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About this book

This book elaborates on the physical principles of polarization remote sensing. It explains the reflective characteristics of surface objects and atmosphere separately, including theory, experiment, instrument and application. In addition, it introduces how polarization remote sensing works in advanced research programs as it can be used in aviation, astronomy, disaster risk prevention and navigation fields. This book serves as a fundamental and comprehensive reference for researchers and students.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Introduction

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Physical Rationale of Polarized Remote Sensing

Abstract
Polarization, together with intensity, frequency, and phase, are the four main physical features of remote sensing using electromagnetic waves. This chapter discusses the physical rationale of remote sensing. For the two bottleneck problems we have in remote sensing, namely (1) restriction from the two ends of electromagnetic spectrum reflected by land objects and (2) atmospheric window attenuation difference, this chapter provides three breakthroughs: (1) the basis from which to support “bright light attenuation” and “weak light intensification” in the area of polarized remote sensing of land objects, this can greatly expand the detection range at both the dark and the bright ends of remote sensing data inversion; (2) accurate description of polarization methods and research on the rules of atmospheric attenuation, as well as exploration of the basis for new atmosphere window theory of atmosphere polarized remote sensing.
Lei Yan, Bin Yang, Feizhou Zhang, Yun Xiang, Wei Chen

Physical Rationale of Polarization Remote Sensing of Ground Objects

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Remote Sensing of Ground Objects 1: Physical Characteristics of Multi-angle Polarized Reflectance

Abstract
This chapter describes the first and most important feature of remote sensing of surface features—the physical characteristics multi-angle polarized reflectance. Specifically including: the physical detection geometry of polarized reflectance and the physical basis of multi-angle polarized reflectance to ensure the accuracy of quantitative research into polarization remote sensing of ground objects; Multi angle polarized reflectance analysis instrumentation and measurement methods are used to realise sample analysis of polarimetric remote sensing objects; analysing the angle of incidence and the law and mechanism of multi-angle beam of reflectance of ground object samples to explore natural light’s effect of root cause on polarized reflectance; analysing the characteristics and laws of multi-angle non-polarized spectra, and the degree of polarization to explore the nature of physical characteristics of multi-angle polarized reflectance.
Lei Yan, Bin Yang, Feizhou Zhang, Yun Xiang, Wei Chen

Chapter 3. Remote Sensing of Ground Objects 2: Multispectral Chemical Characteristics of Surface Polarization Reflection

Abstract
In this chapter, multi-spectral chemical characteristics, which are the second most important feature of polarization remote sensing, are introduced in terms of surface polarization reflection. In the formulation the various new concepts and equations we shall not aim at the maximum generality possible but limit ourselves, rather, by the situations which the problems recounted in this chapter actually need. In view of this, we shall devote this chapter to the study of multi-spectral chemical characteristics.
Lei Yan, Bin Yang, Feizhou Zhang, Yun Xiang, Wei Chen

Chapter 4. Remote Sensing of Ground Objects 3: Influence of Roughness and Density Structure Characteristics on the Surface Polarization Reflection

Abstract
Rock is treated as an observation target to introduce the third important feature of polarization remote sensing of ground objects: the roughness and density structure characteristics thereof.
Lei Yan, Bin Yang, Feizhou Zhang, Yun Xiang, Wei Chen

Chapter 5. Remote Sensing of Land Surfaces 4: Signal-to-Background High Contrast Ratio Filtering of Polarimetric Reflections

Abstract
This chapter focuses on water and soil, two of the four primary observational subjects of the Earth’s surface (rocks, water, soil, and vegetation) to introduce the fourth important characteristic of polarization reflection of land surface: the high signal-to-background ratio filtering feature. This includes: polarization reflection radio filtering of water bodies in dark backgrounds (weak light intensification) to explain the nature of data filtering in polarimetric remote sensing when it intensifies weak light; strong water bodies’ sun-glint polarization separation (bright light attenuation) and the measurement of the density of water to explain the nature of data filtering in polarimetric remote sensing when it attenuates bright light; soil polarimetric reflection filtering characteristics, to show the polarimetric remote sensing high signal-to-background ratio filtering feature; the high signal-to-background ratio filtering relationship between soil water content and polarization to show polarization remote sensing’s ability in high signal-to-background ratio filtering.
Lei Yan, Bin Yang, Feizhou Zhang, Yun Xiang, Wei Chen

Chapter 6. Remote Sensing of Land Surfaces 5: Characteristics of Radiative Transfer on Surface Polarization

Abstract
This chapter focuses on four typical types of land surfaces (rock, water, soil, and vegetation) as targets of observation to introduce the fifth essential feature of remote sensing of ground objects: the characteristics of radiative transfer. These include using the polarization reflectance of the vegetation canopy to demonstrate energy transfer by radiation; using the model illustrating the degree of polarization of the vegetation canopy’s reflected light to derive and characterise the pattern of polarized radiative transfer; using the relationship between a single leaf of vegetation and polarization to create a method for the characterisation of single leaf polarization; and using a few types of crops and their impacts on polarization.
Lei Yan, Bin Yang, Feizhou Zhang, Yun Xiang, Wei Chen

