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Open Access 13-08-2022 | Production Management

# Practice-oriented methodology for increasing production ramp-up efficiency in global production networks of SME

Authors: B. Verhaelen, M. Martin, S. Peukert, G. Lanza

Published in: Production Engineering | Issue 1/2023

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## Abstract

An increasingly uncertain, customer-centric, and dynamic environment nowadays challenges manufacturing companies on a global scale. To handle this challenge, enterprises are distributing their production in global production networks. To deal with the growing demand for individualization, companies need to diversify their product portfolio. This leads to a growing number of production ramp-ups. Large companies are used to production ramp-ups on a global scale and have developed established tools and methods to optimize ramp-ups. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), however lack a consistent and efficient methodology to deal with global production ramp-ups. For this reason, this article presents a practice-oriented methodology for efficiently managing the production ramp-up at different production sites. The methodology consists of three elementary phases: the analysis of the target system and relevant influencing factors, the planning of different phases in the production ramp-up, and the integration of a disruption management model to robustly control ongoing production ramp-ups. For testing its practical suitability, the procedure is exemplarily applied to the production ramp-up of a device for engine management in the automotive supplier market at different sites worldwide.
Notes

## Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

## 1 Introduction

Production in global production networks (GPN) is playing an increasingly important role in the context of intensifying worldwide competition and accelerated globalization of sales and procurement markets. This has resulted in GPN characterized by diverse supply and service interdependencies between individual internal company locations and locations of external players such as suppliers and customers [1].
To remain competitive and to be able to respond to individual customer requirements, companies must constantly develop their products and services further [2]. This means that companies are forced to start the production of new products at invariably shorter intervals and to make corresponding adjustments in their production network [3]. Due to diverging target systems integrating e.g. time, costs, quality, complexity, and uncertainty, the production ramp-up represents a critical phase in the life cycle of a product [2]. Accordingly, the ability to introduce products within the given time, cost, and quality framework becomes a decisive competitive advantage [4]. Practitioners often fail certain targets during production ramp-ups due to the complexity of the task [5].
The duration influences the success of the ramp-up since earlier market entry can lead to high prices compared to competitors. In addition to the profits lost due to ramp-up delays, the direct ramp-up costs are also relevant for a successful ramp-up [6]. Inefficiencies in the ramp-up process should therefore be avoided despite its complexity [3]. On average, direct ramp-up costs account for around 20% of the investments in buildings and equipment made by enterprises [7]. They are incurred for the training of newly hired employees, for building up additional safety stocks to maintain delivery readiness, or for new operating equipment [5]. The reasons for the large differences in production ramp-up costs, times, and qualities between companies in different industries are mainly due to the complexity and management of the ramp-up process so that companies with extensive experience in ramping-up can achieve significant benefits [6].
If a production ramp-up takes place in an enterprise with more than one production plant, further challenges arise due to the dynamics as a result of the mutual influences between the production plants and the supplier relationships [8]. This results in new global influencing factors for the production ramp-up in networks. Furthermore, different production plants in GPN have different cultural, process or product influences which need to be considered when managing production ramp-ups [5]. Currently, there is no methodology for efficiently managing the production ramp-up parallel at different production plants that integrates analysis of the above-mentioned aspects of the target system, influencing factors, and the planning and control of production ramp-ups in GPN. Therefore, this paper introduces a practice-oriented methodology for the efficient management of production ramp-ups in GPN.

## 2 Fundamentals

Products are provided by GPN which uses specific resources and competencies of distributed production plants [1]. The structure of a GPN is defined by open-ended edges and nodes. Nodes represent different production sites, related suppliers and customers. The edges are connections between the sites and can imply material, information, or financial flows [9]. The environment of GPN is typically dynamic and complex. The above-mentioned perspective distinguishes GPN from common supply chains which focus on the step-by-step provision of industrial goods [1].
A specific stage in the product life cycle of each product is the unique ramp-up of production. It is characterized as the stage between product development and series production. In comparison to the following series production, the production ramp-up has characteristic features that must be considered during management. Due to the degree of novelty of product and process as well as the lack of experience, especially in SMEs, more errors occur in the production ramp-up than in stable series production [10]. For this reason, it may be necessary to interrupt production frequently to rectify the problems that occur. Hence, there are greater uncertainties and thus more risks during production ramp-up. The production ramp-up can be divided into three phases (see Fig. 1) [11].
Before the actual start of production (SOP), the pre-series and pilot series take place. In the pre-series, the initial production of larger quantities is an attempt to bring production closer to series conditions [11]. The aim is to obtain information on the optimal design of the production process itself, as well as on the tools and machines used [12]. In the pilot series, production is as close as possible to series production conditions for the first time. This means that only series tools are used in a pilot series and that the procurement of all materials and parts also corresponds to the later series conditions. The pilot production aims to check whether the planned production process can continue to be carried out without problems under series production conditions and ultimately produce a product of required quality. Once the trial runs of the series production in pre-series and pilot series have been completed and the identified potential for improvement has been implemented, the actual production for the market begins. The phase after SOP, which aims at reaching the planned production quantity is called production run-up. During the run-up, the company needs to identify and eliminate possible problems and malfunctions in production at an early stage to achieve a stable production process with the previously defined quality level in the shortest possible time [11].
Production ramp-ups in GPN are influenced by external factors and their uncertain future developments. They are influenced, for example, by cultural or political factors that differ between different production sites in a GPN [1]. One methodology to support decisions in an uncertain environment is the scenario technique. The scenario technique is based on the principles of interlinked thinking and multiple futures. The principle of interlinked thinking focuses on the analysis of the interlinkage of external influencing factors. The principle of multiple futures develops visions of the future based on the development paths of these influencing factors [13].
Production ramp-ups can be categorized as projects due to the defined start and endpoint, the measurement of time, cost, and quality, and their measure: the degree of fulfilment, or the efficiency [2]. A project is defined as an “initiative that is characterized by the uniqueness of its conditions as a whole”. For ramp-ups, necessary conditions are external influencing factors, but also restrictions on personnel and cost [3]. Therefore, ramp-up management can be described as project management which is defined as “all leadership tasks, organization, techniques, and means that are necessary for the initiation, definition, planning, steering and completion of projects” [4].
During production ramp-ups, several tasks in the field of planning and managing are necessary. These tasks are combined with to term “management of production ramp-ups” [14]. For the successful fulfilment of the tasks, processes are defined where disruptions might occur. Disruptions are deviations from the target state of a system or a project [15]. In disruption management, one differentiates predictive and reactive disruption management. While predictive disruption management aims to minimize the occurrence of disturbances in advance, reactive disruption management takes place when a disruption already occurred. [5]

