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Planning Cities in Africa

Current Issues and Future Prospects of Urban Governance and Planning

Editors: Dr. Genet Alem Gebregiorgis, Prof. Stefan Greiving, Prof. Ally Hassan Namangaya, Prof. Wilbard Jackson Kombe

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Book Series : The Urban Book Series

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About this book

This open access book provides insights into challenges, threats and opportunities of urban development in Africa. It discusses how and why African cities need localised urban planning concepts and theories to deal with challenges and threats of rapid urbanisation and climate change. The book delivers an in-depth view of the nature and gaps of the framework on which current planning practice and education in Africa are based. With that, it discusses the potentials of African cities to mobilise local knowledge, resources and capacity building for sustained and resilient urban growth.

This work is addressed to educationists and practitioners in the field of urban development management, climate change adaptation and urban resilience. Specifically, such audiences include researchers, spatial planners, graduate students and member of civil societies working on urban development management.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 1. Planning Cities in Africa—Current Issues and Future Prospects of Urban Governance and Planning: An Introduction
Abstract
African urbanisation is at the crossroad. Despite the ever-growing urban challenges and rapid transformation of cities in Africa, there is a positive trend of knowledge production and dynamic policy reforms aiming at a better management of urbanisation and related development fields. The discourse on current African urban challenges and prospects is calling for a change of perspective in understanding urban Africa from its own sociocultural and historical context. Scholars, for instance, (Connell, Plan Theory 13:210–223, 2014), (Robinson, J. (2006) Ordinary cities: between modernity and development. London; New York: Routledge (Questioning cities); Robinson, Int J Urban Reg Res 35:1–23, 2011)) and (Watson, V. (2009) ‘Seeing from the South: Refocusing Urban Planning on the Globe’s Central Urban Issues’, 46(11), pp. 2259–2275; Watson, Plan Theory Pract 15:62–76, 2014b) argue that the diversity and uniqueness of each urban context developing at the intersection of local, regional and global challenges, threats and production of knowledge. In light of this, the chapter gives an insight into the conceptual framing of this book, including the key thematic areas; and an overview of topics covered by the chapters. The book has three thematic areas: planning theories and Models; the state of planning education and capacity; participatory and multi-governance approach towards current urban challenges. Under these themes, the chapter introduces several cases from various cities across Africa.
Genet Alem Gebregiorgis, Ally Hassan Namangaya, Stefan Greiving, Wilbard Jackson Kombe

Planning Theories and Models—Application and Local Challenges

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 2. The State, Trust and Cooperation: Local Government-Residents’ Joint Neighbourhood Upgrading Initiatives in Addis Ababa
Abstract
Collaborative planning is acknowledged to enable several positive outcomes including the building of local knowledge and capacities. It is deemed to facilitate mobilisation of resources, support, acceptance, coordination of action and ownership. However, the collaborative planning literature’s focus on techniques to perfect the process design (i.e., regarding modalities for structuring participation, communication and deliberations) to transform social and political institutions pays little attention to the penetration of planning practices by the overall institutional environment that impede or enable operationalising these techniques. And based on Western liberal realities, it presumes that a minimum level of trust and at least democratic culture and cooperative norms needed for collaborative planning exist everywhere. As de Satgé and Watson (Urban planning in the global south: conflicting rationalities in contested urban space, Springer, 2018) argue, the “thin and instrumental assumptions” that planning theories make regarding the applicability of public participation or collaborative planning do not fit in with what is on the ground in other contexts, such as what is found in many parts of Africa. The chapter aims to bring the state back into the collaborative planning discourse by analysing how government systems affect the conceptions and actions of the different urban actors in collective action. Through local government-residents’ joint urban upgrading projects in two localities of Addis Ababa, it provides insight into the link between government systems, trust, planning practices and cooperation.
Lia Gabremariam Woldetsadik

