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About this book

This review book focuses on the structure-property relationships of polyurethane nanocomposite foams in comparison with those of conventional polyurethane composite foams. The thermal insulation properties of polyurethane foam nanocomposites are discussed along with other traits such as their morphology, mechanical and thermomechanical properties, thermal degradation and flammability, energy absorption and saving capability, recycling and recovery behavior. In turn, the book discusses potential applications of PU nanocomposite foams and outlines the main problems that remain to be solved with regard to this important topic.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
Polyurethane (PU) insulation foams exhibit improvements in mechanical properties, thermal insulation behavior, thermal degradation, flammability and thermomechanical properties if the experimental conditions of foam fabrication can be systematically adjusted and optimized by researchers. Besides optimization of experimental conditions for the fabrication of PU insulation foams, proper methods for recycling and recovery of these materials should be properly determined to recover various types of waste PU foams, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and consequently increase the energy value and sustainability of PU foams. This chapter gives a brief introduction to the engrossing area of PU foams by focusing on subtopics such as types of PU foams, types of PU rigid composite foams, PU rigid composite foams including micron-sized fillers, PU rigid composite foams including nano-sized fillers, experimental conditions for PU rigid foam fabrication and recycling and recovery behavior of PU foams at the introductory level.
Engin Burgaz

2. PU Rigid Composite Foams Containing Micron-Sized Fillers

Abstract
Using various micron-sized fillers with cylindirical, plate-like and spherical geometries in PU rigid foams enhances their closed-cellular morphology, mechanical properties, thermal insulation and stability, and flame retardant behavior. For cylindrical micron-sized fillers, synthetic and bio-based fibers can be given as the mostly used filler examples in PU rigid microcomposite foams (PURMCFs). Among plate-like micron-sized fillers, talc and expandable graphite can be given as the most popular additives that have been used in the fabrication of PURMCFs. For spherical micron-sized fillers, silica, calcium carbonate aluminum powder, glass powder, microspheres and carbon black can be given as examples that have been used as fillers in PURMCFs. This chapter systematically reviews important PURMCF works in detail by highlighting subtopics such as morphology, mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties, thermal degradation and flammability and recycling and recovery behavior. In addition, potential applications of PURMCFs containing various micron-sized fillers are discussed, and the main problems that are still not resolved and the future work about this important topic are addressed.
Engin Burgaz

3. PU Rigid Nanocomposite Foams Containing Plate-Like Nanofillers

Abstract
The closed-cellular morphology, mechanical properties, thermal insulation and stability, and flame retardant behavior of PU rigid nanocomposite foams (PURNCFs) can be improved in substantial extent by incorporating various plate-like nano-sized fillers during reactive foaming process. For plate-like nano-sized fillers, clay, graphene oxide and graphene can be given as the nano-filler examples that have been used as nano-sized additives in PURNCFs. However, among PURF/plate-like nano-sized filler published works, the most commonly investigated filler is nanoclay due to its outstanding properties compared to other types of plate-like nano-sized fillers. This chapter systematically analyzes important PURNCF/plate-like nano-sized filler works in detail by highlighting subtopics such as morphology, mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties, thermal degradation and flammability. In addition, besides using one type of nanofiller such as nanoclay in PURNCFs, the importance of utilizing mixtures containing nanoclay and another type of filler or flame retardant with distinct properties is highlighted in order to fabricate PURNCFs with superior properties.
Engin Burgaz

4. PU Rigid Nanocomposite Foams Containing Cylindrical Nanofillers

Abstract
The incorporation of nanocylindrical particles in the form of nanotubes and nanofibers into PURFs improves their closed-cellular morphology, mechanical properties, thermal stability and flame retardant behavior. For cylindrical nano-sized fillers, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers and bio-based cellulosic nanofibers can be given as the nanocylinder examples that have been used as nano-sized fillers in PURNCFs. However, among PURF/cylindrical nano-sized filler studies that were published in the literature, the most extensively researched additive material is carbon nanotubes (CNTs) due to their outstanding properties in comparison with other types of nano-sized cylindrical particles. This chapter specifically investigates major PURNCF/cylindrical nano-sized filler works in detail by highlighting subtopics such as morphology, mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties, thermal degradation and flammability. In addition, besides using one type of nanofiller such as CNTs in PURNCFs, the importance of utilizing nanofiller mixture systems consisting of CNTs and another type of nanofiller with distinct properties is emphasized in order to fabricate PURNCFs with superior properties.
Engin Burgaz

5. PU Rigid Nanocomposite Foams Containing Spherical Nanofillers

Abstract
The inclusion of spherical nanoparticles as nanofillers into PURFs improves their closed-cellular morphology, mechanical properties, thermal stability and flame retardant behavior. For spherical nano-sized fillers, nanosilica, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS), TiO2 and ZnO can be given as nanoadditive examples that have been used as nanoadditives in PURNCFs. However, among PURF/spherical nano-sized filler studies, the most generally investigated nanoadditive is nanosilica due to its excellent thermal stability and decomposition behavior, mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties in comparison with other types of spherical nanoparticles. This chapter systematically examines significant PURNCF/spherical nano-sized filler works in detail by highlighting subtopics such as morphology, mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties, thermal degradation and flammability. In addition, besides using one type of nanofiller such as nanosilica in PURNCFs, the importance of using mixtures containing nanosilica and another type of nanofiller or flame retardant with distinct properties is pointed out in order to fabricate PURNCFs with advanced properties.
Engin Burgaz
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