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About this book

This book explores the use of various plant polysaccharides for pharmaceutical purposes, including drug delivery. It examines the exploitation of plant polysaccharides’ auxiliary functions to enhance drug release, stability, bioavailability and target specificity.

Plant-derived materials are at the center of drug-delivery research thanks to their non-toxicity, biodegradability, ready availability, eco-friendliness and low extraction costs. These materials include polysaccharides, a class of naturally occurring polymers consisting of glucose monomers, which serve as storage carbohydrates in cereals, root vegetables, rhizomes, seeds, fruits, etc.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Background: Multiple Units in Oral Drug Delivery

Abstract
The broad range of effectual drug candidates available in the present day is one of the best triumphs of the drug discovery research (Ansari et al. in Elixir Pharm 47:8821–8827, 2012; Hirani et al. in Trop J Pharm Res 8:161–172, 2009; Nayak and Manna in J Pharm Educ Res 2:24–38, 2011).
Amit Kumar Nayak, Md Saquib Hasnain

Chapter 2. Plant Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Applications

Abstract
Nowadays, the entire world is moving en route for the utilization of natural excipients in diverse biomedical applications (Hasnain et al. in Sci J UBU 1:1–13, 2010; Mano et al. in J R Soc Interf 4:999–1030, 2007; Nayak in Pharmaceut Sci 2:1–5, 2010; Nayak and Pal in Everyman’s Sci XLVI, 347–352, 2012, Nayak and Pal in Natural starches-blended ionotropically gelled microparticles/beads for sustained drug release. Wiley-Scrivener, USA, pp. 527–560, 2017a).
Amit Kumar Nayak, Md Saquib Hasnain

Chapter 3. Gum Arabic Based Multiple Units for Oral Drug Delivery

Abstract
GAr is a plant-derived natural polysaccharidic gum, which is originally extracted from Acacia nilotica tree, belonging to the family, Leguminosae (Ali et al. in Food Chem Toxicol 47:1–8, 2009; Dauqan and Abdullah in Am J Appl Sci 10:1270–1279, 2013).
Amit Kumar Nayak, Md Saquib Hasnain

Chapter 4. Tamarind Polysaccharide Based Multiple Units for Oral Drug Delivery

Abstract
Tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica, family: Fabaceae) is vernacularly well known as imli (Hindi) tree (Joseph et al. in Int J Green Pharm 6:270–278, 2012; Nayak in Int J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci 2:1–5, 2010). This evergreen tree is grown in almost all over India and in other Southeast Asian countries as well (Gupta et al. in Sys Rev Pharm 1:50–55, 2010; Samal and Dangi in Carbohydr Polym 102:1–7, 2014).
Amit Kumar Nayak, Md Saquib Hasnain

Chapter 5. Locust Bean Gum Based Multiple Units for Oral Drug Delivery

Abstract
Locust/carob bean gum (LG) is a branched biopolysaccharide derived from plant which is nonionic in nature and obtained from the seeds of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua) (Malik et al. in Polym Med 41:17–28, 2011; Kaity et al. in Carbohydr Polym 94:456–467, 2013).
Amit Kumar Nayak, Md Saquib Hasnain

Chapter 6. Sterculia Gum Based Multiple Units for Oral Drug Delivery

Abstract
SG is generally called as karaya gum (Gauthami and Bhat in A monograph on gum karay, 1992; Nayak et al. in Gelled microparticles/beads of sterculia gum and tamarind gum for sustained drug release. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, pp. 361–414, 2018). It is a plant-derived polysaccharide having medicinal importance. It has a high molecular weight and is water soluble (Nayak and Pal in Sterculia gum-based hydrogels for drug delivery applications. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, pp. 105–151, 2016).
Amit Kumar Nayak, Md Saquib Hasnain

Chapter 7. Okra Gum Based Multiple Units for Oral Drug Delivery

Abstract
OG is obtained from the fruits of okra plant (Hibiscus esculentus, family: Malvaceae) (Hirose et al. in Carbohydr Polym 339:9–19, 2004). This plant is cultivated in the tropical/subtropical areas around the world. OG contains L-galacturonic acid, D-galactose as well as L-rhamnose, (Mishra et al. in Carbohydr Polym 72:608–615, 2008; Sinha et al. in Int J Biol Macromol 79, 555–563, 2015a).
Amit Kumar Nayak, Md Saquib Hasnain

Chapter 8. Fenugreek Seed Mucilage Based Multiple Units for Oral Drug Delivery

Abstract
Fenugreek, also called as methi in Hindi and Bengali, is a legume plant, whose botanical name is Trigonella foenum-graecum L.; it belongs to the family: Leguminosae (Naidu et al. in LWT—Food Sci Technol 44:451–456, 2011; Nayak et al. in Indian J Pharm Educ Res 46:312–317 2012).
Amit Kumar Nayak, Md Saquib Hasnain

Chapter 9. Potato Starch Based Multiple Units for Oral Drug Delivery

Abstract
PS is one of the natural polysaccharides obtained from the potatoes and has different applications in pharmaceutical as well as food technologies (Nazim et al. in Der. Pharm. Sinica 2:227–235, 2011; Wischmann et al. in J. Food Eng. 79:970–978, 2007).
Amit Kumar Nayak, Md Saquib Hasnain

Chapter 10. Linseed Polysaccharide Based Multiple Units for Oral Drug Delivery

Abstract
LP is extracted from mature and ripe linseeds (Linum usitatissimum L., family: Liliaceae) (Khadse et al. in Res J Pharmacog Phytochem 2:208–210, 2010). Linseeds are also known as flax seeds. The mature and ripe linseeds principally contain polysaccharides of 8–10% by weight, approximately. On the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, LP produces D-xylose, L-arabinose, L-galactose, L-rhamnose, D-glucose, and D-galacturonic acid (Nerkar and Gattani in Drug Deliv 18:111–121, 2011).
Amit Kumar Nayak, Md Saquib Hasnain

Chapter 11. Some Other Plant Polysaccharide Based Multiple Units for Oral Drug Delivery

Abstract
TS is a naturally occurring starch and it is obtained from the Manihot esculenta root extract (BeMiller and Whistler in Potato starch: production, modifications and uses. Academic Press, pp. 511–539, 2009; Biswas and Sahoo in Int J Biol Macromol 83:61–70, 2016). The residual matter level of TS is lesser in comparison with other starch-derived plants. The content of amylase in TS is less (around, 17%) as compared to other starch-derived plants (Casas et al. in Carbohydr Polym 80:71–77, 2010).
Amit Kumar Nayak, Md Saquib Hasnain

Backmatter

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