Skip to main content
Top

2023 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

2. Plot Sampling

Authors : George A. F. Seber, Matthew R. Schofield

Published in: Estimating Presence and Abundance of Closed Populations

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Activate our intelligent search to find suitable subject content or patents.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

The theory of sampling has been well described in the literature, but with less emphasis on density estimation. The topics covered are simple random sampling and associated design implications such as plot shape, proportion of area sampled, and number of plots to be used. Irregular shaped areas can be included in the theory, as well as the use of primary and secondary plots. Stratified sampling and associated design questions are discussed. Side issues considered are edge effects in using plots and the related issue of the home range of animals. Various spatial distributions are described for the number of individuals on a plot, which lead to the problem of sampling widely dispersed but clustered populations where the method of adaptive sampling can be used.

Dont have a licence yet? Then find out more about our products and how to get one now:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 390 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




 

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Literature
go back to reference Anan, O., Böhning, D., & Maruotti, A. (2007). Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 87(10), 2094–2114.CrossRef Anan, O., Böhning, D., & Maruotti, A. (2007). Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 87(10), 2094–2114.CrossRef
go back to reference Anderson, D. R. (2001). The need to get the basics right in wildlife field studies. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 29(4), 1294–1297. Anderson, D. R. (2001). The need to get the basics right in wildlife field studies. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 29(4), 1294–1297.
go back to reference Bart, J., Droege, S., Geissler, P., Peterjohn, B., & Ralph, C. J. (2004). Density estimation in wildlife surveys. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 32(4), 1242–1247.CrossRef Bart, J., Droege, S., Geissler, P., Peterjohn, B., & Ralph, C. J. (2004). Density estimation in wildlife surveys. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 32(4), 1242–1247.CrossRef
go back to reference Becker, E. F., Golden, H. N., & Gardner, C. L. (2004). Using probability sampling of animal tracks in snow to estimate population size. In W. L. Thompson (Ed.), Sampling rare or elusive species: Concepts, designs, and techniques for estimating population parameters (pp. 248–270). Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Becker, E. F., Golden, H. N., & Gardner, C. L. (2004). Using probability sampling of animal tracks in snow to estimate population size. In W. L. Thompson (Ed.), Sampling rare or elusive species: Concepts, designs, and techniques for estimating population parameters (pp. 248–270). Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
go back to reference Binns, M. R. (1986). Behavioural dynamics and the negative binomial distribution. Oikos, 47(3), 315–318.CrossRef Binns, M. R. (1986). Behavioural dynamics and the negative binomial distribution. Oikos, 47(3), 315–318.CrossRef
go back to reference Bohk, C., Rau, R., & Cohen, J. E. (2015). Taylor’s power law in human mortality. Demographic Research, 33(1), 589–610.CrossRef Bohk, C., Rau, R., & Cohen, J. E. (2015). Taylor’s power law in human mortality. Demographic Research, 33(1), 589–610.CrossRef
go back to reference Burgman, M. A., & Fox, J. C. (2003). Bias in species range estimates from minimum convex polygons: Implications for conservation and options for improved planning. Animal Conservation, 6(1), 19–28.CrossRef Burgman, M. A., & Fox, J. C. (2003). Bias in species range estimates from minimum convex polygons: Implications for conservation and options for improved planning. Animal Conservation, 6(1), 19–28.CrossRef
go back to reference Butler, S., & Bird, F. L. (2007). Estimating density of intertidal ghost shrimps using counts of burrow openings. Is the method reliable? Hydrobiologia, 589(1), 303–314.CrossRef Butler, S., & Bird, F. L. (2007). Estimating density of intertidal ghost shrimps using counts of burrow openings. Is the method reliable? Hydrobiologia, 589(1), 303–314.CrossRef
go back to reference Dice, L. R. (1938). Some census methods for mammals. Journal of Wildlife Management, 2(3), 119–130.CrossRef Dice, L. R. (1938). Some census methods for mammals. Journal of Wildlife Management, 2(3), 119–130.CrossRef
go back to reference Downs, J. A., Horner, M. W., & Tucker, A. D. (2011). Time-geographic density estimation for home range analysis. Annals of Geographic Information Sciences, 17(3), 163–171. Downs, J. A., Horner, M. W., & Tucker, A. D. (2011). Time-geographic density estimation for home range analysis. Annals of Geographic Information Sciences, 17(3), 163–171.
