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6. Politics Supersedes the Rule of Law

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Abstract

The presence of law rests on realities concerning the system of governance in place. If ideology is a theoretical concept that has been created mainly to explain the practice of politics, then the connection between law and ideology will encompass a background of the correlation between law and politics. Moreover, doctrines and the statutory adaptations by which law is applied involve a multifaceted system of “overt and covert” policy-making and implementation of social selections through law. There is a link between rule of law and political settlements which means that the rule of law has to be seen as both a political product and a constitutive element of institutional and organizational limits on the exercise of authority. Moreover, the rule of law can be used to uphold the status quo and safeguard the welfares of ruling elites or to alter them. It is essential to understand the significance of appreciating the political economy of rule of law first and foremost.

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Footnotes
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A. von Bogdandy, ‘European Law Beyond ‘Ever Closer Union’ Repositioning the Concept, its Thrust and the EJC’s Comparative Methodology’, 22 ELJ (2016) p. 519.
 
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S. Bitter, Die Sanktion im Recht der Europäischen Union (Springer 2011) p. 121 et seq. M. Ioannidis, ‘Europe’s new transformations: How the EU economic constitution changed during the Eurozone crisis’, 53 CMLRev (2016) p. 1237 at p. 1264 et seq.
 
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G. Majone, Regulating Europe (Routledge 1996). ECJ 23 April 1986, Case C-294/83, Les Verts v. Parliament,; M. Dawson and F. de Witte, ‘From Balance to Conflict: A New Constitution for the EU’, 22 ELJ (2016) p. 204.
 
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ECJ 23 April 1986, Case C-294/83, Les Verts v Parliament; ECJ (Grand Chamber) 3 September 2008, Cases C-402/15 and C-415/05 P (Kadi and Al Barakaat International Foundation v Council and Commission, margin number 281.
 
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ECJ (Grand Chamber) 6 October 2015, Case C-362/14, Schrems v Data Protection Commissioner. H. Koch, K. Hagel-Sorensen, U. Haltern and J. H. H. Weiler (eds.), Europe. The New Legal Realism (Djoef 2010).
 
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Bundesverfassungsgericht 9 November 1999, Case 2 BvL 5/95, ECLI:DE:BVerfG:1999:ls19991109.2bvl000595; Bundesverfassungsgericht 16 January 2008, Case 2 BvR 2391/07, ECLI:DE:BVerfG:2008:rk20080116.2bvr239107. Editorial Comments, ‘Debt and Democracy: ‘United States then, Europe now?’’, 49 CMLRev. (2012) p. 1833. Editorial Comments, ‘The Rule of Law in the Union, the Rule of Union Law and the Rule of Law by the Union: Three interrelated problems’, 53 CMLRev. (2016) p. 597 et seq.
 
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D. Augenstein (ed.), ʻIntegration through law’ Revisited. The Making of the European Polity (Routledge 2012); R. Dehousse, ‘From integration through law to governance’, in H. Koch, K. Hagel-Sorensen, U. Haltern and J. H. H. Weiler (eds.), Europe. The New Legal Realism (Djoef 2010).
 
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European Commission for Democracy through Law, Report on the Rule of Law, Study 512/2009, CDL-AD(2011)003rev (2011). A. Jakab, European Constitutional Language (Cambridge UP 2016).
 
122
H. Kelsen, Law and Peace in International Relations. The Oliver Wendell Holmes Lectures 1940–41 (Harvard UP 1942); H. Kelsen, Peace Through Law (University of North Carolina Press 1944).
 
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J. Gauck, Speech on the occasion of the conferral of an honorary doctorate of Maastricht University on 7 February 2017, www.​bundespraesident​.​de/​SharedDocs/​Reden/​EN/​JoachimGauck/​Reden/​2017/​170207-Honorary-doctorateNetherl​and.​html C. Kohler, ‘Vertrauen und Kontrolle im europäischen Justizraum für Zivilsachen’, 19 Zeitschrift für europarechtliche Studien (2016) p. 135; M. Schwarz, Grundlinien der Anerkennung im Raum der Freiheit, der Sicherheit und des Rechts (Mohr Siebeck 2016).
 
