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About this book

This book describes systematically the theory and technology of the precision forming of large, complex and thin-walled superalloy castings for aircraft engines, covering all the important basic aspects of the manufacturing process, including process design, wax pattern, ceramic molds, casting and solidification, heat treatment, repair casting and dimension precision control.

The correlation of casting defects, structural characteristics and performance of castings is revealed through a range of tests. It also discusses the latest technologies and advances in this field – such as imaging the solidification process by means of synchrotron radiography, 3D computerized tomography and reconstruction of microporosity defects, analysis and diagnosis of error sources for dimension over-tolerance and adjusted pressure casting technology – which are of particular interest. Providing essential insights, the book offers a valuable guide to the design and manufacture of superalloy casting parts for aircraft engines.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction

Aeroengines are recognized as the most sophisticated and complex mechanical systems ever built. Known as the “heart” of an aircraft, the aeroengine represents a comprehensive embodiment of a country’s scientific and industrial achievements (Tu et al. in Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology 7:53–56, 2014). The progress in materials, structural design and manufacture are all controlling factors in the development of aviation industry.
Baode Sun, Da Shu, Maodong Kang

Chapter 2. Investment Casting Process Design of Large-Size Superalloy Castings

The performance of aeroengines is built on the delicate continuous rotatory structure, on which the main difficulty in production also centers.
Guoxiang Wang

Chapter 3. Dimensional Deviation and Defect Prediction of Wax Pattern

A large number of studies have shown that in many processes of investment casting there are three key processes that have a great influence on the dimension and deformation of castings, namely, wax pattern, shell preparation, and casting solidification (Sabau and Viswanathan in Mater. Sci. Eng., A 362:125–134, 2003; Zhou et al. in Casting 50:78–80, 2001; Xu in Polymer structural rheology, Sichuan education press, Chengdu, 1988;Qiu et al. in Acta polymerica sinica 5:535–538, 1994;Hao et al. in Journal of zhengzhou university of technology 22:90–92, 2001).
Donghong Wang

Chapter 4. Preparation Process of Ceramic Shells

Investment casting is one of the most critical technologies that produce can complex components used in aircraft engines (Litong et al. in Near net shape investment casting precision casting theory and practice. National Defense Industry Press, Beijing, 2007, [1]). The preparation of the ceramic shell is one of the essential processes in investment casting. The dimensional accuracy, surface roughness, and even internal quality of casts are all closely related to the ceramic shells (Jones and Yuan in J. Mater. Process. Technol. 135(2–3):258–265, 2003 [2]). In recent years, the structure of casting parts for aircraft engines has become more and more complex, and the surface quality requirements have become much higher, which demands higher standards for the performance of ceramic shells. How to further enrich and optimize the shell material system formulates a scientific and reasonable shell-making process. Besides, how to prepare a ceramic shell with excellent performance has become one of the critical points in the development of modern investment casting technology.
Fei Li, Fei Wang

Chapter 5. Filling and Solidification Process Control of Large Castings

Due to the overall large size, complex structure, significant difference of wall thickness, and large proportion of thin-walled structure, the filling behavior and solidification process of large castings show different characteristics from conventional precision castings. How to ensure the complete filling of the thin-walled structure of the casting and to realize the balanced control of the solidification structure at different structures is one of the technical difficulties in the precision forming of large castings.
Jiao Zhang, Yongbing Dai, Jianbo Ma, Qing Dong, Yanfeng Han, Taiwen Huang, Guangyu Yang

Chapter 6. Prediction and Control of Casting Defects in Large Castings

There are several characteristics of casting components with large scales: large shape size, complex structures, large wall thickness variations, many locations of varying sections and large portion of thin-wall area. In the process of casting, shrinkage cavity, shrinkage porosity, inclusion, cold separation, and other casting defects are easy to form, which seriously reduce the quality of castings and even lead to the waste of castings, limiting the development of high-performance aero-engine. The key to the development of large scale aero-engine castings contains the detection technology of casting defects, the quantitative prediction of casting defects, and the control and repair technologies of casting defects in large castings.
Jun Wang, Haiyan Gao, Xinhua Tang, Maodong Kang, Yang Zhou

Chapter 7. Dimensional Precision Control of Large Castings

A turbine rear frame (TRF) is an important load-bearing component with a complex shape in the aero-engine, which requires not only a high metallurgical quality but also an extremely strict dimensional accuracy.
Changhui Liu, Sun Jin, Xinmin Lai

Chapter 8. Advanced Adjusted Pressure Casting Process

With the continuous advancement of the aviation and aerospace industry, higher requirements are desired for the structure and size of casting parts, e.g., lightweight, holistic, and precision. In line with this development trend, the demand for precision forming of complex thin-walled casting parts is getting stronger and stronger. Defects, such as porosity, cold shut, and misrun for thin-walled casting parts, are easy to form during the filling process with a fast cooling rate that cannot guarantee the fluidity and feeding ability of the liquid metal. Besides, the larger Laplace force and viscous force caused by the thinner thickness of the mold cavity wall may influence the flow state of the front edge of the liquid metal during the filling process of the casting parts, which has a great impact on the precision forming of these thin-walled casting parts.
Anping Dong, Dafan Du, Hui Xing, Guoliang Zhu


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