## 3 Literature review

In the following section, existing approaches concerning ramp-up management in GPN are presented.
Surbier et al. give an overview of the international state of research on the topic of the production ramp-up. They claim that the approaches in the literature are mostly only research studies or field studies, as ramp-up management is still a young field of research. Few studies contain quantitative models that describe the system behaviour utilizing key performance indicators [6]. However, different authors have identified key performance indicators related to the ramp-up [8, 16, 17]. The further work of Surbier et al. deals with the exchange of information between the stakeholders of the ramp-up process. Utilizing a model for analysing the interfaces between the stakeholders: “research and development”, “production”, “purchasing and procurement”, “quality” and “factory management”, during the ramp-up process the information flows can be examined for weak points and possible improvements [18]. Di Benedetto looks at strategic, tactical, and information-related activities that influence the success of a new product launch. His survey of individual activities of past product launches in companies concludes that successful product launches have been achieved by cross-functional teams from marketing, production, and logistics [19]. Quick and Renner present aims and corresponding key performance indicators for the ramp-up in supply chains, whereby supply chain aims are assigned to the ramp-up goals according to the SCOR model and are thus implicitly considered by the ramp-up goals [14]. Renner conceives a guideline for the development of a ramp-up-specific “Performance Management System”, considers the influencing factors of the production ramp-up and categorizes them in complexity and novelty of products and processes as well as dynamic aspects. Influencing factors in global production networks are not explicitly addressed so that their possible target effects are not considered. For example, it remains open which product- and production-related factors are of particular relevance according to the location factors at a particular production site. Further, the research does not focus on the extent to which the complexity and novelty of products and processes exist at globally distributed locations due to corresponding site-specific production adjustments, relevant stakeholders, and different location roles or strategies [20]. Ulrich aims for the goal of developing a methodical procedure for the targeted handling of disturbances in the production ramp-up. For the targeted use of measures, he designs a comprehensive characterization of disturbances related to the categories “disturbance objects”, “types”, “locations”, and “causes”. Their characteristics are further refined and described. However, they are not considered in the course of the model development. It is a toolbox that contains a multitude of methods for dealing with disturbances. Within this toolbox, the individual methods are assigned to the different phases of disturbance management. The author describes the individual methods in detail. However, it remains unclear how these methods have to be applied and to what extent they are helpful in practice. A validation by experts and an implementation in a software demonstrator are missing [21].
The aforementioned approaches show that the management of production ramp-ups is a relevant field in the context of global production research. In practice, there are many company-specific procedures for managing production ramp-ups which often miss a methodological support. Therefore, an integrated consideration of the target system, influencing factors, and the management of production ramp-ups with a focus on SMEs lacks in research and practice.

## 4 Methodology for an efficient production ramp-up in GPN of SME

The following chapter describes a practice-oriented methodology for an efficient production ramp-up in GPN of SME. The focus of the approach is the straightforward and integrated consideration of aims, influencing factors, and the management of production ramp-ups. The methodology is divided into three steps which are inspired by classical project management [22]: First, the analysis of the target system and influencing factors of the considered ramp-up; second, the in-detail planning of relevant tasks during the ramp-up integrating the setting of milestones and a project plan; third, the integration of a disturbance management model to handle disruptions in the ramp-up ensuring a successful realization of the ramp-up project (see Fig. 2).

### 4.1 Analysis of target system and influencing factors

The aim of the first phase of the presented methodology is the analysis of the target system and relevant influencing factors of production ramp-ups in GPN.
To efficiently design production ramp-ups, both the knowledge of all methodical and content-related targets of the ramp-up and suitable key performance indicators for monitoring, are necessary. Based on an extensive literature review and expert workshops, seven six targets were identified. Despite the three classical targets cost, quality, and time, flexibility, risk and sustainability were also identified. For each of these targets, suitable key performance indicators were identified. In total, 45 key performance indicators were developed and can be used for measuring the efficiency of ramp-ups. The targets can be individually hierarchized with the help of an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Hence, a company-specific target system is generated.
Second, classical influencing factors of global production were identified based on a comprehensive literature review. These are generally divided into the subject areas “network factors (displayed in Fig. 3)”, “location factors”, “product and production-relevant process factors”, “production adjustments”, “plant roles and stakeholders” in general. The influencing factors are relevant for the network, plant, process, and product level. Each factor has different influences on the production ramp-up depending on the ramp-up itself. In total, 33 key influencing factors were identified. These factors are displayed in the following excerpt of a morphological box (see Fig. 3). They help SME by structuring their production ramp-up and enable them to gain a deeper insight into relevant factors. The full list of relevant key influencing factors can be found in the Appendix 1.
Thus, companies can carry out a self-assessment to estimate how complex the considered production ramp-up is. This is called the influence profile of the production ramp-up.
These key influencing factors are the basis for the scenario analysis based on Gausemeier and Fink [13]. In the first step, the scenario preparation, the objective of the production ramp-up has to be determined. It is determined by the target system. In the second step, the design field, relevant influencing factors are identified. The influence profile is used for this step as only influencing factors with a high complexity are considered. During the third step, future projections of the influencing factors are generated and combined into consistent scenarios [13].

### 4.2 Ramp-up planning

The second phase of the methodology for efficient production ramp-ups in GPN aims to create a detailed plan for the ramp-up project and to connect it with the target system and the key influencing factors.
Production ramp-ups consist of a large number of complex and interdependent processes. A decisive challenge companies are facing during production ramp-ups is the planning, organization, and control of these processes. Despite their high complexity, ramp-up projects have common features that enable the development and use of ramp-up reference processes. A ramp-up reference process is a transparent description of the chronological and logical sequence of processes, sub-processes, and milestones as well as the responsible functional areas of a production ramp-up. The ramp-up reference process aims to map the processes in a holistic and generally valid way. It therefore represents a modularly adaptable and reusable template for a large number of ramp-ups to derive specific ramp-up processes.
At the top level of the ramp-up reference process, the most important functional areas of a manufacturing company are human resources, research & development, factory planning, production, logistics, procurement and purchasing as well as marketing & sales. A detailed explanation of the ramp-up reference process can be found in the Appendix 2.
A total of 28 processes is assigned to these seven functional areas on the second level. They cover the entire product development process and thus ensure a holistic view of the production ramp-up. The respective processes are displayed clearly in the form of arrows in chronological order. However, to be able to exactly define the start and end time of a process, the start date and the process duration must be defined for this process within the framework of a specific ramp-up project. If possible, the immediate predecessor process of the process must also be determined. For example, the immediate predecessor of the recruitment process is “headcount planning”. This means that the recruitment process can only be started after the planning of personnel requirements has been completed. It is important to also determine the predecessor process, since this may affect the start date of the process. The longest process sequence, in which each process has an immediate predecessor and there are no breaks between processes, is called the critical path in project management. The delay of a ramp-up process in a critical path results in the postponement of the entire production ramp-up. If the immediate predecessors of the different processes and thus also the critical path is known, such a delay of the production start can be detected early and counteracted.
On a third level of the ramp-up reference process, further detailing is possible by assigning additional sub-processes and interfaces to external actors to the individual processes. For reasons of clarity, a maximum of three sub-processes and a possible interface to external actors are assigned to each process. Therefore, the identified sub-processes only represent a selection of all possible sub-processes of a ramp-up. To illustrate the relationships just described, Fig. 4 shows the “Personnel Requirements Planning” process with the three sub-processes “Diagnostic Phase”, “Forecast Phase”, “Action Phase”. The diagnostic phase is used to determine the current headcount. In the subsequent forecast phase, the future headcount is forecasted. The actions of the personnel acquisition are then determined in the action phase. All relevant tasks are displayed in the description of the sub-processes.
Milestones are introduced as part of the ramp-up process planning to be able to evaluate the progress of the project and the synchronous progress of the parties involved at a later stage and to thus be able to make decisions on how to proceed.
The key influencing indicators can now be mapped individually to the sub-processes of the ramp-up reference process. With the help of the relevance profile of the overall ramp-up, each process is checked regarding an influence. The ramp-up manager gets an easy overview of each relevant external factor for the different ramp-up processes which helps steer the ramp-up efficiently.
The processes are integrated into a project management chart (see Sect. 5, Fig. 6). The chart is completely modular for the user and can be individualized. Further, the identified target system is implemented in the chart. For optimization purposes, the shortest-path method is integrated as the main target regarding time [23, 24]. For SME, time is the most decisive factor of production ramp-ups due to resource commitment [3]. Other targets can also be displayed in the project management chart for performance screening purposes.

