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2022 | Book

Political, Economic and Legal Effects of Artificial Intelligence

Governance, Digital Economy and Society

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About this book

This book presents a comprehensive analysis of the alterations and problems caused by new technologies in all fields of politics. It further examines the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on the nexus between politics, economics, and law.
The book raises and answers several important questions: What is the role of AI in politics? Are people prepared for the challenges presented by technical developments? How will Al affect future politics and human society? How can politics and law deal with Al's disruptive technologies? What impact will AI and technology have on law? How can efficient cooperation between human beings and AI be shaped? Can artificial intelligence automate public decision-making?
Topics discussed in the book include, but are not limited to digital governance, public administration, digital economy, corruption, democracy and voting, legal singularity, separation of power, constitutional rights, GDPR in politics, AI personhood, digital politics, cyberspace sovereignty, cyberspace transactions, and human rights. This book is a must-read for scholars and students of political science, law, and economics, as well as policy-makers and practitioners, interested in a better understanding of political, legal, and economic aspects and issues of AI.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Introduction
Abstract
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the automation of certain tasks of human intellectual competence. AI embraces techniques tackling aspects of human intellect using machines. Algorithmic governance discloses that AI is already employed in many facets of government but it seems that the prospective advantages from AI in politics are heavily contested. AI not only functions within the domain of national law but also encompasses the realm of regional and international law. The political configurations of a jurisdiction rework its tendency to generate and diffuse new technologies. AI drastically revolutionizes the existing political paradigm, allowing more diffused forms of political participation beyond elections such as unrestricted disclosure of governmental data online.
Georgios I. Zekos
Chapter 2. Theoretical Background of AI and Governance
Abstract
AI is a portfolio of methods facilitating advances in the precision, speed, or scale of machine performance across complex and large data substituting human performance in diverse specific duties such as decision-making, pattern-recognition, and prediction. AI systems must lead to efficiency improvement and opacity could provide certain benefits. AI applications in fact play an increasingly important role in organizing society at large, in the regulation of a wide variety of social systems and infrastructures, and even in shaping human interactions and preferences. The use of AI to govern numerous aspects of human activities has been generated concerns linked to matters of privacy and surveillance, bias and inequality, transparency and procedure, and freedom and autonomy.
Georgios I. Zekos
Chapter 3. Digital Economy and Politics
Abstract
MNEs’ activity and FDI arise endogenously in settings characterized by financial differences. Financial globalization allows a better environment where capital will be moved around the world with less possible barriers where productivity will bring higher profit. The digital economy offers consumers access to information formerly inconceivable in any traditional marketplace. FinTech companies are revolutionizing the core structure of the financial industry. Political zest for fintech is the outgrowth of a larger issue because the greater and more valuable use of technology has the prospective to expand access to financial products and services on terms that are more reasonable and so fintech innovation, when regulated properly, creates positive societal results for consumers. ZEKIPR–ZEKEUIPR indexes show that significance of IPRs protection in attracting FDI in a digital Economy.
Georgios I. Zekos
Chapter 4. AI & Demarcation of the Rule of Law
Abstract
Law is a formalized way of bringing political preferences into the society. The norms are transformed into law via the rule of law. The rule of law entails that the ruler be subject to, or at least not above, the law; and that the law be applied equally, or at least equitably, to all members of society. The rule of law serves not only to impose the results of the democratic legislative process, but also to safeguard individuals against arbitrary government action. Thus, rule of law embraces the capability of “end-users” to gain access to the law including how law is generated, for instance through existing mechanisms of representation and legislative deliberation, via the endowment of various types of support for access such as legal aid, etc. and channeling of information on rights and justice and holding rulers to account.
Georgios I. Zekos
Chapter 5. Politics Versus Law
Abstract
Politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power/authority and resources within a given society on top of the interrelationship(s) between societies. It is very often said that politics is about power/authority. To that extent, a political system is a framework which expresses adequate political methods within a given society. Globalization brought forwards the competition state pointing a new reality, but at the same time states and governments still have a role to play. Economic globalization brought integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, and spread of technology. Legal globalization is a result of the materialization of problems that no national legal order can resolve on its own such as the expansion of trade and the demand for a “corpus” of rules to accompany it. The political systems epitomized by terms such as “law” and “legal system” are complex and organic structures packed with technical, moral, religious and society data, objectives and substance.
Georgios I. Zekos
Chapter 6. Politics Supersedes the Rule of Law
Abstract
The presence of law rests on realities concerning the system of governance in place. If ideology is a theoretical concept that has been created mainly to explain the practice of politics, then the connection between law and ideology will encompass a background of the correlation between law and politics. Moreover, doctrines and the statutory adaptations by which law is applied involve a multifaceted system of “overt and covert” policy-making and implementation of social selections through law. There is a link between rule of law and political settlements which means that the rule of law has to be seen as both a political product and a constitutive element of institutional and organizational limits on the exercise of authority. Moreover, the rule of law can be used to uphold the status quo and safeguard the welfares of ruling elites or to alter them. It is essential to understand the significance of appreciating the political economy of rule of law first and foremost.
