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2023 | Book

Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Recent Advances in Civil Aviation

Editors: Oleg Anatolyevich Gorbachev, Xiaoguang Gao, Bo Li

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering

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About this book

The volume comprises proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Recent Advances in Civil Aviation. The contents focus on air traffic control and management, quality control and reliability improvement of radio equipment and avionics, designing and testing aircraft assemblies and mechanisms, reliability improvement of aircraft management systems, aviation enterprise management, etc. There is also emphasis on the current problems and prospects for development of unmanned aircraft systems. This volume will be beneficial to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers alike.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Aircraft, Aircraft Engines and Their Operating Practice

Frontmatter
Thermodynamic Calculation of the Parameters of a Gas Medium in a Pulsed Combustion Chamber

The paper presents a method of thermodynamic calculation of the parameters of the gas medium in a single combustion cycle in a pulse combustion chamber. The combustion process of the fuel–air mixture is considered as a single pulse, which includes the process of filling the combustion chamber with the fuel–air mixture and its combustion. The parameters of the gas medium in the combustion process of the fuel–air mixture can be determined using the equations of equilibrium thermodynamics. The parameters are calculated in the quasi-stationary formulation. This means that the entire unsteady combustion process can be considered as a continuous sequence of each single state of the parameters at each moment of time.

Andrey Safarbakov, Sergey Kuznetsov
Environmental Hazards of Aviation Events in Air Transport

The article offers an analysis of geotechnical systems formed in anthropogenic emergency zones during aviation events. The authors provide examples of transport facilities where aviation events lead to the formation of geotechnical systems. The emerging systems levels are presented with a hierarchy of ecological extreme zone levels. The study carries out an assessment of the aviation event's harm to the environment. It also substantiates that improving flight safety is the most appropriate and effective option for reducing the negative impact on the environment in air transport.

Nikolay Nikolaykin, Evgeniy Starkov, Igor Merzlikin, Natalia Korepina
Vortex Combustion Chamber with Angular Flame Stabilizer: Design and Experimental Investigations

The combustion chamber has a significant impact on the gas turbine engines efficiency. Special attention is paid to the improvement of combustion chamber design. The design of the vortex combustion chamber was performed as part of the ongoing research aimed at ensuring a minimum level of temperature non-uniformity at the gas turbine inlet. After determining the inlet geometry of the vortex combustion chamber with angular flame stabilizer, the discrete cannular-type outlet geometry was designed. Numerical simulations showed that discrete outlet configuration provide a 33% reduction in radial non-uniformity was observed relative to a conventional gas turbine engine combustion chamber. The computational methodology was verified by comparing the results of numerical simulation with the results of hydrodynamic studies and with the results of bench tests on a quantitative and qualitative levels. As a further development of the vortex combustion chamber with angular flame stabilizer, a continuous outlet concept was proposed. The analysis of the temperature field showed a further decrease in the level of temperature non-uniformity with a continuous outlet.

Sergey Skorobogatov
Influence of Coriolis Force on the Peculiarities of Aircraft Operation at the Aerodrome

The article discusses one of the main problems faced by engineering and technical personnel during the operation of aircraft with gas turbine engines—vortex suction of foreign objects into the engine air path. The analysis of works on the topic under study was carried out and the main results were identified. The article presents the basics of the vortex field of the Earth’s rotation relative to the polar axis, its altitudinal and latitudinal vortex characteristics, and their consequences. The working process of physical manifestation of the investigated vortex field on the character of the atmospheric environment in the locations of airfield nodes of the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth and the direction of the impact of atmospheric vortex activity on the features of operation of gas turbine power plants of aircraft at the airfield is proved. The factor of the Coriolis force, which influences the formation of vortices under the air intakes of aircraft engines, but was not taken into account in the analyzed works, is highlighted. The dependence of the influence of this factor on the geographic location of the aerodrome for the operation of the aircraft on the Earth’s surface has been investigated. A way of practical application of the revealed feature when adjusting the values of hazardous zones of aircraft engines for different geographic latitudes is proposed.