### 4.3 Disruption ramp-up management

The last phase of the practice-oriented methodology for efficient production ramp-ups in GPN of SME aims at integrating a disruption management approach to the planning of ramp-ups. With disruption management, the control of ongoing ramp-ups is enabled.
The categorization of disruptions is based on the 5M of the Ishikawa diagram [25]. The Ishikawa diagram is widely used and is therefore suitable for usage in SMEs. The 5M are specified for the production ramp-up as man, machine, material, process (method), environment (measurement). All possible root-causes of disruptions can be displayed in the Ishikawa diagram. A detailed description of possible disruptions is made for each root-cause. 58 possible disruptions are identified by literature review and complemented by expert workshops. They are categorized and can be found in the Appendix 3.
The production ramp-up at a new production plant is a challenge, especially for SMEs. They often lack experience and knowledge they can rely on [21]. If disruptions occur during the production ramp-up, these must be dealt with as quickly as possible by action measures to correct the deviations from the plan and to not jeopardize the successful implementation of the ramp-up. The derivation of suitable measures is a decision-making process which, against the background of the lack of experience, takes too long depending on the disruptive situations in SME [11]. To accelerate this decision-making process, the methodology, based on the designed categorization system, includes more than 200 reactive and action measures. The reactive and action or preventive measures can be found in the Appendix 4.
To clarify disruptions and measure, an example is given in the following: a disruption occurs during a production ramp-up due to poor quality of the delivered components. The cause for this lies at the supplier site. According to the categorization system, "quality" is the decisive factor. For this disturbance, the following reactive action measures are defined and can be selected by the company: supplier support by experts of the company, definition of a standardized test procedure for quality control, carrying out initial audits, let suppliers develop measures to eliminate the weaknesses (e.g. increase process reliability, improve quality control), follow-up review or audit to check the implementation of measures. For predictive purposes, several action measures are defined to minimize the happening of disturbances during production ramp-up.
All modules of the methodology are implemented in a software demonstrator for SME based on Microsoft Excel. With the help of the demonstrator, the SME can take advantage of the knowledge and the processes of the methodology. Hence, an efficient production ramp-up for SMEs is prepared.
For demonstration purposes, the KPI “Overall Equipment Effectiveness” is at the center of analysis in the displayed case coming from the target system. Relevant milestones are defined, KPIs are updated and mapped, influencing factors are tracked and disturbances are integrated (see Fig. 5).

## 5 Application to industrial use case

The methodology for efficient production ramp-ups in GPN has exemplary been applied to a company in the automotive supplier industry. The production program of the company includes different engine management systems. The GPN consists of three production sites located in Europe, Asia, and Central America. The network strategy can be described as market-oriented. Each product is manufactured at only one production site. Therefore, there is no internal movement of parts in the GPN and no fragmentation of value creation. For the production ramp-up, a product for middle-class engine management is focused. It is manufactured in the production plant in Central America. The production plant in Central America can be categorized as a lead plant.
In the course of phase one, the target system was hierarchized. For the enterprise, the most important target when launching the product is to meet the specified product quality. Deviations in quality cannot be tolerated because customers do not accept them. For tracking, the enterprise used the following KPI:
$${Fulfillment \,of \,internal \,quality\, requirements}=\frac{Number \,of\, internal \,good \,parts}{Total \,number\, of\, manufactured\, parts}\times 100\%$$
(1)
The requirement of product quality is closely followed by the time requirement. The company has made precise framework agreements with the customers as to which product quantities are to be delivered and at what times. Since the customers’ production systems are based on just-in-time principles, the company risks high contractual penalties and consequently high financial losses if the delivery is too late due to a slow ramp-up. For internal tracking, the enterprise used the following KPI:
$${Ramp\, up\, time}={Total\, time\, from\, project\, start\, to\, current\, status}$$
(2)
Additionally, the third important requirement is efficient supplier management. The reason for this is that the availability of parts from a supplier is one of the biggest challenges and one of the main reasons for delays in the start of production of engine management products. Precisely, those delays have to be avoided due to the strict time requirements of the customers. For the tracking, the enterprise used the following KPI:
$${Outgoing\, on \,time \,rate}=\frac{Number\, of \,on\, time \,deliveries\, of\, products}{Total \,number \,of \,deliveries}\times 100\%$$
(3)
The qualification level of the employees in Central America was defined as most important influencing factor. As the new product was very complex in structure and production processes, there was a need for higher qualified employees. The first line construction and the pre-acceptance of the line took place in Central America. During this pre-acceptance, experts from the headquarters came to the location in Central America to inspect the machines and to test the process capability. During the pre-acceptance, the qualification of the later factory functions and line workers also took place as a result of the influencing factors of the ramp-up (see Sect. 4). During the first pre-acceptance, many process errors still occurred and the required quality and cycle time were generally not yet achieved at the individual machines and production stations. These problems, as well as the visible process improvements and bug fixes, enabled workers to develop a good understanding of the process at an early stage. Through this understanding of the processes, the workers can later pay closer attention to possible sources of error that they have already observed during the creation and rectification and avoid them. Due to this early qualification of the workers during commissioning and process analysis, the later error rate in the ramp-up and serial production decreases. This results in a higher quality level. A scenario analysis was not conducted by the enterprise due to time limitations.
In the second phase, the production ramp-up was planned in detail. Due to the knowledge of the employee qualification, the time of the respective process was estimated precisely. An excerpt of the production ramp-up process model is displayed in Fig. 6. An in-detail view of the specific processes is not possible due to confidentiality reasons.
In the last phase, the ramp-up disturbance model was used to control the production ramp-up in Central America. As displayed in the disturbance management chart in Fig. 7, one can see a transparent overview of the actual number of not solved (open) disturbances and the total number of disturbances. The chart helps the ramp-up manager to track the pain points of the ramp-up project.
One exemplary disturbance was the failure of a supplier due to financial reasons. The developed model recommended not to rely on single sourcing which was implemented by the SME before the ramp-up based on the disturbance catalogue (see Appendices 3 and 4) as a preventive method. This led to the efficient handling of the disturbance. Obtaining more than one supplier primarily results in greater independence from any delivery difficulties and greater flexibility in the event of fluctuating or increasing order quantities. Also, independence from individual suppliers creates a better negotiating position due to competitive pressure among suppliers. Above all, a high level of delivery security is crucial for an efficient and secure implementation of the production ramp-up. Since delivery problems can also arise from suppliers, especially in the early phases of the ramp-up, single sourcing should be avoided as far as possible in favor of greater flexibility.
With the help of the disturbance management model and the integrated charts, the ramp-up was 16.9% ahead of the calculated time which leads to an early market entry of the engine management product and it was based on the high-quality database for disruption management and the solid planning process. Further, the quality and the supplier base were solid and led to an efficient production ramp-up regarding the overall target system.

## 6 Conclusion

This paper presents a practice-oriented methodology for efficient production ramp-ups in GPN of SMEs. The methodology is divided into three phases: analysis of the target system and influencing factors, ramp-up planning, and ramp-up disturbance management. The novelty of the methodology lies in the integrated consideration of target systems, internal and external factors, and operative ramp-up management. The method was successfully applied to a production ramp-up of engine management systems at a production site in Central America. In the use case, the target system and the in-depth analysis of the influencing factors helped to estimate the effort of a new production ramp-up before the ramp-up. Further, the actions of the disturbance management speeded up the internal processes during the ramp-up. Overall, the production ramp-up was 16.9% ahead of the proposed time which was a success for the company. A possible extension of the model could include the series planning phase before the ramp-up and the transition to the later series production phase to achieve a more efficient complete product lifecycle. Furthermore, one can adapt recent research focusing on an integrative KPI network for ramp-up purposes [26].

## Acknowledgements

The IGF project 20102N of the Research Association for Quality (FQS), August-Schanz-Straße 21A, 60433 Frankfurt am Main, Germany, was funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy via the AiF within the framework of the program for the funding of cooperative industrial research (IGF) based on a resolution of the German Bundestag.

## Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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Appendix

## Appendix

### Key influencing factors

Area
Influencing factor
Specification
Low complexity
Mid complexity
High complexity
Network
2nd tier Supplier
0.3
1st tier Supplier
0.7
OEM
1
Industry
Automotive (conventional)
0.3
Mechanical and plant engineering
0.7
Automotive (electrical drives)
1
Plant role
Process-oriented
0.3
Product-oriented
0.7
Marked-oriented
1
Network strategy
Offshore/outpost
0.3
Server/source
0.7
1
Location
Novelty
Existing
0.3
0.7
New
1
Cluster
Germania Europa
0
East-Europe
0.3
Confucian Asia
1
Latin America
0.7
Availability and quality of infrastructure
High
0.3
Middle
0.7
Low
1
Mother location time difference
Very low (0–1 h)
0
Middle (5–7 h)
0.7
High (< 7 h)
1
Low (2–4 h)
0.3
Distance to value-creation partners
Low
0.3
Middle
0.7
High
1
Geographic and climate influences
No
0
Middle
0.7
High
1
Low
0.3
Culture and mentality
Very similar
0,3
Partially different
0.7
Very different
1
Skilled Workforce
High
0.3
Middle
0.7
Low
1
Employee turnover
Low (fluctuation rate < 7%)
0.3
Middle (fluctuation rate 7–15%)
0.7
High (fluctuation rate > 15%)
1
Local partners
Yes
0

No
1
High (ease of doing business rank < 50)
0.3
Middle (ease of doing business rank 50–100)
0.7
Low (ease of doing business rank > 100)
1
Low
0.3
Middle
0.7
High
1
Protection of intellectual property
High (international property rights rank < 50)
0.3
Middle (international property rights rank 50–100)
0.7
Low (international property rights rank > 100)
1
Legal and political stability
High (rule of law rank < 50)
0.3
Middle (rule of law rank 50–100)
0.7
Low (rule of law rank  > 100)
1
Process
Novelty
Existing
0.3
0.7
New
1
Novelty of suppliers and infrastructure
Existing
0.3
0.7
New
1
Personnel novelty
Predominantly existing employees with experience
0

Many new employees with little experience
1
Complexity
Low
0.3
Middle
0.7
High
1
Number and variety of suppliers
Low
0.3
Middle
0.7
High
1
Test environment
Serial line
0.3
Pilot line in main location
0.7
Pilot line in separate location
1
Degree of automation
Low
0.3
Middle
0.7
High
1
Productivity
High
0.3
Middle
0.7
Low
1
Economies of scale
High
0.3
Middle
0.7
Low
1
Ramp-up frequency
High (several times per year)
0.3
Middle (every 1–3 years)
0.7
Low (less frequent then 3 years)
1
Product
Novelty
Existing
0.3
0.7
New
1
Complexity as a whole
Low
0.3
Middle
0.7
High
1
Complexity of supply parts
Low
0.3
Middle
0.7
High
1
Number of parts on line
Low
0.3
Middle
0.7
High
1
Lifecycle
Long (> 6 years)
0.3
Middle (2–6 years)
0.7
Short (< 1 year)
1

### Ramp-up planning processes

Area
Process
Phase
Work package
1. Personnel
1.1 Personnel requirements planning
1.1.1 Diagnosis
Determine planning horizon
Group future work steps according to qualifications
Define requirements for future and existing employees
Employee qualification matrix
1.1.2 Forecasting
Forecast personnel requirements
Determine gross personnel requirements
1.1.3 Action
Determine necessary entries and exits
1.2 Recruitment
1.2.1 Planning
Comparison of staffing requirements with headcount to determine skill-related and time utilization
Preliminary consideration of employment or external personnel
Personnel plan preparation
Examination of procurement possibilities (internal and external)
Initiation of personnel release
1.2.2 Search
Triggering personnel development
Other shift models/overtime
Publishing job offers
Contacting staff leasing companies
1.2.3 Selection and conclusion
Making a preliminary selection
Conducting interviews
Making a detailed selection
Negotiating offers and concluding contracts
Creation and implementation of an induction program
1.3 HR Development
1.3.1 Analysis of development needs and potential
Determination of the development needs for the performance of the work activity
Decision internal vs. external training measure
1.3.2 Recording of measures
Plan training measures
1.3.3 Implementation of measures
Conduct trainings
Conduct on the job training
2. R&D (product)
2.1 Product definition and planning
2.1.1 Idea search
2.1.2 Idea development and selection
2.1.3 Concept development
2.2 Product development and design
2.2.1 Product development
Define requirements (specifications + requirements specification)
Product specification
Construction kit definition/decision
Profitability calculations
2.2.2 Product design
Planning and organization of technical development
Prototype planning
2.2.3 Design validation
Produce technical drawings
Validate product designs internally and externally
Design freeze
2.3 Prototyping and testing
2.3.1 A-sample
Visual prototype
Proof of concept
Presentation prototype
Documentation prototype
Testing/functional testing
Quality gate/development iteration
2.3.2 B-sample
Presentation prototype
Documentation prototype
Testing/functional tests
Quality gate/development iteration
2.3.3 C-sample
Presentation prototype
Documentation prototype
Testing/functional tests
Quality gate/development iteration
3. Factory planning
3.1 Location check
3.1.1 Analysis of location competencies
Check site capabilities, analyze existing competencies, technology, process, supplier, knowledge, procurement, logistics, etc.
3.1.2 Evaluation of operating resources
Current status/assessment of site role
3.1.3 Analysis of personnel
3.2 Site planning
3.2.1 Review of input parameters
Rough selection of potential countries for production site
Determination of the required output/capabilities at the location
Review of corporate goals
Comparison of objectives with corporate strategy
Determination of a need for action
Definition of the site role (offshore factory, …)
Determination of required competencies and technologies at the site
Derive need for change until ramp-up
Define requirements for legal security, ease of doing business and know-how protection
3.2.2 Development of the site strategy
Evaluation of the new site in the overall network (analysis of product, process and network structure and formation of clusters)
