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2023 | Book

Power-Based Study of Boundary Layer Ingestion for Aircraft Application

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About this book

This book presents research on Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI). BLI is an aircraft-engine integration technique that aims at integrating the aircraft and the propulsion system such that the overall aircraft fuel consumption can be reduced. In this research, theoretical analysis suggests that the minimization of total power consumption should be used as a design criterion for aircraft utilizing BLI rather than focusing on the minimization of drag. Numerical simulations are performed, and the simulation results are processed using the PBM to support the theoretical analysis. Furthermore, an experimental study is carried out with a focus on the power conversion processes involved for a propulsor operating in the wake. Stereoscopic PIV is employed in order to visualize the flow and understand the physics. The so-called Power-based Method is used to quantify the power conversion mechanisms. The results prove that the dominant mechanism responsible for the efficiency enhancement is due to the utilization of body wake energy by the wake ingesting propeller. In short, the importance of wake energy flow rate in understanding the BLI phenomenon is highlighted. This book will be useful for researchers in the field of aircraft propulsion, aircraft aerodynamics, and airframe propulsion integration.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Introduction
Abstract
Right since the inception of the “jet age”, travelling by air has become easier and more affordable. An important driver of this growth has been the improvement in the aircraft fuel efficiency, as the fuel cost can amount to 30% of the total operating cost.
Peijian Lv
Chapter 2. Propulsion Integration
Abstract
This chapter aims to present background knowledge of BLI for aircraft applications. Literature is reviewed for previous research related to relevant issues in propulsion integration (PI). The structure of this chapter is organized as follows: the first part briefly describes the typical performance of uninstalled propulsion. The second part introduces the issues of PI for the state-of-the-art conventional aircraft with engines installed under the wing. The third part discusses propellers ingesting the body wake, including ship propellers and pusher propellers applied for aircraft. Lastly, the possible benefits and challenges due to BLI are discussed.
Peijian Lv
Chapter 3. A Theoretical Analysis of Boundary Layer Ingestion and Wake Ingestion
Abstract
This chapter presents conceptual studies to evaluate the performance of the propulsor and its associated vehicle in the configurations of wake ingestion (WI) and boundary layer ingestion (BLI). A power conversion analysis uses the so-called power balance method (PBM) to elaborate the power-saving mechanism of WI, showing that the Froude’s propulsive efficiency as a figure of merit should be separated from the power conversion efficiency in these configurations. The body/propulsor interaction occurring in the BLI configuration is qualitatively analysed to clarify its influence on the performance of the integrated vehicle. The results suggest that the minimization of power consumption should be used as a design criterion for aircraft utilizing BLI. This is different from the usual way of aircraft design which mainly focuses on minimizing the airframe drag.
Peijian Lv
Chapter 4. Power-Based Analysis of Boundary Layer Ingestion Through Numerical Simulations
Abstract
The previous chapter discussed the theory and the mechanisms of BLI, namely the power-saving mechanism and the body/propulsor interaction. The power balance method (PBM) was used to investigate the power conversions related to BLI. This chapter is dedicated to investigating the mechanisms of BLI through numerical simulations. The power balance method (PBM) is used to post-process the simulation data such that the detailed processes involved in the power conversion can be determined.
Peijian Lv
Chapter 5. Experimental Study of the Flow Mechanisms Associated with a Propulsor Ingesting a Body Wake
Abstract
This chapter presents an experimental study in order to provide experimental proof of the flow physics as discussed in the theoretical analysis in Chapter 3. More specifically, the current experimental research aims to quantify the power conversion processes involved in a propulsor ingesting body wake. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been employed for the first time to visualize the flow in wake ingesting propellers. The power balance method is used to quantify the power conversion mechanisms using the data obtained from the experiments. The results prove that the dominant mechanism responsible for the efficiency enhancement is the utilization of body wake energy by the wake ingesting propeller.
Peijian Lv
Chapter 6. Conclusions and Recommendations
Abstract
This chapter presents the main conclusions of the research and provides recommendations for further studies on BLI. The research carried out during the course of this book consists of three pillars, namely the theoretical analysis, numerical simulations, and the experimental investigations.
Peijian Lv
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Power-Based Study of Boundary Layer Ingestion for Aircraft Application
Author
Peijian Lv
Copyright Year
2023
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-19-5497-9
Print ISBN
978-981-19-5496-2
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-5497-9

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