Nikolai Danilenko, Anton Kirenchev
Estimating the Operability of the Gas Turbine Engine Inter-Shaft Bearing

Operational experience shows that a quite large number of aircraft engines are taken out from service due to inter-shaft bearing failures. The main causes of their failure can be a violation of lubrication and cooling conditions under various operating conditions. The article presents the methodology of estimating the durability of the inter-shaft bearing taking into account the rotor bending vibrations and the experimental studies’ results. Due to the imbalance of the rotor, its shaft makes an oscillating process. Since the oil drive through which the oil is supplied to lubricate the inter-shaft bearing is located inside the shaft, it is also involved in the oscillating process. This increases the rotor vibration level and reduces the oil flow through the oil drive. In addition, the durability of the bearing is affected by its temperature level. Vibration and increased bearing temperature generally have a negative effect on bearing durability.

Sergei Khodatsky

Aircraft Electrical Systems and Flight and Navigation Equipment

Frontmatter
Development of an Algorithm for Determining the Sleepiness of a Crew

The paper discusses the development of an algorithm for an intelligent system for monitoring the sleepiness of a crew in real time using a neural network model. The following signs of sleepiness were investigated: the frequency of yawning, the direction of gaze, the frequency and speed of blinking of the eyelids, and the duration of eye closure.

Vladislav Karelin, Vladimir Popov
Towards an Intelligent Decision Support System for Aircraft Troubleshooting

Currently, troubleshooting an aircraft remains a promising area for automation and intellectualization. At the same time, existing solutions in this area in the form of electronic technical manuals do not always meet the requirements of technical personnel when searching and troubleshooting aircraft. In this regard, the development of another class of systems based on artificial intelligence methods is relevant. These systems can provide not only the search and elimination of failures and malfunctions but also self-learning by accumulating the experience. This paper proposes the basic principles of such an intelligent system, called the AirTech Assistant, designed for use by technical personnel engaged in the maintenance and repair of the power supply system of the Sukhoi Superjet (RRJ-95) aircraft. In particular, a fragment of the conceptual model of the domain is given, functional, operational, and quality requirements are formulated, architecture, as well as fundamental algorithms and a stack of implementation technologies, are defined. The main components of the designed system will be expert systems implementing case-based and rule-based reasoning. An additional study was conducted in terms of testing the formalism of event trees for knowledge base engineering.

Aleksandr Yurin, Yuri Kotlov, Vladimir Popov, Sergey Mishin
Aircraft Electrical Power Systems from the Viewpoint of Requirements of Modern Regulatory Documents

It is shown that the currently operating generation systems based on the drive-generator units of various types have achieved the best technical characteristics. Systems of the “variable speed—constant frequency” type are promising, but their implementation is strongly limited by the level of development of the domestic semiconductor element base. The implementation of the concept of an all-electric aircraft has now become important. This required not only a significant increase in the installed capacity of the aviation power supply system but also changes in the requirements of regulatory documents for voltage level and electric energy quality. In fact, these documents lay down the requirements for the structure of the onboard equipment complex. The emphasis in the work is made on the structural features of building an electrical power system for aircraft, taking into account the requirements of the modern regulatory documents.

Sergey Mishin, Vladimir Popov
Development and Adaptation to the Application of Methodological Tools for Assessing the Quality Level of Experts System

The criterion for the quality level of the formation and development of professional competencies of aviation specialists is a set of characteristics that reflect their professionalism, the ability to acquire knowledge, apply the acquired knowledge in the profession. In the scientific literature, there are various interpretations of the concepts of “competence,” “competency.” In almost every interpretation of domestic and foreign authors, it can be noted that, unlike the term “qualification,” competencies reflect not only the level of professional knowledge and skills but also such qualities as initiative, the ability to work in a team, communication skills, the ability to learn, evaluate and to think logically, select and use information, etc. Previous studies have emphasized the difficulty of obtaining quantitative values of the level of development of individual competencies since the applicability of specific statistical data is very limited. This creates objective difficulties for assessing the professional preparedness of personnel through the use of the achievements of scientific and technological progress in the field of artificial intelligence. This determines the direction of the research, the main purpose of which is the adaptation and application of methodological tools for assessing the quality level of expert systems. *Publication was prepared within the framework of project No. 19-08-00028, supported by a grant from the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research (RFFI).

Ljudmila Bolshedvorskaya, Nikolay Koryagin
Developing a Decision Support Tool for Air Route Planning System

Following the rapid growth of the aviation industry in the present, air traffic congestion has become a major issue in Asia, especially in the ASEAN region. This issue makes flight delays and cancellations rise rapidly throughout the region. It makes Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) become important and necessary to ensure a smooth flow of flights and a balance between traffic demand and capacity while increasing the safety, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and environmental sustainability of an Air Traffic Management (ATM) System. This project focuses on developing a decision support tool for Air Route Network System at the Strategic ATFM phase. The Flight Route System uses a heuristic algorithm to optimize the domestic flight routes of Vietnam based on the demand of Air Traffic Management Center Vietnam (ATFMC-VN).