Georgios I. Zekos
Chapter 7. International Law, Politics, and the Rule of Law
Abstract
International law has to struggle for the ideal of the good society so that it would be adequate, outside political selection, to commit oneself to international law so as to make certain oneself of the rightness of what one does. Existing international legal instruments are adjusted in various ways to new technological revolutions: through treaty amendment, adaptive interpretation, or new state behavior that results in customary international law. Hence, AI technology can be subsumed under general norms or provisions of international law or existing treaty instruments will be extended or reinterpreted to cover AI developments.
Georgios I. Zekos
Chapter 8. Cyberspace Governance and Politics
Abstract
The dynamics of globalization are technical, cultural, social, and political. Cyberspace has had a predominantly dynamic influence because of its operation as a medium by which information can be transmitted. A strong cybersecurity program is vital for corporations to protect worthy and sensitive information. Networks are replacing hierarchies and markets as a basic form of economic organization. It has to be considered that just as information is a mode of upholding security, it is also a type of control and so when governments are able to control commercial and political information, they augment their surveillance over the population. A democratic and open character of the Internet limits the possibilities of authoritarian and monopoly control. Moreover, a shift of some components of the state’s sovereignty over to other entities carries the potential to limit sovereignty but may not be the elimination rather than a partial relocation to supranational institutions.
Georgios I. Zekos
Chapter 9. Politics and Technology
Abstract
Digital technology embeds politics by shaping social outcomes. The upgrading of new computing communication technologies and methods of processing large amounts of data has led to the automation and robotization of innumerable processes involving production. Predictive policing systems present a specifically pointed example of how striving to remain neutral embeds and legitimizes existing political conditions. Moreover, the rapid development of artificial intelligence systems, autonomous digital algorithms, and robotic technologies have transformed the landscape and the specifics of socio-legal and socio-political life of society. AI is a technology with outstanding security and defense applications and so countries protect their citizens, their interests at home and abroad, and their own political stability in the face of possible malicious or fraudulent uses of AI which means that techno-nationalism is present and rapidly gaining more support establishing control mechanisms for policy-based market configuration. AI generates challenges for democratic responsiveness and accountability due to a novel technological dimension and in link with existing transparency and accountability drawbacks.
Georgios I. Zekos
Chapter 10. AI and Politics
Abstract
Digital technology has pervaded society by penetrating markets, institutions, transactions and social relations, cultural, political, and educational environments. Digital technology exerts an extraordinary transformative force on structures, relations, and processes but presently digital technology has been incorporated and understood as a mere instrument replacing other traditional media and means. AI systems are integrated with escalating frequency into core institutional elements of democracy. Political parties and leaders are now using platforms such as Twitter to point their political affiliations, advance a positive image of their political parties, and express their rejection of the opposition’s viewpoint. Moreover, accountability concerning the consequences of political decisions must be clear and so it has to become clear when AI makes decisions. Good policy is the goal for politics and AI as long as automatically is taking political decisions then AI has got political power. AI will advance participation in the whole political process of various forms and so one manner to instigate this is to stimulate cocreation and “democratizing algorithm.”
Georgios I. Zekos
Chapter 11. Digital Politics, GDPR, and AI
Abstract
Data conveys noteworthy social, economic, and political power and so unequal control over data is a problem for economic development, human agency, and collective self-determination that must be tackled. AI and big data are driving economic development and social change. AI is a tool of capitalism which alters societies within an environment of technological singularity promoting the expansion of the digital model of economic development. Algorithmic decision-making has to be legitimized as a decisional system. Governing algorithmic decision-making should embrace both individual rights and systemic approaches. Tackling concerns that predictive AI tools are contributing to inequality necessitate broader legal reforms that strengthen employee voice in the workplace. Political effectiveness is increasing as the real information to make intelligent political choice becomes pervasive in society and so greater belief in political effectiveness leads to augmented political participation which means that social networking via AI is a plus in favor of better democracy. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) regulates the processing by an individual, a corporation, or an organization of personal data concerning individuals in the European Union. The borderless character of cyberspace and e-commerce gives the GDPR a wider reach and so this new regulation applies to any processor of EU-citizen data generating vital international inferences, as it regulates many large firms operating and headquartered outside of the EU territories.
Georgios I. Zekos
Chapter 12. Conclusions
Abstract
AI leads to transformative applications within a series of industrial, intellectual, and social applications, far beyond those caused by previous industrial revolutions. Furthermore, AI has proven to be superior to human decision-making in certain areas. AI is better than humans at finding and enacting the best policies in certain areas concerning science, engineering, and complex societal and macroeconomic issues. Artificial legal intelligence has unsettled the legal services market, the legal profession, and prevalent business models by replacing human legal expertise. AI technology re-opens returning political questions about power, freedom, democracy, and justice. AI can be used to improve political decisions achieved in several ways, fluctuating from computers aiding human decision-makers to their replacing them.
Georgios I. Zekos
Metadata
Title
Political, Economic and Legal Effects of Artificial Intelligence
Author
Dr. Georgios I. Zekos
Copyright Year
2022
Electronic ISBN
978-3-030-94736-1
Print ISBN
978-3-030-94735-4
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-94736-1

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