinson, S., & Waite, L. (2015). Hyper-precarious lives: Migrants, work and forced labour in the Global North. Progress in Human Geography, 39(5), 580–600. Lewis, H., Dwyer, P., Hodkinson, S., & Waite, L. (2015). Hyper-precarious lives: Migrants, work and forced labour in the Global North. Progress in Human Geography, 39(5), 580–600.
go back to reference Literat, I. (2013). “A pencil for your thoughts”: Participatory drawing as a visual research method with children and youth. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 12(1), 84–98. Literat, I. (2013). “A pencil for your thoughts”: Participatory drawing as a visual research method with children and youth. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 12(1), 84–98.
go back to reference McCarthy, L., & Muthuri, J. N. (2018). Engaging fringe stakeholders in business and society research: Applying visual participatory research methods. Business & Society, 57(1), 131–173. McCarthy, L., & Muthuri, J. N. (2018). Engaging fringe stakeholders in business and society research: Applying visual participatory research methods. Business & Society, 57(1), 131–173.
go back to reference McKinney, K. (2013). Troubling notions of farmer choice: Hybrid Bt cotton seed production in western India. Journal of Peasant Studies, 40(2), 351–378. McKinney, K. (2013). Troubling notions of farmer choice: Hybrid Bt cotton seed production in western India. Journal of Peasant Studies, 40(2), 351–378.
go back to reference McKinney, K. (2014). Hybrid cottonseed production is children’s work: Making sense of migration and wage labor in western India. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 13(2), 404–423. McKinney, K. (2014). Hybrid cottonseed production is children’s work: Making sense of migration and wage labor in western India. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 13(2), 404–423.
go back to reference Mezzadri, A., & Fan, L. (2018). ‘Classes of labour’ at the margins of global commodity chains in India and China. Development and Change, 49(4), 1034–1063. Mezzadri, A., & Fan, L. (2018). ‘Classes of labour’ at the margins of global commodity chains in India and China. Development and Change, 49(4), 1034–1063.
go back to reference Nathan, D., & Posthuma, A. (2009). Implications of global production for Indian firms and labour: An introduction. Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 52(4), 557–564. Nathan, D., & Posthuma, A. (2009). Implications of global production for Indian firms and labour: An introduction. Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 52(4), 557–564.
go back to reference Noronha, E., D’Cruz, P., & Banday, M. U. L. (2020). Navigating embeddedness: experiences of Indian it suppliers and employees in the Netherlands. Journal of Business Ethics, 164(1), 95–113. Noronha, E., D’Cruz, P., & Banday, M. U. L. (2020). Navigating embeddedness: experiences of Indian it suppliers and employees in the Netherlands. Journal of Business Ethics, 164(1), 95–113.
go back to reference Pauwels, L. (2015). ‘Participatory’ visual research revisited: A critical-constructive assessment of epistemological, methodological and social activist tenets. Ethnography, 16(1), 95–117. Pauwels, L. (2015). ‘Participatory’ visual research revisited: A critical-constructive assessment of epistemological, methodological and social activist tenets. Ethnography, 16(1), 95–117.
go back to reference Peck, J. (2013). Disembedding Polanyi: Exploring Polanyian economic geographies. Environment and Planning A, 45(7), 1536–1544. Peck, J. (2013). Disembedding Polanyi: Exploring Polanyian economic geographies. Environment and Planning A, 45(7), 1536–1544.
go back to reference Phillips, M.P. (2012). Dialect continuum in the Bhil tribal belt: Grammatical aspects. PhD thesis, SOAS, University of London Phillips, M.P. (2012). Dialect continuum in the Bhil tribal belt: Grammatical aspects. PhD thesis, SOAS, University of London
go back to reference Phillips, N., Bhaskaran, R., Nathan, D., & Upendranadh, C. (2014). The social foundations of global production networks: Towards a global political economy of child labour. Third World Quarterly, 35(3), 428–446. Phillips, N., Bhaskaran, R., Nathan, D., & Upendranadh, C. (2014). The social foundations of global production networks: Towards a global political economy of child labour. Third World Quarterly, 35(3), 428–446.
go back to reference Polanyi, K. (1944/2001). The great transformation: The political and economic origins of our time. New York: Farrar & Rinehart/Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Polanyi, K. (1944/2001). The great transformation: The political and economic origins of our time. New York: Farrar & Rinehart/Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
go back to reference Rainnie, A., Herod, A., & Champ, S. M. (2007). Spatialising industrial relations. Industrial Relations Journal, 38(2), 102–118. Rainnie, A., Herod, A., & Champ, S. M. (2007). Spatialising industrial relations. Industrial Relations Journal, 38(2), 102–118.