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ECJ (Plenary), Opinion 2/13, margin number 191. 68 ECJ (Grand Chamber) 5. April 2016, Cases C-404/15 and C-659/15 PPU, Aranyosi and Căldăraru, margin number 78; ECJ (Grand Chamber) 6 September 2016, Case C-182/15, Petruhhin; ECJ 1 June 2016, Case C-241/15, Bob-Dogi; ECJ 24 May 2016, Case C-108/16 PPU, Dworzecki. K. Lenaerts, ‘Keynote Speech – The Court of Justice in an Uncertain World’, in G. Bándi, P. Darák and K. Debisso (eds.), Speeches and Presentations from XXVII FIDE Congress (Wolters Kluwer 2016).
 
125
European Central Bank, Technical Features of Outright Monetary Transactions, 6 September 2012, www.​ecb.​europa.​eu/​press/​pr/​date/​2012/​html/​pr120906_​1.​en.​html, Decision (EU) 2015/774 of the ECB of 4 March 2015 on a secondary markets public sector asset purchase programme (ECB/2015/10). M. Weller, ‘Mutual trust: in search of the future of European Union private international law’, 11 Journal of Private International Law (2015) p. 64, A. von Bogdandy and M. Ioannidis, Systemic deficiency in the rule of law: What it is, what has been done, what can be done, 51 CMLRev. (2014) p. 59. European Commission for Democracy through Law, Opinion on Amendments to the Act of 25 June 2015 on the Constitutional Tribunal of Poland, CDL-AD(2016)001158, Opinion no 833/2015 (2016).
 
126
S. Schüttemeyer, ‘Political trust’, in D. Nohlen and R.-O. Schultze (eds.), Lexikon der Politikwissenschaft. Theorien, Methoden, Begriffe, Band 2 (2002) p. 656.
 
127
UN-COPUOS. (2018). The Hague Space Resources Governance Working Group: Information Provided by the Netherlands (U.N. Doc. A/AC.105/C.2/2018/CRP.18).
 
128
Judith N. Shklar, Political Theory and the Rule of Law, in The Rule Of Law: Ideal Or Ideology 1, 1 (Allan C. Hutchinson & Patrick Monahan eds., 1987).
 
129
Andreas Follesdal, Subsidiarity and International Human Rights Courts, 79 Law Contemp. Probl. (2016). Loren King, Cities, Subsidiarity, and Federalism, in Federalism And Subsidiarity (James E. Fleming & Jacob T. Levy, Eds.) 291–331 (2014).
 
130
Michelle Evans, The Principle of Subsidiarity as a Social and Political Principle in Catholic Social Teaching, 3 Solidar. J. Cathol. Soc. Thought Secul. Ethics 4, 54 (2013).
David Golemboski, Federalism and the Catholic Principle of Subsidiarity, EarlyView PUBLIUS (2015).
 
131
Gareth Davies, Subsidiarity: The Wrong Idea, in the Wrong Place, at the Wrong Time, 43 Common Mark. Law Rev. 63–84 (2006).
 
132
Slobodan Milosevic (20 August 1941–11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician who was the President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.
 
133
Bosnia and Herzegovina v Serbia and Montenegro [2007] ICJ 2. Case No. IT-95-5/18-T 1240 24 March 2016. ICTY, Karadzic Judgment, 24 March 2016, Para. 3460 http://​www.​icty.​org/​x/​cases/​karadzic/​tjug/​en/​160324_​judgement.​pdf
 
134
F. Kroeger, ‘The development, escalation and collapse of system trust: From the financial crisis to society at large’, 33 European Management Journal (2015) p. 431, 434 et seq.
 
135
J. Ruzicka and V. C. Keating, ‘Going global: Trust research and international relations’, 5 Journal of Trust Research (2015) p. 8. G. M. Genna, ‘Images of Europeans: Transnational trust and support for European integration’, 20 Journal of International Relations and Development (2017) p. 358.
 