3.2.3 Systematic site selection
Comparison of requirements profile and actual profile of potential sites/site evaluation
Rough selection of sites
Creation of requirement profiles
Search for potential sites
Evaluation at regional, country and local level
Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of alternatives
Decision for location
3.3 Building planning and realization (extension or new planning)
3.3.1 Structural planning, building planning
3.3.2 Building realization
3.3.3 Technical building equipment
3.4 Area and layout planning
3.4.1 Rough planning
Structural design
Rough planning
Ideal planning
3.4.2 Detailed planning
Real planning
Space requirements planning
Layout optimization
Detailed layout planning
Layout optimization
4. Production (processes)
4.1 Production process planning, production concept
4.1.1 Production concept planning
Scheduling
Planning and determination of production principle (e.g. workshop production, flow production)
Determination of the degree of automation
4.1.2 Production process planning
Capacity allocation planning/sequence planning
4.1.3 Material provision planning
Determine material staging concept
4.2 Production planning and control
4.2.1 Production requirements planning
Determination of the required production input factors (material, employees, energy, information)
Determination of output factors (quantity, type, time)
Derivation of the capacity requirements
4.2.3
Order release and production control
Order release
Production control
4.3 Equipment planning, procurement and production (equipment, tools and test equipment)
4.3.1 Resource planning
Information planning
Resource planning
Material planning
4.3.2 Procurement/production of operating resources
Material procurement
Procurement of operating resources
Production of operating resources (molds, tools, etc.)
Plant engineering
4.3.3 Production equipment setup
Plant internal transport
Plant layout
Plant removal
4.4 Testing and commissioning (processes, equipment, tools, …)
4.4.1 Preparation of process tests
Definition of the process requirements
Assessment of the working conditions
Identification and assessment of hazards associated with testing
Selection and definition of technical protective measures
Preparation of operating instructions
Selection of qualified personnel
Instruction of employees/qualification and selection of employees
Implementation of planned protective measures
Planning of process testing
4.4.2 Execution of process tests
Comparison of actual/target cycle time
Comparison of actual/target quality
Derivation of improvement measures
Process approvals (machine capability, production parameters, safety)
4.4.3 Start-up
4.5 Pilot series (pre-series and pilot series)
4.5.1 Pre-series
Construction of pilot line
Training of personnel pilot series
4.5.2 Zero series
Functional tests (equipment
Functional tests (material)
Evaluation of the pilot series
4.5.3 Release by the customer
Production acceptance by the customer (PPAP)
4.6 Production ramp-up
4.6.1 Preparation for start of production ramp-up
Preparation for transfer of responsibility to series production management
Continuous updating of production program
4.6.4 Execution of the production ramp-up
Increase of output (quantity and quality)
4.6.3 Control of the production ramp-up
Process monitoring and implementation of any adjustments
Ridge line reached and target quality met
4.7 Secured production
4.7.1 Documentation and knowledge transfer
Evaluation of production ramp-up (processes, suppliers, planning deviations)
Transfer of responsibility to series production management
4.7.2 Series maintenance
Adjustment of production processes (work steps, tools, machines, …)
4.7.3 Preparation of further production starts
Interface definition of previous and future production sites (teams)
4.8 Production optimization
4.8.1 Continuous improvement process
Define PDCA cycle
Install company suggestion system for improvements
4.8.2 Standardization
Derive process standards
5. Logistic
5.1 Warehouse planning and management
5.1.1 Warehouse planning
5.1.2 Warehousing
5.1.3 Warehouse optimization
5.2 Transport (planning) (external and internal)
5.2.1 Transport planning
Transportation planning
Packaging planning and definition of cleanliness requirements
5.2.2 Ongoing operations
5.2.3 Transport optimization
5.3 Provisioning (-planning)
5.3.1 Deployment planning and provisioning
Provisioning planning (JIT, JIS, Milk Run, …)
Disposal planning
5.3.2Disposal planning and disposal
6.1 Supplier development
6.1.1 Supplier strategy
Planning sourcing concept (global vs. local, delivery frequency, …)
6.1.2 Supplier selection
Request for proposal
Creation of a supplier requirement profile
Supplier audit
Technical offer analysis of operating resources
Supplier evaluation (qualitative)
Supplier evaluation (quantitative)
Negotiations
Longlist with suppliers
Shortlist
Supplier determination
6.1.3 Supplier enablement
6.2 Supplier management
Supplier monitoring and assessment
Initiation of improvements at supplier sites (process reliability, quality, output quantity, delivery intervals, …)
Formation of task forces for possible supply bottlenecks at suppliers
6.3 Quality management
6.3.1 Definition of quality controls
Component qualification
QA/test planning
Test equipment planning
Definition of a quality database (including integration of suppliers)
6.3.2 Quality controls
Process acceptance at suppliers
Acceptance of supplied parts
Inspections during production
Calibration of test equipment
Process maturity measurements
Problem investigations
Plant inspections
Process monitoring
6.3.3 Quality measures
Initiation of quality measures
6.3.4 Definition of quality requirements
6.4 Orders
6.4.1 Ordering of sample parts
6.4.2 Ordering of test and operating equipment
6.4.3 Ordering of serial parts
7. Marketing, Sales & Customer Service
7.1 Market Research
7.1.1 Definition and design
7.1.2 Data collection
7.1.3 Data analysis
7.2 Idea generation
7.3 Market launch
7.3.1 Identification of distribution partners