go back to reference Ramamurthy, P. (2011). Rearticulating caste: The global cottonseed commodity chain and the paradox of smallholder capitalism in South India. Environment and Planning A, 43(5), 1035–1056. Ramamurthy, P. (2011). Rearticulating caste: The global cottonseed commodity chain and the paradox of smallholder capitalism in South India. Environment and Planning A, 43(5), 1035–1056.
go back to reference Rees, C. (2018). Drawing on drawings: Moving beyond text in health professions education research. Perspectives on Medical Education, 7(3), 166–173. Rees, C. (2018). Drawing on drawings: Moving beyond text in health professions education research. Perspectives on Medical Education, 7(3), 166–173.
go back to reference Reinecke, J., Donaghey, J., Wilkinson, A., & Wood, G. (2018). Global supply chains and social relations at work: Brokering across boundaries. Human Relations, 71(4), 459–480. Reinecke, J., Donaghey, J., Wilkinson, A., & Wood, G. (2018). Global supply chains and social relations at work: Brokering across boundaries. Human Relations, 71(4), 459–480.
go back to reference Rhodes, C., Pullen, A., Vickers, M. H., Clegg, S. R., & Pitsis, A. (2010). Violence and workplace bullying: What are an organization’s ethical responsibilities? Administrative Theory and Praxis, 32(1), 96–115. Rhodes, C., Pullen, A., Vickers, M. H., Clegg, S. R., & Pitsis, A. (2010). Violence and workplace bullying: What are an organization’s ethical responsibilities? Administrative Theory and Praxis, 32(1), 96–115.
go back to reference Roche, D. (2000). The “Dḩāk”, Devi Amba’s hourglass drum in tribal Southern Rajasthan India. Asian Music, 32(1), 59–99. Roche, D. (2000). The “Dḩāk”, Devi Amba’s hourglass drum in tribal Southern Rajasthan India. Asian Music, 32(1), 59–99.
go back to reference Shortt, H. L., & Warren, S. K. (2019). Grounded visual pattern analysis: Photographs in organizational field studies. Organizational Research Methods, 22(2), 539–563. Shortt, H. L., & Warren, S. K. (2019). Grounded visual pattern analysis: Photographs in organizational field studies. Organizational Research Methods, 22(2), 539–563.
go back to reference Singh, S. (2008). Gender and child labour in cottonseed production in India: A case study of Gujarat. Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 51(3), 445–458. Singh, S. (2008). Gender and child labour in cottonseed production in India: A case study of Gujarat. Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 51(3), 445–458.
go back to reference Singh, S. (2017). “White gold” for whom? A study of institutional aspects of work and wages in cotton GPNs in India. In E. Noronha & P. D’Cruz (Eds.), Critical perspectives on work and employment in globalizing India (pp. 15–36). Singapore: Springer. Singh, S. (2017). “White gold” for whom? A study of institutional aspects of work and wages in cotton GPNs in India. In E. Noronha & P. D’Cruz (Eds.), Critical perspectives on work and employment in globalizing India (pp. 15–36). Singapore: Springer.
go back to reference Smith, E. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2007). Social psychology. New York: Taylor & Francis. Smith, E. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2007). Social psychology. New York: Taylor & Francis.
go back to reference Soundararajan, V., Spence, L. J., & Rees, C. (2018). Small business and social irresponsibility in developing countries: Working conditions and “evasion” institutional work. Business & Society, 57(7), 1301–1336. Soundararajan, V., Spence, L. J., & Rees, C. (2018). Small business and social irresponsibility in developing countries: Working conditions and “evasion” institutional work. Business & Society, 57(7), 1301–1336.
go back to reference Soylu, S., & Sheehy-Skeffington, J. (2015). Asymmetric intergroup bullying: The enactment and maintenance of societal inequality at work. Human Relations, 68(7), 1099–1129. Soylu, S., & Sheehy-Skeffington, J. (2015). Asymmetric intergroup bullying: The enactment and maintenance of societal inequality at work. Human Relations, 68(7), 1099–1129.
go back to reference Srivastava, R (2020). Understanding circular migration in India: Its nature and dimensions, the crisis under lockdown and the response of the State (Paper No. WP 04/2020). New Delhi: Centre for Employment Studies, Institute for Human Development. Srivastava, R (2020). Understanding circular migration in India: Its nature and dimensions, the crisis under lockdown and the response of the State (Paper No. WP 04/2020). New Delhi: Centre for Employment Studies, Institute for Human Development.
go back to reference Standing, G. (2007). Labor recommodification in the global transformation. In B. Ayşe & K. Ağartan (Eds.), Reading Karl Polanyi for the twenty-first century: Market economy as a political project (pp. 67–94). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Standing, G. (2007). Labor recommodification in the global transformation. In B. Ayşe & K. Ağartan (Eds.), Reading Karl Polanyi for the twenty-first century: Market economy as a political project (pp. 67–94). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
go back to reference Stiles, D. R. (2014). Drawing as a method of organizational analysis. In E. Bell, S. Warren, & J. Schroeder (Eds.), The Routledge companion to visual organization (pp. 227–242). Abingdon: Routledge. Stiles, D. R. (2014). Drawing as a method of organizational analysis. In E. Bell, S. Warren, & J. Schroeder (Eds.), The Routledge companion to visual organization (pp. 227–242). Abingdon: Routledge.
