Skip to main content

About this book

This book provides a detailed explanation of the cold spray process from a practical standpoint. Drawing on the authors’ 36 years of research and development experience, it is firmly rooted in theory but also substantiated by empirical data and practical knowledge, offering potential users the information they need to recognize the advantages, as well as the limitations, of cold spray. This sets it apart from previous works on the subject, which have been purely academic.

Cold spray technology has made great dramatic strides over the last 10 years and is now being used extensively in the aerospace, electronics, automotive, medical, and even the petrochemical industries. Most recently, cold spray of near-net shaped parts was accomplished – something previously assumed to be impossible because of the limitations of commercially available cold spray systems and a lack of fundamental understanding regarding the process. The cost of cold spray has also declined, making it appealing to industry through the introduction of new powders, surface preparation techniques, and recovery systems tailored to the cold spray process.

Though primarily intended for users of the technology, this handbook is also a valuable resource for researchers interested in advances in cold spray materials, improved feedstock powders, advanced hardware and software development, surface preparation techniques, and the numerous applications developed to date. For example, cold spray aluminum alloys have been developed that offer the strength and ductility of wrought material in the as-sprayed condition. This has yet to be achieved by conventional powder consolidation methods including laser sintering, electron beam, and ultrasonic techniques. Other topics covered include additive manufacturing, structural repair, nondestructive evaluation, advanced cold spray materials, qualification requirements, cold spray systems comparison, and, finally, helium recovery. Thanks to its practical focus, the book provides readers with everything they need to understand, evaluate, and implement cold spray technology.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction

Cold Spray (CS) is a material consolidation process whereby micron-sized particles of a metal, ceramic, and/or polymer are accelerated through a spray gun fitted with a De Laval rocket nozzle to form a coating or a near-net shaped part.
Victor Kenneth Champagne

Chapter 2. Process Description

This section contains a basic description of the cold spray process and an overview of the associated theory and practices. Sufficient detail is provided to understand the parameters that govern the cold spray process and the differences between cold spray systems.
Timothy J. Eden, Ozan Cagatay Ozdemir, Victor Kenneth Champagne

Chapter 3. Setting Up a Cold Spray Facility

Chapter 3 describes the basic cold spray system configuration, along with the integration of auxiliary equipment. A step-by-step process to properly set up a basic cold spray facility, including the required footprint, gas supply, safety precautions, and other important considerations, is outlined. On-site support infrastructure and commercially available equipment are described.
Victor Kenneth Champagne, Dennis Helfritch, Ozan Cagatay Ozdemir, Nick Klotz, Rob Hrabe

Chapter 4. Feedstock Powders

The cold spray deposited coating and manufactured component properties are a function of the selected parameters associated with the feedstock powder variables (e.g. particle size and morphology), the cold spray gas dynamic variables (e.g. nozzle dimensions and gas supply pressure and temperature), and the deposition process variables (e.g. standoff distance, spray angle, and spray pattern). The effects of powder feedstock variables are very important not only from the perspective of fluid mechanic interactions in particle acceleration in the nozzle, but also from the material formation perspective. Initial particle chemistry, microstructural conditions, particle surface conditions, and particle morphology highly affect the final coating properties. In this chapter, the characteristics of feedstock powders and their significance on the properties of their cold sprayed deposits are discussed. The effects of the powder characteristics are tested against deposition efficiency, porosity, hardness, corrosion performance, bond strength, ductility, resultant microstructure, and the overall deposition consistency.
Aaron Nardi, Danielle Cote, Victor Kenneth Champagne

Chapter 5. Material Properties

Cold spray technology is beneficial for a wide variety of applications. Cold spray is used extensively for the dimensional restoration of components and also for wear and corrosion-resistant coatings on many substrates. Cold spray deposits are very dense and can be applied to heat-sensitive substrates, because it operates below the melting point of both the substrate and the feedstock powder. The cold spray deposit often has material properties comparable to or equal to that of the wrought material (in some cases even higher, i.e., 5056Al), and the cold spray process can produce thick deposits to repair damaged, worn, or corroded parts. Cold spray can be used as an additive manufacturing process to produce parts. The aim of this chapter is to provide insight into the properties of high-pressure cold spray materials. It is important to note that the data in this chapter relate exclusively to high pressure–temperature cold spray, and the combination of the high strength and the ductility needed for structural applications was not provided by low-pressure systems.
Victor Kenneth Champagne, Aaron Nardi, Dennis Helfritch, Matt Siopis