### Classification of disruptions

Cause
Secondary cause 1st order
Secondary cause 2nd order
Human
Availability
Absence
Staff shortages
Fluctuation
Qualification
Employee qualification
Experience level of employees
Character
Employee motivation
Culture and mentality
Employee management
Synergies
Communication
Machine
Availability
Technical availability
Delay (machine installation/commissioning)
Technical problems
Compatibility
Manufacturing technology
Quality
Programming
Material
Availability
Material delay
Replenishment time
Quantity deviation
Technical Problems
Technical product change
Maturity
Quality
Complexity
Process
Organization
Communication
Data organization
Standardization
Unambiguity of responsibilities
Planning
Requirements planning
Milestone planning/maturity planning
Budget planning
Material planning
Resource planning
Personnel planning
Production process planning
Internal/external logistics planning
Modifications
Product change
Process change
Environment
Political-Legal
National legislation
Directives, regulations and standards
Political stability
Ecological
Geographical and climatic influences
Natural disasters
Infrastructure
Working conditions (internal)
Transportation
Connection
Supplier
Capacity
Information exchange
Supplier availability
Quality
Customer
Information exchange
Product request
Quantity change
Logistics request

#### Reactive measures

Cause
Secondary cause 1st order
Secondary cause 2nd order
Activities
Human
Availability
Absence
Use of qualified jumpers
Creation of a "double duty roster”
Staff shortages
Use of a task force with aggregated knowledge
Introduce dual function of staff (induction/training in cross-functional activities)
Use external support teams
Seasonal adjustment of number of staff and hours worked per employee
Forecast of future demand/orders and derivation of long-term optimal working hours and number of personnel in a shift
Identification of possible tender channels incl. determination of the maximum achievable number of potential applicants per channel
Preparation and publication of tenders
Determination of functions/positions to be filled with the help of headhunters
Enhancement of the recruitment process with suitable assessment centers
Creation of company-wide standardized interview guidelines
Fluctuation
Introduce dual function of employees (familiarization/learning of cross-functional activities)
Improve the hiring process (sustainable)
Conduct employee survey to identify motivations
Conduct feedback interview
Ensure work-life balance for employees
Express appreciation to employees
Protect health through health promotion, including Company Cares
Qualification
Employee qualification
Drawing up a list with an overview of all qualifications required in the individual areas (brainstorming)
Informing the employees about the general qualification measures
Conduct employee trainings (e.g., on facility maintenance, conduct, duties)
Carry out on-the-job training during free shifts
Apply individual qualification measures for employees with high potential (mentoring program etc.)
Use simulation tools
Provide eLearning content
Conduct lessons learned workshops
Experience level of employees
Conduct follow-up trainings
Implement transparent knowledge management
Conduct lessons learned workshops
Determine qualified employees in all areas who are suitable to pass on professional knowledge and experience to new employees
Character
Employee motivation
Adapt Maslow's pyramid of needs to employees
Introduce incentive systems for employees (in the form of rewards)
Agree on performance transparently and value performance openly
Encourage employees
Implement information and knowledge management
Conduct feedback discussions
Ensure work-life balance for employees
Protect health through health promotion
Conduct company events
Culture and mentality
Train management level about different cultures
Offer country-specific services
Communicate corporate culture (training)
Offer language trainings
Employee management
Synergies
Establish/assign responsibility
Increase focus on teamwork
Conduct targeted, effective feedback, criticism and performance reviews
Consistently apply the appropriate leadership style in each case
Establish a culture of cooperation
Communication
Clear structure of the organizational structure in the ramp-up
Clear allocation of responsibilities
Consultation (employee-specific)
Convey information/concerns in a complete, concise, understandable and structured manner
Machine
Availability
Technical availability
Implement escalation strategy
Procure operating equipment through rental or repair
Use replacement machines
Repair
Maintenance
Check capacity of maintenance personnel and adjust if necessary
Adjustment of maintenance strategy (preventive, condition-based maintenance)
Identification of existing production capacities (e.g. based on the number of machine hours available)
FMEA
Introduction of failure-reducing product planning
Minimize causes of downtime (define operating specifications/work instructions, carry)
Introduction of a Total-Productive-Maintenance-System
Delay (machine installation/commissioning)
Creation of a general checklist for employee familiarization
Production area-specific training and practical instruction of employees regarding the functions of the equipment
Provision of the required materials and tools (at the correct workplaces)
Definition of the instructions for the individual work steps incl. required materials, tools, etc.
Creation of a schedule that is accessible to the employees at all times
Identification and execution of prescribed tests to check all functions
Technical problems
Compatibility
Inform maintenance
Targeted formulation of requirements
Creation of work instructions
Check process parameters and adjust if necessary
Carry out system audits
Use of virtual tool development
Assembly of other components or objects
Network integration
Assign rights
Manufacturing technology
Inform maintenance
Implement escalation strategy
Define the instructions for the individual work steps incl. required material, tools, etc.
Execute escalation strategy
Provision of test/series tools
Increase capacity at bottleneck systems (e.g. by introducing additional shifts)
Carrying out production tests
Quality
Inform maintenance
Implement escalation strategy
Repair
Maintenance
Consider specifications and adjust if necessary
Conduct audits to verify quality management
Hire an experienced employee to perform audits
Identify and conduct prescribed tests to verify all functions
Perform stress tests
Targeted control of processes in which (increased) errors were found in order to identify further sources of error
Review and adapt the control methods currently used in the company
Draw up concrete work instructions for the test procedures
Check capacity of maintenance personnel and adjust if necessary
Increase qualification of machine operators to be able to independently rectify minor faults
Quality function deployment for quality assurance
Programming
Analyze software errors
Fix programming errors
Check suitability of software
Create evaluation reports by experts
Material
Availability
Material delay
Implement escalation strategy
Consult with suppliers
Draw on safety stock
Introduce inventory monitoring
Introduce kanban as material staging
Replenishment time
Use direct communication channels
Include scrap rate in pilot series and production ramp-up in demand planning
Select appropriate ordering policy (e.g. q,S-/s,T-policy)
Internal optimization of the period between the time of notification and the time of ordering (e.g. by using an IT system)
Reduce replenishment time by auditing and qualifying the supplier's internal processes
Encourage suppliers to change the means of transport
Identify suppliers available at short notice
Reduce replenishment time by selecting suppliers with shorter delivery times
Quantity deviation
Initiate new purchase orders
Improve alignment between production and procurement through IT support (e.g. ERP/MES system)
Select suitable order policy (e.g. q,S-/s,T-policy)
Adjust reorder level (for stock items)
Adjust safety stock (for stock items)
Adjust order quantity (for stock parts)
Perform laboratory tests
Logging
Technical Problems
Technical product change
Execute escalation strategy
Create and use a standardized protocol for documentation
Implement and monitor change management
Maturity
Implement escalation strategy in case of urgency
Distribution of responsibilities
Target coordination of specifications
Implement and maintain list of open points (LoP)
Apply maturity assurance and analysis methods
Convene regular maturity meetings
Quality
Execute escalation strategy
Block defective parts
Set up error message
Analyze manufacturing processes internally and externally
Scrap monitoring and analysis
Create missing parts list, perform missing parts search
Introduce and maintain list of open points (LoP)
Conduct audits to verify quality management
Hire an experienced employee to carry out audits
Create and work through a specific checklist for systematic inspection of goods
Carry out random, irregular checks of production processes
Reviewing and adapting the control methods currently used in the company
Clear definition of standardized inspection procedures and processes
Quality function deployment for quality assurance
Complexity
Improve knowledge management
Identify and analyze possible alternatives
Introduce a flexible material flow system
Drive product modularization
Process
Organization
Communication
Establish clear hierarchies
Investigate interfaces
Implement efficient knowledge and information management
Detailed documentation of information on individual processes
Division and structuring of information according to production areas
Define communication processes between different instances
Define standardized problem reporting process
Use measures for problem identification (6W questioning technique, audits, Balanced Score Card (BSC), Fault Tree Analysis (FBA))
Use reference models
Expand rule communication
Data organization
Implement efficient knowledge and information management
Drive uniform IT systems
Identify and implement a suitable document structure
Standardize document structure and documentation concept
Define and assign clear access rights
Maintain and synchronize data
Check network integration
Create work instructions
Standardization
Create transparency of processes
