Skip to main content
Top

Open Access 2023 | Open Access | Book

Cover of the book

Post Un-Lock

From Territorial Vulnerabilities to Local Resilience

insite
SEARCH

About this book

This open access book builds a framework that holds together numerous open issues in territorial planning: from the understanding of territorial, landscape, environmental and climatic dynamics to the analysis of local vulnerabilities, to the use of modern survey techniques to support planning. What is the role of urban and regional planning in achieving the sustainable development goals of our communities considering the major issues posed by the COVID-19 pandemic in urban planning? And how do these medium- and long-term objectives interact with the needs that the emergency has given rise to?

Post Un-Lock—from territorial vulnerabilities to local resilience—aims to provide the reader with a useful key to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic can be seen as a catalyst for a restart based on the concepts of sustainability and resilience. In fact, the COVID-19 experience evidences the need to propose a planning system able to integrate multiple scales according to an interdisciplinary approach focused on in-depth knowledge of the territorial risks and vulnerabilities. Besides, with the contribution of the new technologies, it is able to rethink spaces on a neighbourhood scale, conceived as a "local resilience unit" that ensures the population high standards of safety, liveability, and accessibility to proximity services. In this view, planning is increasingly concerned about social aspects and the well-being of communities, supported by indicators and evaluation tools. With the proposal of the concept of local resilience unit, Post Un-Lock takes a step forward towards the definition of a new paradigm of local planning and a topic for urban regeneration.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

The Research

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 1. Post-pandemic Challenges. The Role of Local Governance for Territorial Resilience
Abstract
This chapter aims to provide researchers different interpretative keys of the book, which attempt to propose methodologies, tools, and case studies to put resilience into action in post-pandemic territories by planning and design at different scales. The chapter opens the discussion by presenting diverse and interdisciplinary contributions of which the research is composed; it discusses key topics with reference to the transformative resilience, and referring to methodologies and tools for interpreting territories, and focusing on the role of planning, as well as attempting to describe through practices the operational concept of the Local Resilience Unit.
Grazia Brunetta, Angioletta Voghera

Topics

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 2. Notes on Spatial Implications of COVID-19. Evidence from Piedmont Region, Italy
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has been studied by many scholars from a wide range of disciplines. Among these investigations, planners and regional scientists have researched the spatial spread of the contagion. Most of these studies tried to explore the spread of the disease in a fixed period, like annually, and analysed the spatial variables that are most influential on the COVID-19 spread over territories. On the same line, the chapter investigates the pattern of virus transmission in the 1.181 municipalities of the Piedmont Region during two years of the pandemic over different periods by providing 24 monthly and two annual hot spot maps using the Spatial Statistics Tools on ArcGIS. Consequently, the chapter analyses the correlation between the spread of contagion with three spatial variables (population density, annual average traffic flow, and the ageing index) by performing a statistical analysis on the municipalities which showed unexpectedly higher or unexpectedly lower numbers of contagion. The results show that the impacts of population density and annual average traffic flow are verified on the transmission rate of the cities with unexpectedly higher or lower exposure to COVID-19 contagion than their neighbours both in the first and the second year of the pandemic. For the ageing index, an association is noticed during the first year while not confirmed for the second. In conclusion, the chapter proposes that studying the disease’s variations—at different times and on a regional scale—uncovers the spatial dimension of the phenomenon and would suggest insights for both scientists and policymakers to enrich preparedness as the preferable approach in future planning policies towards transformative resilience.
Grazia Brunetta, Ombretta Caldarice, Danial Mohabat Doost, Franco Pellerey

Open Access

Chapter 3. The Role of the Minor Hydrographic System in Increasing the Ecological Network
Abstract
This contribution describes the definition of the structure of the local ecological network. It was carried out as part of the support activities for the construction of the new urban plan of Mappano (Turin, Italy). The knowledge of the minor hydrographic system in Mappano allowed the construction of the structural map of the local ecological network, which contemplates the structural elements of the network (primary ecological network), the contiguous portions to the structural elements (areas with ecological functionality areas where it is a priority to intervene to increase ecological network), the areas of possible expansion of the network, i.e., areas with residual ecological functionality. However, there it is possible to carry out interventions useful for the protection of habitats and species of interest for conservation of biodiversity. Peripheral strips and connecting corridors, consisting of minor water canals, have therefore made it possible to better define the areas of possible expansion of the network: wetlands and marshes, in these relevant areas, represent steppingstones of fundamental importance for rest and reproduction of many species and which need to be safeguarded in the design of the new local urban plan.
Luigi La Riccia, Stefano Ferraris

