Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-019-02312-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Raghavachari Dhamodharan: This work constitutes a part of Indian Patent Application No. 201841019186.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
A simple and green method for the preparation of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) by heating surgical cotton in glycerol is demonstrated as an alternative to the existing mechanical degradation method. The heat treatment of cotton in the presence of 9% w/w sulphuric acid in glycerol (1 M), under relatively milder conditions than those reported in the literature in the absence of glycerol, resulted in the formation of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) due to extensive hydrolysis of the amorphous segments. The method reported offers certain unique advantages in the preparation of NFC such as high yield (71%) and much easier post-processing compared to the mechanical degradation method of preparation of NFC. It also offers certain unique advantages in the preparation of NCC such as relatively high yield (56%), the use of lesser quantity of sulphuric acid as well as elimination of the quenching of the reaction through the addition of excess water to the reaction mixture. The residual ‘green solvent’, separated by decantation or centrifugal separation, post-reaction, could be reused for several cycles after filtration with activated carbon. A simple utility of the NCC prepared as reinforcing additive to cement is demonstrated. The addition of 1% (w/w of cement) of NCC and tetraethylorthosilicate modified NCC enhanced the workability of cement mortar and the compressive strength of cured cement composite in sharp contrast to the use of microcrystalline cellulose that required 10% (w/w) for the same enhancement in strength but with poorer workability.
A sustainable route for preparing NFC through heat treatment in glycerol is reported. In the presence of 1 M (9% w/w) sulphuric acid in glycerol, similar heat treatment resulted in the formation of both NFC and NCC. The residual ‘green solvent’ could be reused for several cycles. The addition of 1% (w/w) of nanocellulose prepared via this method enhanced the workability of cement mortar and the compressive strength of cured cement composite.
Please log in to get access to this content
To get access to this content you need the following product:
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 4498 kb)10570_2019_2312_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Anju TR, Ramamurthy K, Dhamodharan R (2016) Surface modified microcrystalline cellulose from cotton as a potential mineral admixture in cement mortar composite. Cem Concr Compos 74:147–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2016.09.003 CrossRef
ASTM C109 (2013) Test method for compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortar. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken
ASTM C1437 (2013) Test method for flow of hydraulic cement mortar. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken
Chakraborty A (2004) Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto
Collard FX, Blin J (2014) A review on pyrolysis of biomass constituents: mechanisms and composition of the products obtained from the conversion of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 38:594–608. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.06.013 CrossRef
Dai D, Fan M, Collins P (2013) Fabrication of nanocelluloses from hemp fibers and their application for the reinforcement of hemp fibers. Ind Crops Prod 44:192–199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.11.010 CrossRef
Dinand E, Chanzy H, Vignon RM (1999) Suspensions of cellulose microfibrils from sugar beet pulp. Food Hydrocoll 13:275–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-005X(98)00084-8 CrossRef
Dufresne A, Cavaille JY, Vignon MR (1997) Mechanical behavior of sheets prepared from sugar beet cellulose microfibrils. J Appl Polym Sci 64:1185–1194. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19970509)64:6%3c1185:AID-APP19%3e3.0.CO;2-V CrossRef
Epure V, Griffon M, Pollet E, Avérous L (2011) Structure and properties of glycerol-plasticized chitosan obtained by mechanical kneading. Carbohydr Polym 83:947–952. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.09.003 CrossRef
Kamel S (2007) Nanotechnology and its applications in lignocellulosic composites, a mini review. Express Polym Lett 1:546–575. https://doi.org/10.3144/expresspolymlett.2007.78 CrossRef
Kunaver M, Anzlovar A, Zagar E (2016) The fast and effective isolation of nanocellulose from selected cellulosic feedstocks. Carbohydr Polym 148:251–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.04.076 CrossRefPubMed
Li W, Wang R, Liu S (2011) Nanocrystalline cellulose prepared from softwood kraft pulp via ultrasonic-assisted acid hydrolysis. BioResources 6:4271–4281. https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.6.4.4271-4281 CrossRef
Lu Q, Yang XC, Dong CQ, Zhang ZF, Zhang XM, Zhu XF (2011) Influence of pyrolysis temperature and time on the cellulose fast pyrolysis products: analytical Py-GC/MS study. J Anal Appl Pyrol 92:430–438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2011.08.006 CrossRef
Maiti S, Jayaramudu J, Das K, Reddy SM, Sadiku R, Ray SS, Liu D (2013) Preparation and characterization of nano-cellulose with new shape from different precursor. Carbohydr Polym 98:562–567. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.06.029 CrossRefPubMed
McCann MC, Wells B, Roberts K (1990) Direct visualization of cross-links in the primary plant cell wall. J Cell Sci 96:323–334
Pääkko M, Ankerfors M, Kosonen H, Nykänen A, Ahola S, Österberg M, Ruokolainen J, Laine J, Larsson PT, Ikkala O (2007) Enzymatic hydrolysis combined with mechanical shearing and high-pressure homogenization for nanoscale cellulose fibrils and strong gels. Biomacromolecules 8:1934–1941. https://doi.org/10.1021/bm061215p CrossRefPubMed
Patwardhan PR, Satrio JA, Brown RC, Shanks BH (2009) Product distribution from fast pyrolysis of glucose-based carbohydrates. J Anal Appl Pyrol 86:323–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2009.08.007 CrossRef
Rajinipriya M, Nagalakshmaiah M, Robert M, Elkoun S (2018) Importance of agricultural and industrial waste in the field of nanocellulose and recent industrial developments of wood based nanocellulose: a review. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 6:2807–2828. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b03437 CrossRef
Scheirs J, Camino G, Tumiatti W (2001) Overview of water evolution during the thermal degradation of cellulose. Eur Polym J 37:933–942. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-3057(00)00211-1 CrossRef
Shafizadeh F (1968) Pyrolysis and combustion of cellulosic materials. Adv Carbohydr Chem 23:419–474. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0096-5332(08)60173-3 CrossRef
Soltes EJ, Wiley AT, Lin SCK (1981) Biomass pyrolysis-towards an understanding of its versatility and potentials. Biotechnol Bioeng Symp Ser 11:125–136
Xiao YT, Chin WL, Abd Hamid SB (2015) Facile preparation of highly crystalline nanocellulose by using ionic liquid. Adv Mater Res 1087:106–110. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1087.106 CrossRef
Zimmermann T, Bordeanu N, Strub E (2010) Properties of nanofibrillated cellulose from different raw materials and its reinforcement potential. Carbohydr Polym 79:1086–1093 CrossRef
- Preparation of nanofibrillated cellulose and nanocrystalline cellulose from surgical cotton and cellulose pulp in hot-glycerol medium
- Publication date
- Springer Netherlands