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Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) allow users to compute their position, velocity, and time anywhere in the world, anytime, and with a high accuracy. The best known, most popular GNSS, is the US Global Positioning System (GPS), although the Russian GLONASS system is regaining strength. In addition, other powerful nations in the world are developing their own systems: the European Union, China, Japan, and India.
These GNSS mainly offer two types of services: an open service, available to anyone, and an authorized service, available only to authorized users and which provides better performance. The authorized services already support defense military operations of the USA and Russia, while the open services have become instrumental in civil security operations of any state for police and civil protection for instance.
Open services from the current and future GNSS can be combined in order to deliver better performance to users. This is called the “interoperability” concept. On the contrary, the authorized services cannot be combined except if security and specific cooperation agreements are in place. In this case, the combined use of authorized services could also bring improved performance for defense applications.
This chapter addresses these aspects on the use of the GNSS for defense and security applications.
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Apple Iphone 4S and 5 specifications with assisted GPS and GLONASS. www.apple.com/iphone/specs.html
EU-US Cooperation on Satellite Navigation, Working Group C. Combined performances for open GPS/Galileo receivers, July 19, 2010. www.gps.gov/policy/cooperation/europe/2010/working-group-c/combined-open-GPS-Galileo.pdf
Geo Tactical Solutions, Inc. and Ricoh Americas Corporation have announced a new GPS module for the rugged G700SE digital camera. www.geotacticalsolutions.com/resources/g700sem-brochure.pdf
Hein GW (Germany), Jérémie G (GISS), Jean-Luc I (France), Jean-Christophe M (European Commission, Signal Task Force chairman), Lucas-Rodriguez R (European Space Agency), Pratt T (United Kingdom) (2001) The Galileo frequency structure and signal design, Proceedings of ION GPS 2001, Salt Lake City, September 2001, pp 1273–1282
Jean-Marc Pieplu (GSA) (2006) GPS et Galileo, systèmes de navigation par satellites
John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, US DoT (2001) Vulnerability assessment of the transportation infrastructure relying on the global positioning system – final report
Kaplan ED, Hegarty C (2006) Understanding GPS: principles and applications, 2nd edn. Artech House, Boston
Parkinson BW, Spilker JJ (1996) Global positioning system: theory and applications, vol I. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, DC
Scott L, Stansell T (2012) GNSS jamming & interference: causes, consequences, and solutions inside GNSS
Selective Availability Anti-spoofing Module (SAASM) is used by military GPS receivers to allow decryption of PPS data
Status of Galileo Frequency and Signal Design (2002) Günter W. Hein (Germany), Jérémie Godet (GISS), Jean-Luc Issler (France), Jean-Christophe Martin (European Commission, Signal Task Force chairman), Philippe Erhard (European Space Agency), Rafael Lucas-Rodriguez (European Space Agency) and Tony Pratt (United Kingdom) Members of the Galileo Signal Task Force of the European Commission, Brussels
United States Government Accountability Office, Report to the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives, GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM, Challenges in Sustaining and Upgrading Capabilities Persist, September 2010
Vulnerability assessment of the transportation infrastructure relying on the GPS, 29 August 2001, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center and Global Navigation Space Systems: reliance and vulnerabilities, The Royal Academy of Engineering, March 2011
- Positioning, Navigation, and Timing for Security and Defense
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