Open Access

Chapter 4. Ecosystem Services and Territorial Resilience: The Role of Green and Blue Infrastructure
Abstract
Responding to the new environmental, ecological, and social emergencies requires a shift in strategies and urban design models. In the contexts of sustainability and resilience, green and blue infrastructure (GBI) is a wide-ranging concept that can help overcome the usual dichotomies of urban growth versus green or the built environment versus nature. This provides different benefits, both environmental and ecological and social and economic. In urban contexts, green spaces play a strategic role due to the number of typologies and functions that vary from neighborhood spaces to green, play, and sports facilities to protected areas of territorial scale. In this way, the planning and design of GBI take on the triple objective of regenerating fragile and degraded ecosystems from an environmental, social, and economic point of view. Focusing on this assumption, we describe how the GBI that develops along the axe of the Stura di Lanzo river in a multiscalar mosaic of soils at both local and territorial levels can determine options for the ecosystem quality of the metropolitan area of northern Turin. We suppose that mapping ecosystem services (based on a correct land use/land cover design) can support designing new urban and regional plans to improve resilience.
Carolina Giaimo, Benedetta Giudice, Giulio Gabriele Pantaloni, Angioletta Voghera

Open Access

Chapter 5. Indicators and Scenarios for Sustainable Development at the Local Level
Abstract
Cities around the world have faced the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic with unprecedented speed, due to our hyper-connected society. As history teaches us, epidemics plague society because of the vulnerabilities generated by humans through their relationships with the environment, with other species and with each other. The recent pandemic is a stark reminder that urbanization has changed the way people and communities live, work, and interact, and it is even more necessary than in the past to adopt a multidisciplinary approach to the development of systemic operational skills that can address complex issues within cities. This work showed how many measures adopted during the emergency have now become part of daily life. The lesson of the pandemic is that people’s health is connected to and dependent on the health of the planet, and cities are at the center of this relationship. The objective of the research starts from the need to identify a selection of post-COVID indicators providing an analysis methodology suitable for the creation of its own final set with the identification of specific key performance indicators (KPIs) of the project, replicable in other urban contexts, on which to base the analysis of the level of local sustainability, especially at the neighborhood scale. The proposed methodological framework is developed in two phases: (1) indicator selection and (2) baseline scenario, set out to investigate the existing correlations between the urban environment and the neighborhood level of cities. On the basis of the assessment of the KPIs, selected on the basis of numerous comparisons with the project's internal and external stakeholders, thanks to the creation of an interactive dashboard with Tableau software, it was possible to analyze the basic scenario of proximity at the neighborhood scale for the City of Turin, highlighting weak points and priority areas on which to act, experimenting with the theme “Inhabiting proximity” as an urban response to the pandemic.
Alice Borsari, Patrizia Lombardi, Sara Torabi Moghadam

Open Access

Chapter 6. Towards Neighbourhoods as Minimum Units of Resilience?
Abstract
COVID-19 restrictions have changed the perception of space: travel limitations and diffusion of remote activities have narrowed the spaces of everyday life, leading to a rediscovery of proximity. We are both witnessing a re-appropriation of the domestic environment and re-discovering the neighbourhood and those small portions of the city often neglected. This rediscovery is evident in the use of nearby public spaces and in transport, with the decongestion of many urban areas following the reduction of commuting. Even if this is a contingent situation, it is reasonable to think that part of these changes will persist at the end of the emergency. For these reasons, there is a need to focus on neighbourhoods’ quality, spatial organization and adaptive capacity towards both emergencies such as the pandemic and the great urban challenges towards resilience and sustainability. Essentially, sub-local scale must be rethought to meet not only the ordinary needs of its inhabitants but also health or other issues. In this sense, the potential of spatial units based in the concepts of proximity and walkability is explored, giving an interpretation that starting from the 15-min city and the superilla models explore the perspective of “minimum units of resilience” for facing pandemics.
Elena Pede, Mattia Scalas, Luca Staricco