Open Access

Chapter 3. Street Vending in Downtown Rabat: In Resistance to Imported Urban Models
Abstract
In recent years street vending has become a major feature of the public space in downtown Rabat, Morocco’s capital city. Home to the Parliament and governmental institutions, downtown Rabat holds a powerful political symbolism in the collective representation of its inhabitants. Street vending is thus considered an intruder activity that must be banned from the area. However, history describes the downtown as a commercial zone where open-air markets—called Souks—were held regularly alongside brick-and-mortar shops before the advent of The French Protectorate in 1912, which transformed it into a “European zone” with a new “modern-formal” economy, pushing the local population to dwell in informal settlements and live from informal economy on the outskirts of the city. Through a historical analysis of the evolution of the downtown’s public space use induced by the French urban laws and models, and perpetuated by the Moroccan policies after independence, this chapter argues that itinerant trade belongs to the downtown as a central function and key element of its urban dynamics that has been disrupted by alien policies. This study makes an original contribution by evaluating the impact of colonial urban policies on urban informality in the Moroccan context. Results suggest that street vending, now considered as misappropriation of space by authorities, could be considered as a form of resistance to imported planning models and that efficient urban interventions depend on an in-depth understanding of rooted local urban design.
Wafae Bouallala

Open Access

Chapter 4. Revisiting Stokes’ Theory of Slums: Towards Decolonised Housing Concepts from the Global South
Abstract
Recently, large-scale housing programmes have experienced a revival in many countries of the Global South. They are criticised for their top-down, standardised, and supply-driven nature, which hardly meets people’s demands. At the heart of the problem lies the concept of “material decency”—a normative and shelter-centric notion of housing, inspired by colonial planning and developmentalist thought. Many African housing programmes confuse “material decency” with the demand-driven, bottom-up concept, of adequate housing. Following this, the stigmatisation of autoconstructed neighbourhoods prevails and housing is primarily reduced to a question of material shelter. Adding to significant contributions about the need for southern perspectives on urban planning, this chapter offers an alternative entry point by revisiting Stokes’ A Theory of Slums published in 1962. Interestingly, Stokes’ theory did not deal with housing directly but focused on “slum” dwellers’ socioeconomic integration and structural factors of exclusion. I argue to re-interpret Stokes’ notion of barriers to social escalation as a structural discrimination of “slum” dwellers. Such stigmatisation may be read as a major reason behind the proliferation of so-called slums. Based on the author’s fieldwork in Morocco and additional literature, the aim is to deconstruct the role of “material decency” and to offer pathways towards decolonised housing concepts from the Global South. For this purpose, the chapter suggests five cornerstones of adequate housing, namely subjectivity, non-materiality, flexibility, contextuality, and choice.
Raffael Beier

The state of Planning Education and Planning Capacity

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 5. In a State of Flux: Urban Planning Programmes in Asia and Africa
Abstract
The appropriateness of planning programmes in the Global South, heavily influenced by their colonial pasts and the content developed and taught in universities of the Global North, has been widely questioned. In recent years, contemporary urban challenges, as also highlightedNational Institute of Urban Affairs by the New Urban Agenda, demand that planning education step up and be a core lever of urban transformation. Grappling with legacies from the colonial past on one hand, and looking towards achieving sustainable change in future, where does planning education in post-colonial contexts currently stand? Taking seriously the intent of the programmes, this paper asks two interrelated questions of ten Master’s level planning programmes across Africa and Asia: Who is the programme intended for, and to what end? What are the various forms of knowledge the programme intends to impart, and how? This comparative, qualitative review of planning programmes from across the two regions highlights the similarities and variations in how planning and its education are viewed and approached by different institutions. With the planning discipline currently in a state of flux in post-colonial contexts, this discussion presents an opportunity for learning and innovation through South-South exchanges and partnerships—a critical, yet under-explored area for collaboration when compared with existing North–South knowledge exchange partnerships.
Geetika Anand, Nandini Dutta