go back to reference Eberhardt, L. L., & Simmons, M. A. (1987). Calibrating population indices by double sampling. Journal of Wildlife Management, 51(3), 665–675.CrossRef Eberhardt, L. L., & Simmons, M. A. (1987). Calibrating population indices by double sampling. Journal of Wildlife Management, 51(3), 665–675.CrossRef
go back to reference Fattorini, L., Puletti, N, & et al. (2016). Checking the performance of point and plot sampling on aerial photoimagery of a large-scale population of trees outside forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 46(11), 1264–1274. Fattorini, L., Puletti, N, & et al. (2016). Checking the performance of point and plot sampling on aerial photoimagery of a large-scale population of trees outside forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 46(11), 1264–1274.
go back to reference Getz, W. M., Fortmann-Roe, C., Cross, P. C., Lyons, A. J., Ryan, S. J., & Wilmers, C. C. (2007). LoCoH: Nonparametric kernel methods for constructing home ranges and utilization distributions. PLoS One, 2(2), e207.CrossRef Getz, W. M., Fortmann-Roe, C., Cross, P. C., Lyons, A. J., Ryan, S. J., & Wilmers, C. C. (2007). LoCoH: Nonparametric kernel methods for constructing home ranges and utilization distributions. PLoS One, 2(2), e207.CrossRef
go back to reference Getz, W. M., & Wilmers, C. C. (2004). A local nearest-neighbor convex-hull construction of home ranges and utilization distributions. Ecography, 27(4), 489–505.CrossRef Getz, W. M., & Wilmers, C. C. (2004). A local nearest-neighbor convex-hull construction of home ranges and utilization distributions. Ecography, 27(4), 489–505.CrossRef
go back to reference Gregoire, T. G., & Scott, C. T. (2003). Altered selection probabilities caused by avoiding the edge in field surveys. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 8(1), 36–47.CrossRef Gregoire, T. G., & Scott, C. T. (2003). Altered selection probabilities caused by avoiding the edge in field surveys. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 8(1), 36–47.CrossRef
go back to reference Greig-Smith, P. (1964). Quantitative plant ecology (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Butterworth. Greig-Smith, P. (1964). Quantitative plant ecology (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Butterworth.
go back to reference Henderson, P. A. (2021). Southwoods ecological methods (5th ed.). Chichester: Wiley.CrossRef Henderson, P. A. (2021). Southwoods ecological methods (5th ed.). Chichester: Wiley.CrossRef
go back to reference Hilbe, J. M. (2011). Negative binomial regression: Modelling overdispersed count data. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef Hilbe, J. M. (2011). Negative binomial regression: Modelling overdispersed count data. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
go back to reference Horne, J. S., Garton, E. O., Krone, S. M., & Lewis, J. S. (2007). Analyzing animal movements using Brownian Bridges. Ecology, 88(9), 2354–2363.CrossRef Horne, J. S., Garton, E. O., Krone, S. M., & Lewis, J. S. (2007). Analyzing animal movements using Brownian Bridges. Ecology, 88(9), 2354–2363.CrossRef
go back to reference Hou, Z., Xu, Q., Hartikainen, S., & et al. (2015). Impact of plot size and spatial pattern of forest attributes on sampling efficacy. Forest Science, 61(5), 847–860. Hou, Z., Xu, Q., Hartikainen, S., & et al. (2015). Impact of plot size and spatial pattern of forest attributes on sampling efficacy. Forest Science, 61(5), 847–860.