Chapter 6. Application, Qualification, and Standardization of Cold Spray

In accordance with application, development, and standardization needs, in this chapter, the standards that are developed for cold spray and directly applicable to cold spray are highlighted. A pathway is presented for developing cold spray procedures and writing new standards for applications that don’t follow an available guide or a standard. Furthermore, destructive and nondestructive testing methods are presented for product qualification and certification phases. The listed nondestructive methods are also applicable to evaluate the structural and operational integrity of cold spray manufactured products that are in service.
Ozan Cagatay Ozdemir, Neil Matthews, Dennis Helfritch, S. W. Glass, Gehn Ferguson

Chapter 7. Process Control

Chapter 7 describes important procedures that should be carried out before and after cold spray operations ensue. Gas type, powder characteristics, temperature, pressure, powder feed rate, stand-off, gun speed and spray pattern must all be specified before a spray can begin. In addition, sensors, transducers and other electronic and laser-based devices are used to provide feedback during and after the operation. Chapter 7 explains how these decisions and analytics are made.
Aaron Nardi, Dennis Helfritch, Ozan Cagatay Ozdemir, Victor Kenneth Champagne

Chapter 8. Cold Spray Economics

In addition to the performance requirements, an economic analysis is critical in determining the viability of using the cold spray process for specific applications. Chapter 8 outlines the steps needed to determine the costs of cold spray and how to manage these costs. The chapter presents an organized, cost-estimating framework for cold spray operations. The cost framework includes feedstock usage, such as gas and powder, as well as economic factors, such as utilization and depreciation. A method of organizing these factors within a convenient spreadsheet is described.
Aaron Nardi, Dennis Helfritch, Tim Eden, Ozan Cagatay Ozdemir

Chapter 9. Advancements in Cold Spray

Chapter 9 has been designed to provide a survey of recent developments in cold spray. Topics in this chapter include intelligent process control, advanced materials, joining of dissimilar materials, additive manufacturing, cold spray developments driven by application, and advanced cold spray facilities. Although the contents are not all-inclusive, Chapter 9 illustrates some of the most important and influential recent developments associated with the cold spray technology.
Ozan Cagatay Ozdemir, Aaron Nardi, Aaron Birt, Victor Kenneth Champagne, Victor Kenneth Champagne, Dennis Helfritch, Christian Widener, Rob Hrabe, Kyle Johnson, Nick Klotz, Steven Camilleri, Gehn Ferguson, Isaac Nault

Chapter 10. Applications

The cold spray process has been used throughout the years for a variety of different applications across major industries including aerospace, automotive, naval, medical, electronics, petrochemical, and nuclear power. The Cold Spray Action Team (CSAT) website is a respected resource for data and learning about the transition and advancements in cold spray technology (see http://​www.​coldsprayteam.​com/​). Cold spray is applicable to corrosion-resistant coatings (i.e., zinc and aluminum); dimensional restoration and repair (i.e., nickel, stainless steel, titanium, brass, cast iron, copper; aluminum, and other engineering alloys); wear-resistant coatings (combining hard and soft phases, i.e., CrC–NiCr, WC–CoNi, WCu, Diamond-Cu, and others); electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding of components and structures; field repair of components; and ground support equipment and other systems. Cold spray has been utilized in applications for the military (rotorcraft, fixed wing aircraft, submarines, missiles, vehicles, and ships); the automotive industry (corrosion mitigation over galvanized, welded and crimped areas, air-conditioning heat exchangers, casting defects in engine blocks); and the medical industry (antimicrobial coatings and prosthetics). In this chapter, we will describe some of these applications where cold spray has been successfully employed to produce coatings, provide dimensional restoration, and to produce near-net-shaped parts having equal to or better properties than the OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer). Numerous case studies of applications development will be presented with details regarding test results and material characterization data.
Victor Kenneth Champagne, Dennis Helfritch, Christian Widener, Brian James, Chris Howe, Alex Krakovitz, Tom Stamey
Additional information

Premium Partners

    Image Credits