go back to reference Strangleman, T. (2017). Deindustrialisation and the historical sociological imagination: Making sense of work and industrial change. Sociology, 51(2), 466–482. Strangleman, T. (2017). Deindustrialisation and the historical sociological imagination: Making sense of work and industrial change. Sociology, 51(2), 466–482.
go back to reference Tay-Lim, J., & Lim, S. (2013). Privileging younger children’s voices in research: Use of drawings and a co-construction process. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 12(1), 65–83. Tay-Lim, J., & Lim, S. (2013). Privileging younger children’s voices in research: Use of drawings and a co-construction process. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 12(1), 65–83.
go back to reference Thomas, N., & O’Kane, C. (1998). The ethics of participatory research with children. Children & Society, 12(5), 336–348. Thomas, N., & O’Kane, C. (1998). The ethics of participatory research with children. Children & Society, 12(5), 336–348.
go back to reference van Daalen, E., & Hanson, K. (2019). The ILO’s shifts in child labour policy: Regulation and abolition. In: C. Gironde & G. Carbonnier (Eds), The ILO @ 100: Addressing the past and future of work and social protection. Leiden & Boston: Brill/Nijhoff, pp. 133–151 van Daalen, E., & Hanson, K. (2019). The ILO’s shifts in child labour policy: Regulation and abolition. In: C. Gironde & G. Carbonnier (Eds), The ILO @ 100: Addressing the past and future of work and social protection. Leiden & Boston: Brill/Nijhoff, pp. 133–151
go back to reference Vanderstaay, S. L. (2005). One hundred dollars and a dead man: Ethical decision making in ethnographic fieldwork. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 34(4), 371–409. Vanderstaay, S. L. (2005). One hundred dollars and a dead man: Ethical decision making in ethnographic fieldwork. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 34(4), 371–409.
go back to reference Venkateswarlu, D., & Ramakrishna, R. V. S. S. (2015). Escalation of child labour depresses adult wages. Journal of People’s Studies, 1(1), 52–65. Venkateswarlu, D., & Ramakrishna, R. V. S. S. (2015). Escalation of child labour depresses adult wages. Journal of People’s Studies, 1(1), 52–65.
go back to reference Vince, R., & Warren, S. (2012). Participatory visual methods. In C. Cassell & G. Symon (Eds.), Qualitative organizational research: Core methods and current challenges (pp. 275–295). London: Sage. Vince, R., & Warren, S. (2012). Participatory visual methods. In C. Cassell & G. Symon (Eds.), Qualitative organizational research: Core methods and current challenges (pp. 275–295). London: Sage.
go back to reference Ward, J., & Shortt, H. (2018). Drawing. In C. Cassell, A. L. Cunliffe, & G. Grandy (Eds.), Qualitative business and management research methods (Vol. 2, pp. 262–281). London: Sage. Ward, J., & Shortt, H. (2018). Drawing. In C. Cassell, A. L. Cunliffe, & G. Grandy (Eds.), Qualitative business and management research methods (Vol. 2, pp. 262–281). London: Sage.
go back to reference Webster, E., Lambert, R., & Bezuidenhout, A. (2008). Grounding globalization: Labour in the age of insecurity. Oxford: Blackwell. Webster, E., Lambert, R., & Bezuidenhout, A. (2008). Grounding globalization: Labour in the age of insecurity. Oxford: Blackwell.
go back to reference Wood, A. J., Graham, M., Lehdonvirta, V., & Hjorth, I. (2019). Networked but commodified: The (dis)embeddedness of digital labour in the gig economy. Sociology, 53(5), 931–950. Wood, A. J., Graham, M., Lehdonvirta, V., & Hjorth, I. (2019). Networked but commodified: The (dis)embeddedness of digital labour in the gig economy. Sociology, 53(5), 931–950.
Metadata
Title
Place Matters: (Dis)embeddedness and Child Labourers’ Experiences of Depersonalized Bullying in Indian Bt Cottonseed Global Production Networks
Authors
Premilla D’Cruz
Ernesto Noronha
Muneeb Ul Lateef Banday
Saikat Chakraborty
Publication date
04-01-2021
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
Journal of Business Ethics / Issue 2/2022
Print ISSN: 0167-4544
Electronic ISSN: 1573-0697
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04676-1

Other articles of this Issue 2/2022

Journal of Business Ethics 2/2022 Go to the issue

Premium Partner