go back to reference Johnson, D. H. (2008). In defense of indices: The case of bird surveys. Journal of Wildlife Management, 72(4), 857–868.CrossRef Johnson, D. H. (2008). In defense of indices: The case of bird surveys. Journal of Wildlife Management, 72(4), 857–868.CrossRef
go back to reference Kansanen, K., Packalen, P., Maltamo, M., & Mehtätalo, L. (2021). Horvitz-Thompson–like estimation with distance-based detection probabilities for circular plot sampling of forests. Biometrics, 77(2), 715–728.CrossRef Kansanen, K., Packalen, P., Maltamo, M., & Mehtätalo, L. (2021). Horvitz-Thompson–like estimation with distance-based detection probabilities for circular plot sampling of forests. Biometrics, 77(2), 715–728.CrossRef
go back to reference Karanth, K. U., Nichols, J. D., & Kumar, N. S. (2004). Photographic sampling of elusive mammals in tropical forests. In W. L. Thompson (Ed.), Sampling rare or elusive species: Concepts, designs, and techniques for estimating population parameters (pp. 229–247). Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Karanth, K. U., Nichols, J. D., & Kumar, N. S. (2004). Photographic sampling of elusive mammals in tropical forests. In W. L. Thompson (Ed.), Sampling rare or elusive species: Concepts, designs, and techniques for estimating population parameters (pp. 229–247). Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
go back to reference Linden, A., Mantyniemi, S., & Fortin, M. (2011). Ecology, 92(7), 1414–1421.CrossRef Linden, A., Mantyniemi, S., & Fortin, M. (2011). Ecology, 92(7), 1414–1421.CrossRef
go back to reference Link, W. A., & Barker, R. J. (1994). Density estimation using the trapping web design: A geometric analysis. Biometrics, 50(3), 733–745.CrossRef Link, W. A., & Barker, R. J. (1994). Density estimation using the trapping web design: A geometric analysis. Biometrics, 50(3), 733–745.CrossRef
go back to reference Liu, S., Baret, F., & et al. (2017a). A method to estimate plant density and plant spacing heterogeneity: Application to wheat crops. Plant Methods, 13(1), 38–49. Liu, S., Baret, F., & et al. (2017a). A method to estimate plant density and plant spacing heterogeneity: Application to wheat crops. Plant Methods, 13(1), 38–49.
go back to reference Long, J. A., & Nelson, T. A. (2012). Time geography and wildlife home range delineation. Journal of Wildlife Management, 76(2), 407–413.CrossRef Long, J. A., & Nelson, T. A. (2012). Time geography and wildlife home range delineation. Journal of Wildlife Management, 76(2), 407–413.CrossRef
go back to reference Lynch, T. B. (2017). Optimal sample size and plot size or point sampling factor based on cost-plus-loss using the Fairfield Smith relationship for plot size. Forestry, 90(5), 697–709.CrossRef Lynch, T. B. (2017). Optimal sample size and plot size or point sampling factor based on cost-plus-loss using the Fairfield Smith relationship for plot size. Forestry, 90(5), 697–709.CrossRef
go back to reference Manly, B. F. J. (2004). Two-phase adaptive stratified sampling. In W. L. Thompson (Ed.), Sampling rare or elusive species: Concepts, designs, and techniques for estimating population parameters (pp. 123–133). Washington, D.C.: Island Press Manly, B. F. J. (2004). Two-phase adaptive stratified sampling. In W. L. Thompson (Ed.), Sampling rare or elusive species: Concepts, designs, and techniques for estimating population parameters (pp. 123–133). Washington, D.C.: Island Press
go back to reference McDonald, L. L. (2004). Sampling rare populations. In W. L. Thompson (Ed.), Sampling rare or elusive species: Concepts, designs, and techniques for estimating population parameters (pp. 11–42). Washington, D.C.: Island Press. McDonald, L. L. (2004). Sampling rare populations. In W. L. Thompson (Ed.), Sampling rare or elusive species: Concepts, designs, and techniques for estimating population parameters (pp. 11–42). Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
go back to reference Murthy, M. N., & Rao, T. J. (1988). Systematic sampling with illustrative examples. In P. R. Krishnaiah & C. R. Rao (Eds.), Handbook of Statistics, Vol. 6, Sampling (pp. 147–185). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers. Murthy, M. N., & Rao, T. J. (1988). Systematic sampling with illustrative examples. In P. R. Krishnaiah & C. R. Rao (Eds.), Handbook of Statistics, Vol. 6, Sampling (pp. 147–185). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.