Case Studies

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 7. NO2 Concentrations and COVID-19 in Local Systems of Northwest Italy
Abstract
This paper aims to further investigate the relationship between the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the severity of COVID-19 by analyzing the data of three Italian Regions (Piedmont, Valle d’Aosta and Liguria) during the first wave of the pandemic (February–May 2020). The analyses were conducted at a local scale using Local Labor Systems of ISTAT. The annual average of NO2 concentrations, obtained from space satellite Sentinel-5P, was used to assess environmental data. While excess mortality data were used to estimate the severity of the pandemic, calculated as the percentage change in deaths recorded in 2020 compared to the average number of deaths of the previous five years (2015–2019). Using quasi-Poisson multivariate regression models, it was possible to estimate the correlation between the incidence rate of the pandemic and some risk factors, including in particular the concentration of NO2.
Ettore Sarzotti, Gianmarco Pignocchino, Alessandro Pezzoli, Angelo Besana

Open Access

Chapter 8. The COVID-19 Effects and the Development Process of Lanzo Valleys in a Metro-Mountain Perspective
Abstract
During the last century, the close relationship between the Lanzo valleys and the Turin conurbation has declined differently because of the specific local resources, networks, and the dominant development model, starting with the historic holiday resort of the Turin upper class up to the industrialization of the lower valley, linked to Turin industry and currently in crisis. Recent projects, carried out by the local community, however, testify to the desire for a new dynamism through innovative experiences that look beyond the traditional activities, as testified by the selection of this area in the first phase of the National Strategy for Internal Areas (SNAI). These dynamics have accelerated in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic which has further re-evaluated the role and importance of some local assets that have favoured the spread of a different model of living characterized by a temporary residency that positively exploits the qualities of an urban-mountain environment. On the other hand, there was a rediscovery of a different tourism, linked to places, history, and nature. This contribution deepens the evolution of these dynamics, focusing on the entire metropolitan-mountain area and on specific municipalities through qualitative-quantitative analyses to evaluate the effects both in the short and long-term allowing to establish which are, in the near future, the permanent assets on which to focus attention to trigger a leverage effect and which ones can be considered as temporary conditions that run out in a short time.
Federica Corrado, Erwin Durbiano, Gabriella Negrini

Open Access

Chapter 9. Analysis of Hydrogeological Risks Related to Climate Change: Testing the ClimeApp Assessment Tool on the Torino Nord Homogenous Zone
Abstract
The current changes in temperatures and precipitations can lead to increased frequency and magnitude of natural hazards such as floods, resulting in forthcoming losses of life and damages to private and public properties. This paper presents an applied hydrogeological risk assessment methodology developed as part of an interdisciplinary European project between France and Italy (Interreg Alcotra ARTACLIM). A practical framework is proposed to assess the risk for urban settlements and infrastructural assets at a sub-regional level, within one of the 11 homogeneous zones of the Turin Metropolitan City, the “Torino Nord” Homogeneous Area of Pinerolo (ZOP). Based on the most reliable guidelines of institutions and organizations such as IPCC, United Nations, Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy EUROPE, the methodology here presented identifies risks related to climate change as a function of hazard (H), exposure (E) and vulnerability (V) factors, the latter one being in turn a function of sensitivity (S) and adaptive capacity (AC). Each factor is operationalized through specific indicators. The results of the analysis generate a geo-localized risk score that can be used to support urban planners and local policymakers to prioritize the adaptation measures required for reducing hydrogeological damages related to climate change.
Elena Pede, Mattia Scalas, Luca Staricco

Open Access

Chapter 10. From Knowledge to Land-Use Planning: Local Resilient Experience in the Territory of the Municipality of Mappano
Abstract
The chapter illustrates the result of the analysis on the municipality of Mappano, located in northern Turin (Italy). The studies were carried out as part of the collaboration between the Municipality of Mappano and the Inter-University Department of Territorial and Urban Studies and Planning (DIST) of the Politecnico di Torino, for the preparation of the first Municipal Urban Plan. The main goal was to contribute to this local planning tool by introducing innovative analyses, descriptions and elaborations which were useful in structuring planning choices. In particular, various data sources were systematized, integrated and coordinated to represent the territory from the point of view of both environmental phenomena and landscape in order to provide sustainability and resilience.
Luigi La Riccia, Angioletta Voghera