Define clear and consistent processes
Process mining
Compare actual state and target state
Standardization of basic data (material master data, routings, …)
Documentation of standardization in flow chart
Apply critical chain project management
Unambiguity of responsibilities
Clear distribution and increase in transparency of responsibilities
Conduct clarifying discussions with employees
Regular review of employees' know-how with regard to their area of responsibility and adjacent areas
Problem and interface characterization
Adjustment of the start-up-specific structural and procedural organization
Planning
Requirements planning
Revise unclear requirements
Identification of the importance and target achievement of the requirements
Creation of a standardized requirements specification
Standardized, detailed documentation of the requirements in requirement specifications
Creation of a checklist and tracking of requirements with the help of the checklist
Digitization of the requirements
Perform benchmarking
Process audits
Use Six Sigma
Milestone planning/maturity planning
Conduct regular maturity meetings
Maturity assurance
Formulate quality gates
Use buffers
Create a checklist and track requirements using the checklist
Introduction of a list of open points (LoP)
Quantification of target values on the basis of a planning forecast
Determine procedure for project documentation
Process visualization (ProVis)
Carry out performance measurement
Introduce cumulative quantity concept
Budget planning
Carry out budgeting round
Standardization of costing procedures
Establish a standardized reporting system in production controlling
Material planning
Revise specifications
Implement information and knowledge management
Adjust delivery dates if the planned start date of the associated production order is delayed/other parts are delayed
Classify materials/products into A, B, and C parts
Resource planning
Reduction/increase of production capacities
Evaluation of machine and production process data
Capacity planning based on historical production data and current production program planning data
Lot sizing and, based on this, exact program and process planning in order to be able to fulfill all customer orders on time
Revision of economic, human and organizational targets
Personnel planning
Assignment of jumpers
Development of the personnel information system
Definition of task content and time structure
Definition and detailed description of professional and nonprofessional requirements, soft skills as well as physical and mental prerequisites to cope with the tasks (requirement profiles)
Carry out sales and demand forecasts & plan the exact number of employees based on these forecasts
Identification of (seasonal) fluctuations in overtime that are common in the industry
Adjustment of staff in a shift as well as the respective working hours
Forecasting of future demand/orders and derivation of long-term optimal working hours and personnel in a shift
Active sourcing
Production process planning
Consultation with the development department
Detailed identification of all functionalities of the end product
Planning of all functions in all application fields of the end product when creating the prototype
Determining the processing steps on the basis of the design documents
Coordination of the work steps and contents
Creation of comprehensible operating instructions
Creation of precise work instructions
Revision of the assembly sequence plan
Production test
Use simulation tools
Internal/external logistics planning
Standardize logistics processes
Examine interfaces
Define clear responsibilities
Determine required quantity as well as order timing, storage space requirements, supplier distance, and JIT capability from past order periods
Obtain information (price, distance, reviews, etc.) on potential logistics service providers
Definition of a suitable supplier portfolio based on various weighted criteria (P/L, quality, delivery time, …)
Determination of possible seasonal, cyclical or other influences on warehouse dimensioning
Analysis of possibilities for variable warehouse dimensioning (e.g. short-term renting or leasing of warehouses in order to expand or reduce warehouse size)
Optimize warehouse organization (e.g., arrange warehouse items based on retrieval frequency)
Check availability of means of transport and increase if necessary (e.g. by reducing loading times or increasing capacity by purchasing additional means of transport)
Reduce warehouse access times by introducing a warehouse management system
Reduce warehouse access times by installing warehouse technology with a higher degree of automation
Joint identification of possible alternatives to reduce empty runs (e.g. possibilities for warehouse reduction)
Standardizing the use of load carriers throughout the internal logistics and supply chain
Minimization of the number of required transport routes in the layout (e.g. one main aisle with branches)
Modifications
Product change
Use direct communication channels
Use change management
Define change process (change management) in flow chart
Identify possible variants of the product
Identify the production parts and steps to be changed for each variant
Identify the individual production parts that can be standardized (common parts concept)
Procurement of appropriate standard parts and use in the design process
Digital mock-up
Process change
Define change process (change management) in flow chart
Inform all parties involved
Initiate change of documents
Identification of possible changes at each production station incl. probability of occurrence and effects in case of change
Provide the appropriate measures for the employees at the respective production station
Determine workflows for transition phase
Project documentation
Process visualization (ProVis)
Environment
Political-Legal
National legislation
Directives, regulations, and standards
Use change management
Ideal implementation of building design considering all legal requirements
Identification of all relevant restrictions
Introduction of the DIN EN ISO 9001 standard
Political stability
Rely on external consulting
Ecological
Geographical and climatic influences
Support flexible deployment (machine/employee)
Natural disasters
Implement emergency plan
Use time buffer
Implement emergency plan
Use time buffer
Infrastructure
Working conditions (internal)
Addressing employee needs (depending on culture)
Exchange with employees
Transportation
Search for alternative ways
Communicate close suppliers
Connection
Analysis of new opportunities
Definition of essential target criteria (location factors) regarding the optimal location of the company
Agree on communication channels and times
Define clear responsibilities
Supplier
Capacity
Supplier support by experts of the company
Have suppliers develop measures to eliminate weaknesses
Risk analysis
Notify second supplier
Use alternative area
Information exchange
Deposit of the correct contact person (incl. contact data) for all suppliers and for each order item
Define uniform processes
Consider global language barriers
Service interface agreements
Recording the frequency and type of information exchange using the SIT table
Complete synchronization of the IT systems of all suppliers with regard to orders, contact, planning and development
Supplier availability
Use safety stock
Perform market analysis
Weigh and weight according to various criteria
Obtain quotations from new suppliers regarding procurement items and compare with costs and qualities of current suppliers; change supplier if better price/performance ratio
Identification of the suppliers who take a date-critical role and contractual definition over flexibility regarding the critical factor (delivery quantities, delivery duration, replacement time)
Quality
Supplier support by experts of the company
Training of own employees as well as supplier employees
Company-wide documentation of processes to identify parts/components that are critical to success and susceptible to failure
Definition of a standardized test procedure for quality control
Carrying out initial audits, e.g. in two consecutive periods, and possible re-certification before expiry of the certificate for renewal
Surveillance audits to prove that the certified supplier continues to meet the requirements
Regular control of the validity of the certificates of the suppliers
Conduct audit/review at the supplier's site and analyze weaknesses
Point out deficiencies to suppliers in a personal meeting
Have suppliers develop measures to eliminate weaknesses (e.g., increase process reliability, improve quality control, Poka Yoke, design for assembly)
Reduce the number of complaints (e.g., reduce damage during transport by improving transport security, reduce errors in picking by introducing labels, partially automated picking systems (pick by light, pick by voice))
Follow-up review/audit to check implementation of measures
Define standardized complaints process
Introduce list of open points (LoP)
Determine team with responsible persons
Bring all parties to the table (round tables)
Problem solving (5W)
Communicate requirements to suppliers and disclose consequences of non-compliance
Conduct audit/review at supplier's site and analyze weaknesses
Point out deficiencies to suppliers in a face-to-face meeting
Introduction of partially automated picking systems (e.g., pick by light, pick by voice, light barriers)
Follow-up review/audit to check the implementation of measures
Customer
Information exchange
Clarify responsibilities on both sides
Escalation with participants from both sides
Round tables (interdisciplinary teams of experts)
Define uniform (complaint) processes
Consider global language barriers
Establish service interface agreements
Product request
Document requirements clearly
Carry out product audit
Consultation with development regarding feasibility
Ongoing exchange of information
Introduction of DIN EN ISO 9001 standard
Quantity change
Use change management
Document change
Information management
Adjust reorder point (for stock items)
Adjust safety stock (for stock items)
Adjust order quantity (for stock items)
Logistics request
Ongoing exchange of information
Clarify feasibility
Escalate
Determine team with responsible parties
Bring all parties to the table (round tables)
Problem solving (5W)
Ongoing exchange of information
Show alternatives