The Physical Part of Atmospheric Polarized Remote Sensing

Frontmatter

Chapter 7. Atmospheric Remote Sensing 1: The Nature and Physical Characteristics of the Full-Sky Polarization Pattern

Abstract
This chapter presents the physical phenomenon of the full-sky polarization effect generated by atmospheric effects, which is measurable and stable, and has become a feasible theoretical basis for quantitative analysis of atmospheric remote sensing defined as the sky polarization pattern, therefore, the systematic observations of, and research into, sky polarization patterns provided possibilities for the systematic, quantitative observation of atmospheric effects.
Lei Yan, Bin Yang, Feizhou Zhang, Yun Xiang, Wei Chen

Chapter 8. Atmospheric Remote Sensing 2: Neutral Point Areas of Atmospheric Polarization and Land-Atmosphere Parameter Separation

Abstract
Then area with zero atmospheric polarization effect, and with the sun as its centre is discussed: this area is called the atmosphere polarization neutral point area. This area reflects a new atmospheric window, namely one in which polarization remote sensing reflectance light from land objects could not exist therein, and may be captured by a polarized remote sensor with only slight attenuation.
Lei Yan, Bin Yang, Feizhou Zhang, Yun Xiang, Wei Chen

Chapter 9. Atmospheric Remote Sensing 3: Atmospheric Polarization Characteristics and Multi-angular Three-Dimensional Chromatography

Abstract
Quantitative studies of atmospheric aerosol particles are key to atmospheric polarization remote sensing physics, because aerosol particles are decisive factors affecting the remote sensing atmospheric window. Furthermore, atmospheric polarization characteristics can be described through space polarization diagram theory and atmospheric polarization neutral point zone theory, which is equally effective to space polarization field theory when describing atmospheric polarization characteristics. To be specific, polarization is the physical basis for atmospheric scattering given the importance of its polarization features and proves the single scattering characteristics of non-spherical aerosol and polarization observations, to quantify the atmosphere through polarization methods. It also underpins multiple scattering based on non-spherical models and multiple flat distributions of the full-sky polarization field, to achieve atmospheric three-dimensional chromatography at various observation angles, separation inversion of non-spherical aerosol, and land surface information based on space polarization field theory. The theories expounded in Chaps. 7 and 8 are combined to constitute polarization field vector features for use in remote sensing.
Lei Yan, Bin Yang, Feizhou Zhang, Yun Xiang, Wei Chen

New Applications of Polarization Remote Sensing Physics

Frontmatter

Chapter 10. New Areas in Polarization 1: Bionic Polarization for Automatic Navigation Using the Earth’s Polarization Vector Field

Abstract
Some insects (such as ants) use the angle between vector lines of sky polarization field and their body axis line to navigate. This is the most effective evidence of the stability and repeatability of remote sensing applications of polarization. This section includes: polarization pattern navigation mechanisms based on path integration behaviour of ants, to provide bionic characteristics of biologically sensitive sky polarization vector fields; bionic navigation theoretical basis and model analysis of remote sensing to analyse the physical nature of bionic polarization navigation; angle measurement design of bionic polarization navigation and function attainment, to build a hardware system for this purpose; bionic polarization navigation model and accuracy measurement based on cloud computing, to realise multi-object, multi-temporal, multi-angle polarized navigation mechanism that is both stable and repeatable; and experimental verification and accuracy analysis of bionic polarized navigation, to analyse its capacity for application in navigation.
Lei Yan, Bin Yang, Feizhou Zhang, Yun Xiang, Wei Chen

Chapter 11. New Areas in Polarization 2: Remote Sensing for Advanced Space Exploration and Global Change Research

Abstract
The most typical application of polarization remote sensing is used on advanced space exploration and global change research although it is also an important breakthrough method used to solve significant international scientific problems. These include: objective conclusions drawn from astronomical polarization observation of stars and planets to complement and convert polarization observation methods in the fields of astronomy and remote sensing; the comparison of full sky polarization vector fields, the gravitational field, and geomagnetic field, to confirm their contribution to the observation of astronomical phenomena; to use polarization observation methods to prove the effectiveness of the moon as a radiance benchmark, and explain polarization’s filtered saturation caused by bright light attenuation and the micro-fluctuation in radiation caused by weak light intensification; the international debate with regards to whether global vegetation biomass is positively or negatively related to C and N content and the singularity screening of polarization remote sensing to correct the inadequacies of polarization inversion theory; the theoretical outlook of the systemisation of polarization remote sensing physics to achieve concrete improvement in polarization remote sensing and increase acceptance of polarization remote sensing in practice.
Lei Yan, Bin Yang, Feizhou Zhang, Yun Xiang, Wei Chen
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