136
G. Nonnenmacher, ‘Europas letzte Chance?’, Frankfurter Allgemeine Woche, 24 March 2017, p. 17.
 
137
C Hillion, ‘Overseeing the Rule of Law in the EU’ in C Closa and D Kochenov (eds), Reinforcing Rule of Law Oversight in the European Union (CUP 2016). D Kochenov, ‘Declaratory Rule of Law: Self-Constitution through Unenforceable Promises’ in J Přibáň (ed), Self-Constitution of European Society (Routledge 2016). KL Scheppele, ‘Enforcing the Basic Principles of EU Law through Systematic Infringement Actions’ in C Closa and D Kochenov (eds), Reinforcing Rule of Law Oversight in the European Union (Cambridge University Press 2016).
 
138
R Fallon, ‘“The Rule of Law” as a Concept in Constitutional Discourse’ (1997) 97 Columbia LR 1.
 
139
A Williams and D Kochenov, ‘Europe’s Justice Deficit Introduced’ in D Kochenov, G de Búrca and A Williams (eds), Europe’s Justice Deficit? (Hart 2015).
 
140
C-135/08 Rottmann EU:C:2010:104 [2010] ECR I-1449. C-434/09 McCarthy EU:C:2011:277 [2011] ECR I-3375; C-256/11 Dereci EU:C:2011:734 [2011] ECR I-11315.
 
141
Case 6/64 Costa v ENEL EU:C:1964:66 [1964] ECR 585.
 
142
AT Williams, ‘Taking Values Seriously: Towards a Philosophy of EU Law’ (2009) 29 OJLS 549.
 
143
JHH Weiler, ‘Bread and Circus: The State of the European Union’ (1998) 4 CJEL 223.
 
144
Case 11/70 Internationale Handelsgesellschaft. J Komárek, ‘Federal Elements in the Community Judicial System’ (2005) 42 CMLRev 9.
 
145
Case C-50/00 P Unión de Pequeños Agricultores EU:C:2002:462 [2002] ECR I6677 para. 38ff.
 
146
T Tridimas and N Xanthoulis, ‘A Legal Analysis of the Gauweiler Case’ (2016) 23 MJ 17. A Pliakos and G Anagnostaras, ‘Saving Face? The German Federal Constitutional Court Decides Gauweiler’ (2017) 18 German LJ. A Steinbach, ‘All’s Well That Ends Well? Crisis Policy after the German Constitutional Court’s Ruling in Gauweiler’ (2017) 24 MJ 140.
 
147
G. Simmel, Untersuchungen über die Formen der Vergesellschaftung (Suhrkamp 1992 (first edition, Duncker & Humblot 1908)) p. 389, 393 et seq.
 
148
M. Ruffert, ‘All we need is Trust: Conditions are not a Means of Punishment’, Verfassungsblog, 10 March 2017, www.​verfassungsblog.​de/​all-we-need-is-trust-conditions-are-not-a-means-ofpunishment/​
 
149
F. Schorkopf, ‘Wertesicherung in der Europäischen Union. Prävention, Quarantäne und Aufsicht als Bausteine eines Rechts der Verfassungskrise?’, 51 Europarecht (2016) p. 147 at p. 156.
 
150
D. Liebs, ‘Das Rechtssprichwort Fiat iustitia et pereat mundus’, 70 Juristenzeitung 2015, p. 138.
 
151
C. Joerges, ‘Recht und Politik in der Krise Europas. Die Wirkgeschichte einer verunglückten Konfiguration’, 66 Merkur (2012) p. 1013 at p. 1019 et seq. 103 In the words of Christine Lagarde as French finance minister, ‘France’s Lagarde: EU rescues ‘violated’ rules: report’, Reuters, 18 December 2010, https://​www.​reuters.​com/​article/​us-france-lagarde/​frances-lagarde-eu-rescuesviolated-rules-report-idUSTRE6BH0V0201​01218
 
152
For 5 alternatives along and within this path see the relevant European Commission white paper: COM(2017) 2025 final, White paper on the future of Europe. Reflections and scenarios for the EU27 by 2025 (2017).
 