go back to reference Naccarato, A., & Benassi, F. (2018). On the relationship between mean and variance of world’s human population density: A study using Taylor’s power law. Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, 11(3), 307–314.CrossRef Naccarato, A., & Benassi, F. (2018). On the relationship between mean and variance of world’s human population density: A study using Taylor’s power law. Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, 11(3), 307–314.CrossRef
go back to reference Narayana Reddy, M., & Ramanatha Chetty, C. K. (1982). Effect of plot shape on variability in Smith’s variance law. Experimental Agriculture, 18(4), 333–338.CrossRef Narayana Reddy, M., & Ramanatha Chetty, C. K. (1982). Effect of plot shape on variability in Smith’s variance law. Experimental Agriculture, 18(4), 333–338.CrossRef
go back to reference Oedekoven, C. S., King, R., Buckland, S. T., Mackenzie, M. L., Evans, K. O., & Burger, Jr., L.W. (2016). Using hierarchical centering to facilitate a reversible jump MCMC algorithm for random effects models. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 98, 79–90.CrossRef Oedekoven, C. S., King, R., Buckland, S. T., Mackenzie, M. L., Evans, K. O., & Burger, Jr., L.W. (2016). Using hierarchical centering to facilitate a reversible jump MCMC algorithm for random effects models. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 98, 79–90.CrossRef
go back to reference Palmer, M., Balle, S., March, D., Alos, J., & Linde, M. (2011). Size estimation of circular home range from fish mark- release-(single)-recapture data: Case study of a small labrid targeted by recreational fishing. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 430, 87–97.CrossRef Palmer, M., Balle, S., March, D., Alos, J., & Linde, M. (2011). Size estimation of circular home range from fish mark- release-(single)-recapture data: Case study of a small labrid targeted by recreational fishing. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 430, 87–97.CrossRef
go back to reference Plhal, R., Kamler, J., & Homolka, M. (2014). Faecal pellet group counting as a promising method of wild boar population density estimation. Acta Theriologica, 59(4), 561–569.CrossRef Plhal, R., Kamler, J., & Homolka, M. (2014). Faecal pellet group counting as a promising method of wild boar population density estimation. Acta Theriologica, 59(4), 561–569.CrossRef
go back to reference Powell, R. A., & Mitchell, M. S. (2012). What is a home range? Journal of Mammalogy, 93(4), 948–958.CrossRef Powell, R. A., & Mitchell, M. S. (2012). What is a home range? Journal of Mammalogy, 93(4), 948–958.CrossRef
go back to reference Prentius, W., & Anton Grafström, A. (2022). Two-phase adaptive cluster sampling with circular field plots. Environmetrics, 33(5), e2729.CrossRef Prentius, W., & Anton Grafström, A. (2022). Two-phase adaptive cluster sampling with circular field plots. Environmetrics, 33(5), e2729.CrossRef
go back to reference Rosenstock, S. S., Anderson, D. R., Giesen, K. M., Leukering, T., & Carter, M. F. (2002). Landbird counting techniques: Current practices and an alternative. Auk, 119(1), 46–53.CrossRef Rosenstock, S. S., Anderson, D. R., Giesen, K. M., Leukering, T., & Carter, M. F. (2002). Landbird counting techniques: Current practices and an alternative. Auk, 119(1), 46–53.CrossRef
go back to reference Roux, F., Steyn, G., Hay, C., & Wagenaar, I. (2018). Movement patterns and home range size of tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) in the Incomati River system, South Africa. Koedoe—African Protected Area Conservation and Science, 60(1), 1–13.CrossRef Roux, F., Steyn, G., Hay, C., & Wagenaar, I. (2018). Movement patterns and home range size of tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) in the Incomati River system, South Africa. Koedoe—African Protected Area Conservation and Science, 60(1), 1–13.CrossRef
go back to reference Royle, J. A., & Link, W. A. (2005). A general class of multinomial mixture models for anuran calling survey data. Ecology, 86(9), 2505–2512.CrossRef Royle, J. A., & Link, W. A. (2005). A general class of multinomial mixture models for anuran calling survey data. Ecology, 86(9), 2505–2512.CrossRef
go back to reference Schmid-Haas, P. (1969). Sichproben am waldrand. Mitteilungen/Schweizerische Anstalt für das Forstliche Versuchswesen, 45, 234–303. Schmid-Haas, P. (1969). Sichproben am waldrand. Mitteilungen/Schweizerische Anstalt für das Forstliche Versuchswesen, 45, 234–303.