### Preventive measures

Cause
Secondary cause 1st order
Secondary cause 2nd order
Preventive measure
Human
Availability
Absence
Scheduling of qualified jumpers
Scheduling of flexible working hours
Hiring of employees according to specific requirements regarding working hours (seasonal effects)
Extension of the recruitment process by suitable assessment centers
Staff shortages
Scheduling staff availability at new locations
Hiring loyal and sustainable employees
Train employees to perform multiple tasks (floaters)
Determine deployment schedule
Consider seasonal effects during scheduling
Fluctuation
Hire loyal and sustainable employees
Integration of employees before the first day
Employee-oriented management (contracts, flexible working hours, motivation through bonuses and offers (sports, discounts))
Ensure work-life balance
Conduct regular interviews to get feedback
Qualification
Employee qualification
Hiring qualified/trained employees
Hiring competent/learning employees
Planning regular training (face-to-face, e-learning, language courses)
Offer training programs
Special programs for job entrants, interns, etc
Consideration of country-specific level of education
Level of experience of employees
Experience level of employees
Consideration of the country-specific level of education
Lessons learned workshops
Group and individual training/instruction
Awareness of their efforts
Character
Employee motivation
Health protection through health promotion, also company cares
Build trust and respect
Examine country-specific characteristics
Goal setting
Appropriate job design
Regular coaching
Planning regular training (face-to-face, e-learning, language courses)
Culture and mentality
Consider country-specific working conditions (breaks)
Communicate corporate culture (training)
Schedule experienced managers/employees
Offer language and culture courses
Employee management
Synergies
Pleasant working atmosphere
Clear formulation of goals
Clear responsibilities
Schedule employee meetings
Cost-effectiveness calculation of teamwork (ratio of effort and result)
Consider team composition
Work retreats
Communication
Consider language barriers
Open forums
Active idea management
List of open points (LoP)
Round tables
Machine
Availability
Technical availability
Perform Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Schedule maintenance and repair
Implement Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
Regular control
Log malfunctions
Provision of series tools at the production stations
Delay (machine installation/commissioning)
Employee training
Timely provision of the necessary tools and materials
Planning of buffer times during commissioning
Scheduling of breaks
Technical problems
Compatibility
Observe country-specific machine requirements
Transparent/clear communication between machines (machine-robot)
Provide information about experts to employees
Requirements specification
Manufacturing technology
Increase employee qualification (on-the-job training)
Conduct job briefings
Establish protocols
Determine escalation strategy
Production testing
Process visualization (ProVis)
Maturity assurance
Conduct early technology identification using a product technology roadmap
Documentation of existing and new technologies
Identification of interactions among each other when technologies are used in parallel
Determining strategies for handling machine failures
Establish operating guidelines, implement technical changes
Introduction of failure-reducing product planning
Quality
Record exact specification in the requirements specification
Consider specification book
Perform audits
Quality-Function Deployment
Six Sigma
Regular maintenance of operating and test equipment
Programming
Consider specifications and requirements
Clearly define goals
Transparent/clear communication between programs
Hire qualified staff and provide trainings
Material
Availability
Material delay
Safety stock
Good communication with suppliers
Implement dual sourcing
Determine escalation strategy
Implement Kanban as material provisioning
Replenishment time
Identify suppliers in the vicinity
Use direct communication channels
Knowledge management (lessons learned)
Just in Time concept
Consider scrap rate in pilot series and production ramp-up in demand planning
Select suitable order policy
Alignment between manufacturing and procurement by regular tuning improve
Alignment between manufacturing and procurement by IT support (e.g. ERP/MES system) improve
Reduce replacement time by selection of suppliers with shorter delivery time
In-house optimization of the period between notification time and order time (e.g. by using an IT system)
Quantity deviation
Perform laboratory tests
Determine safety stock
Document processes (knowledge management)—improve forecast
Technical Problems
Technical product change
Carry out laboratory tests regularly to avoid malfunctions
Establish protocol (documentation)
Monitor process regularly
Digital mock-up
Maturity
Regular measurement
Regular control
Establish clear quality gates
Conduct audits
Production testing
Maturity assurance
Quality
Inspection of goods upon receipt for obvious defects with the supplier present
Select reliable suppliers
Offer employee training
Quality-Function Deployment
Six Sigma
Work area specific training of employees regarding quality requirements in that area by qualified personnel
Identification of its quality requirements for the product and their characteristics
Documentation of the quality controls
Complexity
Product modularization
Identify possible alternative suppliers
Conduct lab tests on a regular basis to develop new materials
Knowledge management/lessons learned
Sequential variant management
Process
Organization
Communication
Establish a clear structure of the organizational structure in the ramp-up phase
Regular communication
Clear communication channels
Provide infrastructure (drive, software for work organization, internal social media platforms)
Build trust and respect (between employees and managers)
Establish feedback/evaluation meetings
Active idea management
Increase information flow
Critical Chain Project Management
List of open points (LoP)
Process Visualization (ProVis)
Round tables
Data organization
Continuously increase knowledge management
Regularly maintain and update data
Data backup
Provide structured systems
Lessons learned workshops
Standardization
Define procedure in a flow chart
Introduction of the DIN EN ISO 9001 standard
Provide employee training and information on standards
Create documentation
Increase motivation of employees through variety of tasks (avoid monotony of tasks)
Unambiguity of responsibilities
Clear hierarchy and structure of the organizational structure
Provide regular information about changes in the company
Clear description of activities
Schedule regular employee meetings
Planning
Requirements planning
Consider specifications
Documentation
Milestone planning/maturity planning
Regular meetings with experts
Formulate quality gates
Use buffers
Process visualization (ProVis)
Budget planning
Clearly define goals
Monitor regularly
Apply budget planning software to predict trends
Consider currency effects and fluctuations, labor costs, material and raw material costs, taxes and duties
Consider political and economic stability of countries involved
Conduct audits
Material planning
Improve forecast
Consider seasonal effects
Consider fluctuations in demand
Plan for safety stock and manage it regularly
Identify reliable suppliers in the vicinity
Just in Time concept
Resource planning
Clarify legal issues in time
Plan flexible capacities
Assess quality of resources at selection stage
Maintenance and repair
Dual sourcing
Virtual tool development
Tool tracking
Personnel planning
Hiring of loyal and sustainable employees
Active sourcing
Employee-oriented management
Consider employee availability
Always consider possible employee absences
Plan for qualified jumpers
Plan exact number of employees based on sales and demand forecasts
Production process planning
Describe and define work steps
Provide training
Flexible capacity planning
Audits
Integrate different employees into the product planning team
Internal/external logistics planning
Calculate buffer between processes
Safety stock
Increase supply chain visibility
Knowledge management to improve forecasting
Apply warehouse management software
Maintain software
Standardize processes
Consider seasonal effects
Optimize route
Just in time concept
Evaluation and ranking of logistics service providers
Selection of a suitable delivery concept based on historical, current and forecast data
Integration of customers and suppliers in the transportation planning process
Regular communication between suppliers, customers and company and control of utilization
Modifications
Product change
Test management
Conduct benchmarkings
Design of Experiments
Communicate closely with customers and ensure transparency
Document changes well (knowledge management)
Implement modular design principles
Failure mode and effects analysis
Digital mock-up (DMU)
Common parts concept
Lessons learned workshops
Rapid Prototyping
Process change
Analysis of the economic efficiency of the process change
Close communication with customers and transparency ensurances
Document changes well (knowledge management)
Close communication with suppliers (machines, tools)
Process visualization
Reference models
Environment
Political-Legal
National legislation
Consider national legislation during site selection
Hire local staff, based on good knowledge of national laws
Regular monitoring of legislative changes
Directives, regulations, and standards
Consider guidelines, regulations and standards during site selection
Regular monitoring of legislative changes
Consider country-specific standards (e.g. power supply, exhaust fumes)
Political stability
Consider location factors
Motivate employees by ensuring financial stability
Flexible contingency plans in extreme cases
Ecological
Geographical and climatic influences
Conduct technical feasibility study
Good communication between employees and management
Regular monitoring of tools, machines, materials, products, packaging
Natural disasters
Risk mitigation planning and risk management
Build inventory (high risk areas)
Increase supply chain visibility
Consider risk level of suppliers
Employee training (emergency response)
Formulate backup plans
Risk mitigation planning and risk control
Safety stocks
Increase supply chain visibility
Software maintenance, continuous updates, high security level for sensitive data
Employee training (emergency response)
Formulate backup plans
Infrastructure
Working conditions (internal)
Ensure modern and safe working conditions
Respond to employee needs
Regular renovations
Transportation
Optimize route
Plan alternative means of transport (risk management)
Improve supply chain visibility
Optimize vehicle fleet
Safety stocks
Connection
Consider connections in site selection
Plan for alternative modes of transportation
Consider time zones
Supplier
Capacity
Supplier integration
Communicate regularly to be aware of and plan for potential problems
Safety stock/ buffer times
Determine secondary supplier/dual sourcing
Information exchange
Exchange information on a regular basis
Clarify responsibilities on both sides
Compatible information exchange system
Consider global language barriers
Performance interface agreements
Round tables
Complete synchronization of IT systems of all suppliers regarding orders, contact, planning and development
Regular check-up via IT system whether contact persons (and contact data) are still up-to-date
Supplier availability
Supplier integration
Select reliable suppliers
Communicate regularly to be aware of and plan for potential problems
Safety stock/buffer time
Determine secondary supplier/dual sourcing
Quality
Supplier integration
Regular exchange of information
Safety stocks
Clear agreement on procedures in the event of a technical problem
Product modularization
Establishment of a standardized testing procedure to control quality
Selection of suppliers to be controlled by regular audits
Investment in qualified personnel (internal or external) to perform the audits
Regularly checking the validity of suppliers' certificates
Inspection of goods upon receipt for obvious defects with the supplier present
Conducting random comprehensive quality control after goods receipt
Work area specific training of employees regarding quality requirements in this area by qualified staff
Determine escalation strategy
Select reliable suppliers
Communicate regularly to be aware of and plan for potential problems
Safety stock
Determine escalation strategy
Customer
Information exchange
Exchange information regularly
Customer integration
Clarify responsibilities on both sides
Compatible information sharing system
Round tables
Product request
Service interface agreements
Customer integration
Regular meetings to properly understand requirements
Consider requirements specifications/ specification sheets
Round tables
Conduct benchmarkings
Digitization of the requirements
Creation of a unified set of requirements
Identification of the importance and target achievement of the requirements
Standardized, detailed documentation of the requirements in requirement specifications
Fulfillment of mandatory requirements with the help of the checklist
Quantity change
Plan with buffers to respond quickly to potential changes in volume
Flexibility of lines and personnel
Knowledge management
Logistics request
Consider and provide logistics operations
Regular monitoring of inventories
Regular maintenance/servicing
Customer integration/good relationship and communication with customers
Information exchange
Flexible capacities
Safety stocks
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Title
Practice-oriented methodology for increasing production ramp-up efficiency in global production networks of SME
Authors
B. Verhaelen
M. Martin
S. Peukert
G. Lanza
Publication date
13-08-2022
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Published in
Production Engineering / Issue 1/2023
Print ISSN: 0944-6524
Electronic ISSN: 1863-7353
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11740-022-01154-7

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