153
G. Verhofstadt, Europe’s Last Chance (Basic Books 2017). S. Goulard and M. Monti, La democrazia in Europa: guardare lontano (Rizzoli 2012).
 
154
Charles Turner, Jürgen Habermas European or German? European Journal of Political Theory © SAGE Publications Ltd., London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi issn 1474–8851, 3(3) 293–314.
 
155
Justine Lacroix, Does Europe Need Common Values? Habermas vs Habermas, European Journal of Political Theory © SAGE Publications Ltd., Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore and Washington DC issn 1474–8851, 8(2) 141–156 p142.
 
156
G Zekos, THE UNITED STATES OF EUROPE The Global Player, 2019 Nova Science Publications New York USA. www.​novapublishers.​com
 
157
World Bank data, info.​worldbank.​org/​governance/​wgi/​pdf/​rl.​pdf, and the data compiled and presented by the World Justice Programme, data.​worldjusticeproj​ect.​org
 
158
P. Sonnevend, ‘Preserving the Acquis of Transformative Constitutionalism in Times of Constitutional Crisis: Lessons from the Hungarian Case’, in A. von Bogdandy, E. Ferrer Mac-Gregor, M. Morales Antoniazzi and F. Piovesan (eds.), Transformative Constitutionalism in Latin America (Oxford UP 2017) p. 123, 144 et seq.: ‘The example of Hungary shows that outsourcing parts of the constitutional functions to international or supranational organizations in peaceful years may help survive the years of crisis. (…) European institutions contributed to creating a situation where self-healing through domestic processes is still possible.’
 
159
Commission, ‘A New EU Framework to Strengthen the Rule of Law’ COM (2014) 158.
 
160
Venice Commission Document CDL-AD(2016)007-e ‘Rule of Law Checklist’ (adopted in 106th Plenary Session, Venice, 11–12 March 2016), as well as in the earlier version thereof: Venice Commission Document CDL-AD(2011)003rev-e ‘Report on the Rule of Law’ (adopted in 86th Plenary Session, Venice, 25–26 March 2011).
 
161
TT Koncewicz, ‘Of Institutions, Democracy, Constitutional Self-Defence and the Rule of Law’ (2016) 53 CMLRev 1753. G Hadfield and B Weingast, ‘Microfoundations of the Rule of Law’ (2014) 17 Annual Review of Political Science. 21; L Pech, ‘The Rule of Law as a Constitutional Principle of the European Union.’ (NYU School of Law 2009) No. 04/09.
 
162
Dimitry Kochenov and Matthijs van Wolferen The dialogical Rule of Law and the breakdown of dialogue in the EU. EUI Working Paper LAW 2018/01, W Schröder, Strengthening the Rule of Law in Europe: From a Common Concept to Mechanisms of Implementation (Hart 2016); L Morlino and G Palombella (eds), Rule of Law and Democracy: Inquiries Into Internal and External Issues (Brill 2010); G Palombella and N Walker (eds), Relocating the Rule of Law (Hart 2009).
 
163
J Raz, ‘The Rule of Law and Its Virtue’, The Authority of Law: Essays on Law and Morality (OUP 1979).
 
164
G Palombella, ‘The Rule of Law and Its Core’ in G Palombella and N Walker (eds), Relocating the Rule of Law (Hart 2009) ‘[it] amounts to preventing one dominant source of law and its unconstrained whim, from absorbing all the available normativity.’
 
165
W Sadurski, Constitutionalism and the Enlargement of Europe (OUP 2012).
 
166
Lord Mackenzie-Stuart, The European Communities and the Rule of Law (Stevens and Sons1977). Case 294/83 Partie Ecologiste ‘Les Verts’ v. Parliament EU:C:1986:166 [1986] ECR 1339, Opinion 1/91 EEA Agreement EU:C:1991:490 [1991] ECR 6097 M Fernández Esteban, The Rule of Law in the European Constitution (Kluwer Law International 1999).
 
167
L Pech, ‘Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad’ in F Amtenbrink and D Kochenov (eds), The European Union’s Shaping of the International Legal Order (2013).
 