go back to reference Seber, G. A. F. (1982). The estimation of animal abundance (2nd ed.). London: Griffin. Reprinted in paperback by the Blackburn press, Caldwell, N. J. (2002). Seber, G. A. F. (1982). The estimation of animal abundance (2nd ed.). London: Griffin. Reprinted in paperback by the Blackburn press, Caldwell, N. J. (2002).
go back to reference Seber, G. A. F., & Salehi, M. M. (2013). Adaptive sampling designs: Inference for sparse and clustered populations. Berlin: Springer, SpringerBriefs in Statistics.CrossRef Seber, G. A. F., & Salehi, M. M. (2013). Adaptive sampling designs: Inference for sparse and clustered populations. Berlin: Springer, SpringerBriefs in Statistics.CrossRef
go back to reference Smith, D. R., Brown J. A., & Lo, N. C. H. (2004). Application of adaptive sampling to biological populations. In W. L. Thompson (Ed.), Sampling rare or elusive species: Concepts, designs, and techniques for estimating population parameters (pp. 77–122). Island Press: Washington, D.C. Smith, D. R., Brown J. A., & Lo, N. C. H. (2004). Application of adaptive sampling to biological populations. In W. L. Thompson (Ed.), Sampling rare or elusive species: Concepts, designs, and techniques for estimating population parameters (pp. 77–122). Island Press: Washington, D.C.
go back to reference Smith, H. F. (1938). An empirical law describing heterogeneity in the yields of agricultural crops. Journal of Agricultural Science, 28(01), 1–23.CrossRef Smith, H. F. (1938). An empirical law describing heterogeneity in the yields of agricultural crops. Journal of Agricultural Science, 28(01), 1–23.CrossRef
go back to reference Southwood, T. R. E. (1978). Ecological methods, with particular reference to the study of insect populations. The English Language Book Society and Chapman-Hall. Southwood, T. R. E. (1978). Ecological methods, with particular reference to the study of insect populations. The English Language Book Society and Chapman-Hall.