Open Access

Chapter 6. Climate Change Adaptation and Planning Education in Southern Africa
Abstract
Cities in Southern Africa are experiencing a rapid rate of urbanisation, which exacerbates the impacts of climate change on cities. The recent droughts and water stress in Cape Town, South Africa and Windhoek, Namibia, impacts of Cyclone Idai that destroyed 90% of Beira city, and recurrent heatwaves are evidence of the impacts of climate change on cities in the region. Planners are responsible for the spatial configuration of spaces and places such that cities are safe, resilient, sustainable, and inclusive; hence planning for climate change is imperative. In this study, we argue that the recurrence of climate change-related disasters in Southern Africa reflects the lack of skills, knowledge and capabilities among planners to integrate climate change adaptation into urban planning processes. Like any other profession, planning practice is informed by education and training of the graduates, which influences their worldview and ideology that they take into the professional world. This study examines the contribution of planning education to climate change adaptation in Southern Africa, using the case of Zimbabwe, South Africa and Namibia. Using content analysis of course syllabi in terms of the pedagogy on climate change adaptation, the study identifies the knowledge, skills, and abilities schools impart to planning students. The study reveals that climate change is recognised as a planning dilemma, but it is yet to be integrated into the planning curriculum and is consequently marginalised.
Abraham R. Matamanda, Jennilee M. Kohima, Verna Nel, Innocent Chirisa

Open Access

Chapter 7. Is Climate Change Knowledge Making a Difference in Urban Planning and Practice: Perspectives from Practitioners and Policymakers in Tanzania
Abstract
The magnitude and effects of Climate Change (CC) such as floods and storms are projected to increase in the future. There is also a consensus among scholars that rich CC knowledge in urban planning can lead to better Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Mitigation (CCM) outcomes. However, generally the role of planners and plans in responding to Climate Change (CC) challenges has been disappointing and increasingly questioned. This chapter analyses the role of planning education, experience and/or practice among professional planners in addressing climate adaptation and mitigation issues. Field studies involving face to face interviews were conducted in Arusha Municipality in 2019. Questionnaires were completed by practitioners and policymakers. The findings highlight the gaps in CC knowledge and capacity among planners and policymakers. Also, the extent of informality, the major force transforming urban land use and development is overlooked. Most importantly, there is insensitivity, lack of accountability and political commitment by the Local Government Authority (LGA) on CC issues in planning, budgeting, and management. We argue that improving the role of urban planning in CCA and CCM requires: a recognition of the indispensable role of LGAs; substantive engagement of stakeholders; acknowledgement of socio-cultural and economic barriers to CCA/CCM at the local level; guidance on informality; and adaption of multi-level governance and integration of spatial and economic planning at city and community levels.
Wilbard Jackson Kombe, Samwel S. Alananga

Open Access

Chapter 8. Contributions of Local Authorities to Community Adaptive Capacity to Impacts of Climate Change; A Case Study of Sea Level Rise in Pangani Division, Pangani District
Abstract
Communities around the world are facing tremendous climate change impacts, among others, sea level rise. Local authorities try to respond to the impacts of climate change by implementing localised adaptive measures to improve capacity. Impacts of climate change are worse in developing countries especially the Sub-Saharans due to inabilities to implement adaptive measures with inadequate resources; hence hindering the ability of communities to adapt to the impacts of climate change. It is the purpose of this chapter to explore the contributions of a local authority as one of the corresponding authorities responsible for enhancing a community’s adaptive capacity and its behaviour to climate change impacts. Interviews, mapping, observation and photographing, were conducted in the Pangani division in Tanzania. SPSS and QGIS software were used for analysis. It was found that sea level rise caused communities to suffer beach erosion, land inundation, saltwater intrusion, changes in fish availability, destruction of infrastructure and vegetation. The local authority implemented localised adaptive measures which improved adaptive capacity. These measures included construction and maintenance of seawall, planting and protecting mangroves and preparation of land-use plans. Also, an institutional arrangement involved different departments, committees and the community at large, with actors collaborating through the local authority in developing community adaptive capacity. This chapter recommends that the local authority should; enhance coordination among actors, make use of spatial analysis tools, mobilise resources and enhance community participation.
Dawah Magembe-Mushi, Ramadhani Matingas

Participatory and Multi-Level Governance Approach toward Current Urban Challenges