168
M Krygier, ‘Tempering Power: Realist-Idealism, Constitutionalism, and the Rule of Law’ in M Adams, A Meuwese and EMH Hirsch Ballin (eds), Constitutionalism and the Rule of Law (CUP 2017). M Krygier, ‘The Rule of Law. An Abuser’s Guide’ in A Sajó (ed), Abuse: the dark side of fundamental rights (Eleven 2006).
 
169
G Palombella, ‘Law’s Ideals and Law’s Global Connections. Some Concluding Notes’ (2014) Rivista di Filosofia del Diritto 123, 124.
 
170
D Halberstam, ‘It’s the Autonomy, Stupid: A Modest Defence of Opinion 2/13 on EU Accession to the ECHR, and the Way Forward’ (2015) 16 German LJ 105.
 
171
J Přibáň, ‘The Evolving Idea of Political Justice in the EU’ in D Kochenov, G de Búrca and A Williams (eds), Europe’s Justice Deficit? (Hart 2015).
 
172
FC Mayer, ‘Multilevel Constitutional Jurisdiction’ in A Bogdandy and J Bast (eds), Principles of European Constitutional Law (second edn, Beck/Hart 2011) 410–420.
 
173
Opinion 2/94 (ECHR Accession I) EU:C:1996:140 [1996] ECR I-1759; Opinion 2/13 (ECHR Accession II) EU:C:2014:2454.
 
174
Opinion 2/13 (ECHR Accession II) EU:C:2014:2454, para. 192. D Kochenov, ‘EU Law without the Rule of Law’ (2015) 34 YEL 74.
 
175
P Eeckhout, ‘Opinion 2/13 on EU Accession to the ECHR and Judicial Dialogue: Autonomy or Autarky’ (2015) 38 Fordham Int’l LJ 955.
 
176
J Reichel, ‘Judicial Control in a Globalised Legal Order – A One Way Track?’ (2010) 3 REALaw 69; and H Roer-Eide and M Eliantonio, ‘Meaning of Regulatory Act Explained’ (2013) 14 German LJ 1851.
 
177
A Tancredi, ‘Enforcing WTO Law’ in A Jakab and D Kochenov (eds.), The Enforcement of EU Law and Values (OUP 2017). N Lavranos, ‘Concurrence of Jurisdiction between the ECJ and Other International Courts and Tribunals’ (2005) 14 ELRev. 213.
 
178
Case 8/55 Fédération Charbonnière de Belgique v High Authority EU:C:1956:11, [1956] ECR 291Case 26/69 Stauder EU:C:1969:57 [1969] ECR 419 para 7. Case 11/70 Internationale Handelsgesellschaft EU:C:1970:114 [1970] ECR 1125. para 4.60. T Tridimas, The General Principles of EU Law (OUP 2006).
 
179
Article 49(1) TEU “Any European State which respects the values referred to in Article 2 and is committed to promoting them may apply to become a member of the Union.”
 
180
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, A new EU Framework to strengthen the Rule of Law, COM (2014) 158, 11 March 2014.
 
181
Laurent Pech, “Rule of law as guiding principle of the European Union’s external action” (2012), Asser Institute Centre for the Law of EU External Relations Working Papers, p. 9.
 
182
The General Court explicitly refers to them in the Judgement of 15 September 2016, Case T-340/14, Andriy Klyuyev v. Council of the European Union and the European Commission, ECLI:EU:T:2016:496, para. 88. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, A new EU Framework to strengthen the Rule of Law, COM (2014) 158, 11 March 2014.
 
183
European Commission, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council and the Council, Further strengthening the Rule of Law within the Union State of play and possible next steps, 3 April 2019, COM(2019) 163. https://​ec.​europa.​eu/​info/​policies/​justice-and-fundamental-rights/​effective-justice/​rule-law/​rule-law-framework_​en
 
184
Maxime St-Hilaire and Joanna Baron, Introductory Essay: The Rule of Law as the Rule of Artificial Reason, Supreme Court Law Review (2019) 92 S.C.L.R. (2d).
 