Open Access

Chapter 11. Space for Rights. The School Between Planning Standard and Social Innovation
Abstract
The paper straddles the boundary between urbanism and sociology, working on the common ground of rights: public services and facilities (‘planning standard,’ according to the Italian spatial planning legislation) on the one hand and the care of the commons on the other, in addition to attempting to grapple with a third dimension of rights that places space and society alongside law. This methodological hypothesis is practiced from the critical analysis of one of the basic public facilities: the school. In the national debate on public services and common goods, school spaces are one of the recurring examples of how they have functionality as public educational services during school time and how they can also have other functional profiles as common goods, i.e., as civic centers open to the urban community during out-of-school hours. The theme of the hybridization of spaces and functions emerges with ever-increasing theoretical and empirical force in the reflections on so-called social innovation. Even if, in several cases, many people ignored one of the most beautiful definitions of planning standards by Giovanni Astengo (1966). He stated that, besides being a minimum, standards represent a minimum of civilization. The paper intends to bring attention to the complex value of spatial and social resources related to schools.
Daniela Ciaffi, Carolina Giaimo, Emanuela Saporito, Valeria Vitulano

Digital Tools

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 12. The 3D Metric Survey for the Digital Cartographic Production to Support the Knowledge of the New Municipality of Mappano
Abstract
The complexity of the territories and cities is the genesis of the need to carry out spatial analyses, simulations of complex phenomena and urban planning, requiring an evolution of very large-scale numerical cartography. The representation of cities has not to ignore some essential aspects as well as: the three-dimensionality of the land and all its natural and artificial objects, the multi-scale of geometric and descriptive information to allow different levels of detail and granularity according to the operational purposes, and the interoperability, which enable sharing of map data among various stakeholders and applications for complex analysis. The outcome resulted in the evolution of traditional cartography into numerical cartography toward new instruments and applications such as digital twins. They constitute a virtual replica of physical, potential, and actual resources equivalent to objects, processes, people, places, infrastructures, systems, and devices related to the city and the territory. The case study selected for this research is the recent municipality of Mappano, in the metropolitan city of Turin. The methodology consists of a semiautomatic extraction of cartographic information and geometry essential for defining a digital twin. It has been developed investigating the existing Piedmontese regional geoportal (BDTRE) datasets and data models, and the Geographic Information System (GIS) standard specification for 3D city models, CityGML, mainly considering the first three levels of detail (LoD). The methodology and the resulting spatial data application have been validated by in-loco surveys and digital tools in GIS environment. The starting base map entities derived from a high-resolution acquisition from drone photogrammetry (UAV, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, platforms have been adopted). The outputs of the aerial survey, orthophotos, and dense altimetric models (DTM, Digital Terrain Model and DSM, Digital Surface Model) were essential to extract various cartographic information.
Egle Beani, Elisabetta Colucci, Luigi La Riccia, Andrea Maria Lingua, Paolo Felice Maschio, Francesca Matrone, Alberto Possa, Ammj Traore

Open Access

Chapter 13. Source and Data for the Analysis of the Metropolitan Territory with GIS Tools: A Critical Review Between Commercial and Open Access Tools
Abstract
This contribution addresses the issue of the availability and accessibility of data for urban and regional studies. After an initial part in which tools and arguments are provided to frame the open data paradigm, the second part proceeds with the simulation of a GIS-based study on a territory of the Metropolitan City of Turin aimed at supporting post-COVID territorial planning, highlighting the areas in which there is a lack of data, the difficulty of access, such as in health care, or the obligation to have to use commercial data. In the last part, the results of the study are discussed, and the issue of the importance of the construction of digital models (digital twins) capable of receiving and processing data of different sources, and how these models should be developed according to an open and non-commercial paradigm.
Francesco Fiermonte, Luigi La Riccia, Mattia Scalas

Lesson Learned and Perspectives

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 14. Final Remarks on the Implementation of the Post-pandemic City and the Role of Technology
Abstract
This final chapter of the book highlights some major results of the Post Un-Lock research project conducted inside the SDG11Lab and the Responsible Risk Resilience Center of the Politecnico di Torino with the collaboration of the Medical Statistics and Epidemiology Department of the University of Turin. In particular, it discusses the concepts of proximity and Local Resilience Units in connection with the well-known “15-city” paradigm. This model requires the adoption of new urban and ecosystem criteria as well as advanced technological support systems for post-pandemic public and private urban space planning and management. The conclusions point out to the need for education and appropriate digital skills in order to be able to integrate ecological principles in the design and management of urban areas with the support of high-tech systems.
Patrizia Lombardi
Metadata
Title
Post Un-Lock
Editors
Grazia Brunetta
Patrizia Lombardi
Angioletta Voghera
Copyright Year
2023
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-33894-6
Print ISBN
978-3-031-33893-9
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-33894-6