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About this book

This book describes the global spread of nationalist-populism by rightwing and racist political parties; their impact on political, economic, and sociocultural globalization; and the corrosive impact of this ideology on the global liberal order that emerged after World War II under United States leadership. The global liberal order is a system of norms including peace and security, democracy, human rights, free trade, financial stability and support for a broad range of international governmental organizations and treaties fostering interstate and transnational cooperation to advance those norms and resolve collective problems. Examples of these organizations are the United Nations, European Union, NATO, World Health Organization, World Trade Organization, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and the Paris Climate Accord. Suitable for interested scholars and general readers as well as a classroom text.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

The Sources and Evolution of Nationalist-Populism

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Globalization and the Global Liberal Order

Abstract
This chapter introduces our dialectical perspective to change and applies it to globalization. It discusses the impact of social media on globalization as well as the spread of nationalist-populism and the global liberal order, concepts we introduce here. It then reviews and comments on our earlier optimistic discussion of globalization in our 2012 book. The chapter describes trends in the three key dimensions of globalization and introduces the origins and evolution of the global liberal order.
Richard W. Mansbach, Yale H. Ferguson

Chapter 2. Nationalist-Populism, Its Causes, Content, and Consequences

Abstract
This chapter deals with the emergence and evolution of nationalist-populism. The ideology, largely right wing, entails a desire to restore the “independence” and “sovereignty” of states confronting the tide of globalization and its multiple dimensions and the global norms and rules promoted by the liberal order. The chapter describes what populists believe and profiles those who support that ideology. The chapter also discusses the issues of importance to nationalist-populists and the consequences of their beliefs.
Richard W. Mansbach, Yale H. Ferguson

Chapter 3. The Return of Geopolitics and Declining U.S. Hegemony

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the decline of U.S. global hegemony and the revival of national-interest policies and geopolitical issues. It focuses on rising China and resurgent Russia and their policies in the South China Sea and Ukraine, respectively, to illustrate the return of geopolitics. It also describes the policies of Presidents Obama and Trump and their retreat from global leadership as contributing to the emergence of geopolitical quarrels and declining U.S. hegemony. It also discusses the relationship between the relative decline in U.S. capabilities and the erosion of institutions that foster global cooperation.
Richard W. Mansbach, Yale H. Ferguson

The Spread of Nationalist-Populism

Frontmatter

Chapter 4. The Sources and Spread of Populism: America

Abstract
This chapter introduces a section of the book, regarding the spread of nationalist-populism focuses on the United States and the central role played by former President Donald Trump and his extreme right-wing nationalism, nativism, xenophobia, and racism in shaping U.S. between 2016 and his electoral defeat in 2020. Trump is an authoritarian, and the chapter opens with a discussion of authoritarian-populism and the threat it posed to liberal institutions and democracy in America. It describes his warm relations with authoritarian leaders like Russia’s Vladimir Putin, who played a significant role in helping Trump to be elected in 2016. It describes his criticism of alliances, his unorthodox diplomacy, his hostility toward long-time allies and warmth toward foes, his contempt for science, his propensity to lie. The chapter discusses Trump’s populist policies, his impetuosity in making decisions, the chaos in his administration regarding issues such as Russia and trade, and the general inconsistencies of his policies.
Richard W. Mansbach, Yale H. Ferguson

Chapter 5. Great Britain: Brexit, and Nationalist-Populism

Abstract
This chapter focuses on nationalist-populism in Great Britain, notably in the context of the Brexit debate and the issues in that debate. It describes the profile of Brexiteeers, the politicians involved, including Donald, Trump, Nicolas Farage, Boris Johnson, and Theresa May, and the struggle within the British government and parliament, and its main political parties to reach agreement about how to deal with issues raised by Brexit such as the status of Northern Ireland and a hard versus a soft Brexit. It also discusses the negotiations between the UK and the EU, and the agreement between just before Brexit was executed.
Richard W. Mansbach, Yale H. Ferguson

Chapter 6. Europe and the Spread of Nationalist-Populism

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the spread to and the consequences of nationalist-populism to continental Europe. It describes Trump’s role, especially disparaging NATO and the EU as he does other multilateral institutions, in spreading the ideology to countries like the Netherlands and France where populists like Geert Wilders and Marine Le Pen and Germany’s AfD remain out of power and to several countries where populists have been or remain in government, notably Hungary, Poland, Italy, and Turkey. It describes the evolution of populism in each of these following the 2008 financial meltdown and fostered by Russia, and their leaders cite Trump as their inspiration. The discussion is regional. It begins with Western Europe where, despite populist politicians, liberal governments remain in office but where populism is spreading and mainstream parties and politicians like French President Emmanuel Macron are adopting populist policies and rhetoric, notably in regard to Islam and immigration. It then turns to more recent Eastern Europe members where populists remain or have served as part of governing coalitions. As well as the East–West division in Europe, the chapter also addresses a North–South division between wealthy norther EU members and poorer EU southern members.
Richard W. Mansbach, Yale H. Ferguson