185
Friedrich A. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1944).
 
186
Richard Posner, Overcoming Law (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995).
 
187
Lon L. Fuller, The Morality of Law (1964) (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, rev. ed. 1969), at 122, 198–200.
 
188
Joseph Raz, “The Rule of Law and its Virtue” (1977) in The Authority of Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) 210, at 219.
 
189
Joseph Raz, “The Institutional Nature of Law” in The Authority of Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) 103, at 120.
 
190
Joseph Raz, “Legitimate Authority” in The Authority of Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) 3.
 
191
Joseph Raz, “The Law’s Own Virtue” (2019) 39 Oxford J. Legal Stud. 1.
 
192
Joseph Raz, “The Law’s Own Virtue” (2019) 39 Oxford J. Legal Stud. 1, at 8.
 
193
Brian Z. Tamanaha, On the Rule of Law: History, Politics, Theory (New York; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), at 59.
 
194
Lon L. Fuller, The Morality of Law, revised ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969).
 
195
Joseph Raz, “The Rule of Law and Its Virtue” in The Authority of Law: Essays on Law and Morality (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979) 211, at 214–18.
 
196
Manitoba Language Rights [1985] S.C.J. No. 36, [1985] 1 S.C.R. 721 (S.C.C.) at para. 59.
 
197
Dunsmuir v. New Brunswick, [2008] S.C.J. No. 9, [2008] 1 S.C.R. 190, at para. 28 (S.C.C.).
 
198
Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.), 1982, c. 11.
 
199
World Justice Project, “Rule of Law Index: 2017–2018.”
 
200
Geoffrey Palmer & Andrew Butler, Towards Democratic Renewal (Wellington: Victoria University Press, 2018).
 
201
Lon L. Fuller, The Morality of Law, revised ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969).
 
202
Id., at 39.
 
203
Joseph Raz, “The Rule of Law and Its Virtue” in The Authority of Law: Essays on Law and Morality (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979) 211, at 214 (arguing that “[a]ll laws should be prospective [and] open”, as well as “relatively stable”) and 215 (arguing that “[t]he making of … particular legal orders … should be guided by open, stable, clear, and general rules”).
 
204
Jeremy Waldron, “The Rule of Law and the Importance of Procedure” in James E. Fleming, ed., Nomos, vol. 50: Getting to the Rule of Law (New York, NYU Press, 2011) 3.
 
205
Léonid Sirota, The Rule of Law All the Way Up, Supreme Court Law Review (2019) 92 S.C.L.R. (2d) p 80, 81. Jeremy Waldron, “The Core of the Case against Judicial Review” (2006) 115 Yale L.J. 1346.
 
206
Lon L. Fuller, The Morality of Law, revised ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969), at 41 (speaking of a “utopia, in which all eight of the principles of legality are realized to perfection” as not being “a useful target in guiding the impulse toward legality”).
 
207
Kelemen, R.D. (2017) Europe’s Other Democratic Deficit: National Authoritarianism in Europe’s Democratic Union. Government and Opposition 52(2):211–238.
 
208
G Zekos, The United States of Europe The Global Player, 2019 Nova Science Publications New York USA. www.​novapublishers.​com G Zekos, The United States of Europe in place of the European Union, 2017 Nova Science Publications New York USA. www.​novapublishers.​com
 
209
Kelemen, 2017, Europe’s Authoritarian Equilibrium. Foreign Affairs 22 December, https://​www.​foreignaffairs.​com/​articles/​hungary/​2017-12-22/​europes-authoritarianequ​ilibrium Kelemen, 2018, ‘The Rot on Europe’s Right’, Euronews, 12 November, https://​www.​euronews.​com/​2018/​11/​12/​the-rot-on-europe-s-right-viewKelemen, 2019, ‘This is how Europe got its new President’, 17 July. Washington Post, https://​www.​washingtonpost.​com/​politics/​2019/​07/​17/​this-is-how-europegot-its-new-president-it-wasnt-pretty-process/​
 