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 9. Qualities of Urban Planning and the Conflict Between Participatory Planning and Planning Standards: Evidence from Ethiopia
Abstract
The Ethiopian hybrid planning system applies both top-down and bottom-up planning approaches simultaneously. This causes vague quality measurement indices of the urban plan and is a major obstacle for both the planning team and other stakeholders to measure quality. The chapter examines and dialectically discusses the contradictory measurement indices regarding the quality by taking Bahir Dar City Structural Plan Project as a case study. Both primary and secondary data were collected from the planning team and stakeholders for the study. This chapter argues that challenge arises from the system that uses two, often conflicting, yardsticks to measure quality, i.e. meeting the pre-defined standards and fulfilling the participants’ interest. Therefore, it suggests that the quality of an urban plan should be primarily measured in terms of the local planning standard, which is the “public acceptance”. Public acceptance here is described, measured and defined as the stakeholder’s perception that the plan is of good enough quality for implementation.
Behailu Melesse Digafe, Achamyeleh Gashu Adam, Gebeyehu Belay Shibeshi, Mengiste Abate Meshesha

Open Access

Chapter 10. Complementing or Conflicting Rationalities? How Self-Production Practices in Collective Spaces Can Shape Urban Planning: Insights from Maputo City
Abstract
Spatial planning and governance in African cities are often framed and conceived through the formal-informal binary. This view has been responsible for negative connotations that increase urban populations’ vulnerability. Moreover, it has been heavily criticised as presenting a reductive view of urban development. Alternative framings such as “alternative informality” and “self-production” have recently contested such views by proposing process-oriented approaches that recognise the legitimacy of informal praxis. However, research on self-production practices has tended to focus on the household or municipal level, neglecting what can be termed “collective space”. This chapter explores the production and use practices within collective spaces based on research conducted in two peripheral neighbourhoods in Maputo in 2019. The findings highlight the role and legitimacy of self-production practices in collective space to provide services, consolidate local governance and substantiate urban development. It finds that the role of local residents and authorities in urban planning has only tentatively been accepted by official municipal-level planning agencies. The chapter will reflect on how collective space can better overcome local challenges beyond the household level and represent potentialities for inclusive and democratic planning. However, there are still many challenges in collective space that remain poorly addressed.
Milousa António

Open Access

Chapter 11. Translating Globalised Ideals into Local Settings: The Actors and Complexities of Post-settlement Water Infrastructure Planning in Urban Ghana
Abstract
Following the principles of the networked city and urban planning, pro-active planning of water infrastructure is pertinent for attaining universal water access. Ironically, in cities of the Global South, water infrastructure provision takes the form of post-settlement networks—where human settlements evolve to steer the provision of the large-scale water network. However, little is known about the complexities, the processes and motives, the actors involved and how they navigate towards universalising water access. I investigate this kind of infrastructure planning ideal, drawing inspiration from technological translations from the Global North to the Global South, using the case of Wa, a secondary city of Ghana. The study revealed that off-grid water systems initially served water in secondary cities. The large-scale water network later evolved as a “reactive measure” driven by the rise in population, and the failure of the off-grid water infrastructure to attain universal water access. Despite that, resistance from residents, spatial disorder and sprawling growth, utility policies and in capabilities challenged the efforts of the state utility towards attaining a universal water supply. Through creativity, the utility providers negotiated and invented multiple models of water supply contradictory to the “mono-modal” principles of the networked city. This produced and segregated water access across the urban zones of the city. The findings suggest that though the post-settlement water network provision represents an attempted translation of the networked city ideal, in practice, it does not conform with the hegemonic premise of a networked city to foster universal water supply in the cities of the Global South.
Francis Dakyaga
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Planning Cities in Africa
Editors
Dr. Genet Alem Gebregiorgis
Prof. Stefan Greiving
Prof. Ally Hassan Namangaya
Prof. Wilbard Jackson Kombe
Copyright Year
2022
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-06550-7
Print ISBN
978-3-031-06549-1
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-06550-7