Chapter 7. Nationalist-Populism in the Global South and Middle East

Abstract
This chapter deals with nationalist-populism in the global south. The term “global south,” refers to states, many of which are less-developed in the southern hemisphere. This vast region harbors both left-wing and right-wing populists with traits similar to populists in the United States, Europe, and Great Britain such as extreme nationalism, dislike of globalization, anti-liberal and authoritarian tendencies, and preoccupation with identity politics. We look at populism’s spread by region and then in particular countries. Hence, we start with right-wing and left-wing populism in Latin America, emphasizing its evolution from Peronism in Argentina, Cuba under the Castros, anti-American under Hugh Chávez and Nicolás Maduro, and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in Brazil and a later Trumpist version in Jair Bolsonaro as well as brief discussions of Nicaragua’s Daniel Ortega, Bolivia’s Evo Morales, and Ecuador’s Rafael Correa. We then turn to Asia where nationalist-populist leaders in China, the Philippines, Myanmar, and India and leaders such as Xi, Duterte, Aung San Suu Kyi. and Narendra Modi have fostered populism in reaction to Muslim minorities, and Iran where dominant Shia Muslims Persians dominated Sunni and Arab minorities. We conclude by looking at the nationalism of Egypt’s President Gamal Abdel Nasser in the 1950s, and Israel’s Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu were nationalist-populists.
Richard W. Mansbach, Yale H. Ferguson

Three Dimensions of Globalization: Present and Future

Frontmatter

Chapter 8. The Political Dimension of Globalization

Abstract
This chapter is the first of three chapters that discuss key dimensions of globalization. It focuses on political globalization the multilateral institutions and agreements that make it possible. The KOF index of political globalization includes “the number of international organizations of which the country is a member” and the number of “multilateral agreements the country has concluded since 1945.” The chapter discusses former President Trump’s dislike of multilateralism and his preference of bilateralism and the reason for this. It describes Trump’s efforts to undermine institutions ranging from NATO, the UN, and the EU to the WTO and WHO. The chapter also describes Trump’s effort to undermine multilateral agreements, especially the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), a deal with Iran to prevent that country from acquiring nuclear weapons and the Paris Climate Accord, a global agreement to reduce global warming and the environmental issues it deals with. The chapter describes how these actions isolated the U.S., conflicting with the preferences of its major allies and the steps Iran took in reaction to the renewal of American economic sanctions and the efforts to U.S. allies to evade those sanctions. The chapter then discusses bilateral efforts to overcome U.S.-Russian differences and to denuclearize Korea and how and why both were failures.
Richard W. Mansbach, Yale H. Ferguson

Chapter 9. The Economic Dimension of Globalization

Abstract
This chapter deals with economic globalization and focuses on America’s rejection of free trade and multilateral trade groups like NAFTA and its movement toward imposing tariffs and the resulting trade wars with China and Europe. The chapter opens with a discussion of the economic roots of protectionism, notably the digitalization of economies, growing inequality within states after the Great Recession. It describes the interdependence of the global economy owing to multinational corporations and banks, the outsourcing of work and production to different countries, and resulting complex production chains. The chapter explains Trump’s misunderstanding of trade deficits, his belief that they are a matter of national security, and why protectionism invites retaliation. The chapter discusses the sources of the Sino-American trade war, including China’s protectionist policies. It then describes the tit-for-tat evolution of the trade war and the failed efforts to bring it to an end, which led to several ceasefires. There ensues a discussion of Trump’s dislike of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the negotiations with Mexico and Canada to reform NAFTA, which resulted in minor changes but a new name. The chapter then discusses strains in U-S-EU trade relations, beginning with U.S. tariffs on metals that were especially harmful to auto manufacturers and the recriminations between America and its allies. The chapter closes with a description of the pain these trade conflicts have had on U.S. consumers and firms.
Richard W. Mansbach, Yale H. Ferguson

Chapter 10. The Socio-Cultural Dimension of Globalization

Abstract
This chapter describes the movement of person globally, largely by migration. It defines the several categories of migrants and their legal status. The chapter describes former President Trump’s nativism and the many ways he and his administration sought to reduce and even prevent immigration. It discusses how immigration has declined despite the positive role immigration plays in creating soft power and the impact of demographic changes that increased the need for immigrants. The chapter focuses on how events in the Middle East created large numbers of Muslim refugees and the growth and impact of Islamophobia in America and Europe, especially in countries that are dominated by nationalist-populists. The flood of Muslim migrants in 2015 and terrorist incidents, produced deep political divisions both within and among countries in Europe. The chapter climaxes by describing the flood of refugees from Central America and the efforts of the Trump administration to deter and/or prevent Latinos from seeking asylum in the U.S., including family separation and Trump’s effort to build a wall on the Mexican border.
Richard W. Mansbach, Yale H. Ferguson

Conclusions

Frontmatter

Chapter 11. The Future of Globalization and the Liberal Global Order

Abstract
Chapter 11 synthesizes the issues previously discussed. It suggests a cautious degree of optimism about the future of globalization, which will be a reaction to its retreat in recent years. It reveals the trends in the three dimensions of globalization described earlier and uses poll data to show that globalization is still popular among public around the world. The chapter is less optimistic about the future of the global liberal order. The spread of nationalist-populism among politicians globally will create a poor context for reviving the political order. However, as the chapter notes, the election of Joe Biden as U.S. president and the second impeachment of his predecessor bode well for democracy, human rights, and multilateral cooperation.
Richard W. Mansbach, Yale H. Ferguson

Backmatter

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