210
R. Daniel Kelemen, The European Union’s Authoritarian Equilibrium https://​ssrn.​com/​abstract=​3450716 p3.
 
211
Scheppele, K. (2018) Autocratic Legalism. University of Chicago Law Review 85(2):545–583.
 
212
Scheppele, K. (2019) Europe’s Largest Party Suspends Its Resident Autocrat—for Now, Foreign Affairs 28 March, https://​www.​foreignaffairs.​com/​articles/​hungary/​2019-03-28/​europes-largest-party-suspends-its-resident-autocrat-now
 
213
Graber/Levinson/Tushnet (ed), Constitutional Democracy in Crisis? (2018).
 
214
Lust/Waldner, Unwelcome Change. Understanding, Evaluating, and Extending Theories of Democratic Backsliding, USAID 2015, Juni 2015, 21 ff; Hadenius/Teorell, Cultural and Economic Prerequisites of Democracy. Reassessing Recent Evidence, Studies in Comparative International Development 4 (2005) 87.
 
215
Slater et al., Economic Origins of Democratic Breakdown? The Redistributive Model and the Postcolonial State, Perspectives on Politics 2014, 353. Rodrik, Populism and the economics of globalization, Journal of International Business Policy 2018, 12. Knott, Perpetually „partly free”. Lessons from post-soviet hybrid regimes backsliding in Central and Eastern Europe, East European Politics 2018, 355.
 
216
Bernhard et al., Institutional Subsystems and the Survival of Democracy. Do Political and Civil Society Matter? V-Dem Institute Working Paper 2015:4, April 2015; Cornell et al., Civil Society, Party Institutionalization, and Democratic Breakdown in the Interwar Period, V-Dem Institute Working Paper 2016:24, February 2016. Inglehart/Welzel, Changing Mass Priorities, The Link between Modernization and Democracy, Perspectives on Politics (2010) 551.
 
217
Pérez-Liñán/Smith, Democratic quality and democratic survival, in: Tomini/Sandri (ed), Challenges of Democracy in the twenty-first Century (2018), 72, 83.
 
218
Ross, Does Oil Hinder Democracy?, World Politics 2011, 325; Haber/Menaldo, Do natural resources fuel authoritarianism? A reappraisal of the resource course, American Political Science Review 2011, 1. Lührmann/McMann/van Ham, Democracy Aid Effectiveness: Variation Accross Regime Types, V-Dem Institute Working Paper 2018:40, Oktober 2018.
 
219
Levitsky/Ziblatt, How Democracies Die (2018) 21–24.
 
220
Feld/Voigt, Judicial Independence and Economic Growth, Some Proposals Regarding the Judiciary, in Congleton/Swedenborg (ed), Democratic ConstitutionalDesign and Public Policy (2006) 251.
 
221
Müller, Should the EU Protect Democracy and the Rule of Law inside Member States? European Law Journal, 2015, 141; Jakab, The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as the Most Promising Way of Enforcing the Rule of Law against EU Member States, in Closa/Kochenov (ed), Reinforcing the Rule of Law Oversight in the European Union (2016) 187; Jakab/Kochenov (ed), The Enforcement of EU Law and Values. Ensuring Member States‘Compliance (2017); Sadurski, That Other Anniversary, European Constitutional Law Review 2017, 417; Wagrandl, Transnational Militant Democracy, Global Constitutionalism 2018, 143; Bozóki/Hegedűs, An externally constrained hybrid regime. Hungary in the European Union, Democratization 2018, 1173.
 
222
Carp, The Struggle for the Rule of Law in Romania as an EU Member State. The Role of the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism, Utrecht Law Review 2014, 1; Blauberger/Kelemen, Can courts rescue national democracy? Judicial safeguards against democratic backsliding in the EU, Journal of European Public Policy 2017, 321; Sedelmeier, Political safeguards against democratic backsliding in the EU. The limits of material sanctions and the scope of social pressure, Journal of European Public Policy 2017, 337.
 
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Metadata
Title
Politics Supersedes the Rule of Law
Author
Georgios I. Zekos
Copyright Year
2022
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-94736-1_6

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