go back to reference Steiniger, S., & Hunter, A. J. S. (2012). A scaled line-based kernel density estimator for the retrieval of utilization distributions and home ranges from GPS movement tracks. Ecological Informatics, 13, 1–8.CrossRef Steiniger, S., & Hunter, A. J. S. (2012). A scaled line-based kernel density estimator for the retrieval of utilization distributions and home ranges from GPS movement tracks. Ecological Informatics, 13, 1–8.CrossRef
go back to reference Tanaka, U., Ogata, Y., & Stoyan, D. (2008). Parameter estimation and model selection for Neyman-Scott point processes. Biometrical Journal, 50(1), 43–57.CrossRef Tanaka, U., Ogata, Y., & Stoyan, D. (2008). Parameter estimation and model selection for Neyman-Scott point processes. Biometrical Journal, 50(1), 43–57.CrossRef
go back to reference Taylor, L. R. (1961). Aggregation, variance and the mean. Nature, 189(4766), 732–735.CrossRef Taylor, L. R. (1961). Aggregation, variance and the mean. Nature, 189(4766), 732–735.CrossRef
go back to reference Taylor, R. A. J. (2018). Spatial distribution, sampling efficiency and Taylor’s power law. Ecological Entomology, 43(2), 215–225.CrossRef Taylor, R. A. J. (2018). Spatial distribution, sampling efficiency and Taylor’s power law. Ecological Entomology, 43(2), 215–225.CrossRef
go back to reference Taylor, R. A. J. (2021). Spatial distribution, sampling efficiency and Taylor’s power law. 2. Interpreting density-dependent sampling efficiency. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 23(2), 173–188.CrossRef Taylor, R. A. J. (2021). Spatial distribution, sampling efficiency and Taylor’s power law. 2. Interpreting density-dependent sampling efficiency. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 23(2), 173–188.CrossRef
go back to reference Thompson, C. M., Royle, J. A., & Garner, J. D. (2012). A framework for inference about carnivore density from unstructured spatial sampling of scat using detector dogs. Journal of Wildlife Management, 76(4), 863–871.CrossRef Thompson, C. M., Royle, J. A., & Garner, J. D. (2012). A framework for inference about carnivore density from unstructured spatial sampling of scat using detector dogs. Journal of Wildlife Management, 76(4), 863–871.CrossRef
go back to reference Thompson, S. K. (1990). Adaptive cluster sampling. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 85, 1050–1059.CrossRef Thompson, S. K. (1990). Adaptive cluster sampling. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 85, 1050–1059.CrossRef
go back to reference Thompson, S. K., & Seber, G. A. F. (1996). Adaptive sampling. New York: Wiley. Thompson, S. K., & Seber, G. A. F. (1996). Adaptive sampling. New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Thompson, W. L. (Ed.). (2004). Sampling rare or elusive species: Concepts, designs, and techniques for estimating population parameters. Washington, D. C.: Island Press. Thompson, W. L. (Ed.). (2004). Sampling rare or elusive species: Concepts, designs, and techniques for estimating population parameters. Washington, D. C.: Island Press.
go back to reference Tioli, S., Cagnacci, F., Stradiotto, A., Rizzoli, A., & Rizzoli, A. (2009). Edge effect on density estimates of a radiotracked population of yellow-necked mice. Journal of Wildlife Management, 73(2), 184–190.CrossRef Tioli, S., Cagnacci, F., Stradiotto, A., Rizzoli, A., & Rizzoli, A. (2009). Edge effect on density estimates of a radiotracked population of yellow-necked mice. Journal of Wildlife Management, 73(2), 184–190.CrossRef
go back to reference Weir, L. A., & Mossman, M. J. (2005). North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP). In M. J. Lannoo (Ed.), Amphibian declines: Conservation status of United States species (pp. 307–313). Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRef Weir, L. A., & Mossman, M. J. (2005). North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP). In M. J. Lannoo (Ed.), Amphibian declines: Conservation status of United States species (pp. 307–313). Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRef
go back to reference Worton, B. J. (1995). Using Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate kernel-based home range estimators. Journal of Wildlife Management, 59(4), 794–800.CrossRef Worton, B. J. (1995). Using Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate kernel-based home range estimators. Journal of Wildlife Management, 59(4), 794–800.CrossRef
go back to reference Yang, H., Magnussen, S., Fehrmann, L., Mundhenk, P., & Kleinn, C. (2016). Two neighborhood-free plot designs for adaptive sampling of forests. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 23(2), 279–299.CrossRef Yang, H., Magnussen, S., Fehrmann, L., Mundhenk, P., & Kleinn, C. (2016). Two neighborhood-free plot designs for adaptive sampling of forests. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 23(2), 279–299.CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Plot Sampling
Authors
George A. F. Seber
Matthew R. Schofield
Copyright Year
2023
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-39834-6_2

Premium Partner