Nhut Ngo, Evgeny Neretin, Phuong Nguyen
Using Data-Driven Approach in 4D Trajectory Prediction: A Comparison of Common AI-Based Models

Artificial intelligence (AI) is developing strongly and widely applied in many fields, including in the aviation. At the 13th Air Navigation Conference (AN-Conf/13-WP/232) organized by ICAO in Montreal from 9 to October 19 2018, participants discussed AI benefits and preparation for AI-enabled air traffic management (ATM). In this paper, a comparison was carried out to evaluate common AI-based models: Linear regression (LR), Random forest (RF) regression, Extremely gradient boosting (XGBoost) regression and deep neural network (DNN) models for predicting four-dimensional (4D) flight trajectory under weather uncertainties. The datasets used in this paper contain actual ADS-B historical trajectory data of flights from Ho Chi Minh to Ha Noi for 14 days (November 12–26 2021) and time-synchronized weather data along the waypoints of each flight. After comparing the training performance of LR, RF, XGBoost, DNN models, the best-fit DNN models were chosen for further improvement. By tuning their main hyperparameters, the training results are significantly improved in terms of training time and mean absolute errors.

Evgeny Neretin, Man Nguyen, Phuong Nguyen
Development of the Perspective Aircraft Cockpit Indication System Simulator

This article proposes the architecture of the simulation complex of the indication system for the validation of ergonomic solutions in the design of IMF cockpits at an early stage of development of advanced civil aircraft. The use of the proposed solution will significantly reduce material and time costs due to the fact that in the process of developing the software for the indication system, solutions already validated with the flight crew will be used as requirements for the indication, as well as models used as part of the complex that meet the requirements of the R-331 standard /DO-331, which means they can be used in the development of onboard software. Additionally, since the process of validating the indication system using the proposed complex is inextricably linked with the process of developing onboard software, the software and hardware of the prototyping bench can be used as a technical tool for training the crew to work with the IMF of the aircraft being developed, which further reduces aircraft operating costs.

Nikita Silin, Andrey Ivanov
Development of Guidelines on the Use of Color Solution for Electronic Indication Systems When Designing Human–Machine Interface of Civil Aircraft Objects

The article is devoted to improve the flight safety of civil aviation objects by creating and applying recommendations for choosing a color solution for the main graphic information of a human–machine interface (HMI) based on a color design criterion. The ergonomic combination of color pairs plays a major role in HMI design. Considering that up to 7 different text colors can be used in HMI development, it is necessary to choose the main background in such a way that all applicable elements for the task are visible on it. When choosing a text color, it should be considered that the text should be clearly visible on the interface, should not cause irritating feelings for the user, and have a positive effect on the psychological pressure of the crew. The use of the described method when developing the visual design of the civil aircraft HMI will reduce the time spent to perform the required tasks, reduce the workload on the crew, thereby increase flight safety, and provide a competitive advantage of the developed system.

Nikita Silin, Andrey Ivanov

Radio Navigation Systems

Frontmatter
Peculiarities of Applying Pseudolites for Increase in GNSS Positioning Accuracy

The authors consider main elements of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and peculiarities of its operation in the multi-system mode and with a pseudolite as an augmentation. A simulation modeling complex for orbital groupings of systems forming the GNSS was presented. By comparing the results of natural experiments and mathematical modeling the performance of the complex with regard to the BeiDou system was estimated. The vertical dilution of precision was estimated for all possible modes of GNSS application as well as with a pseudolite used. The technique of finding an optimal pseudolite position was proposed and efficiency of its use in all possible modes of GNSS application was estimated.

Oleg Skrypnik, Natalya Arefyeva, Roman Arefyev, Tatyana Portnova
On the Laws of the Scatter Matrix Elements Probabilities Distribution

An extensive application of the radio polarimetry methods to solve the most varied tasks of radar location, radar navigation and air traffic control has occurred recently which is inevitably faced with the relevance of describing the reflectance profile for surveillance objects of such ambience as (terrain, vegetation, atmosphere), above-ground facilities, air targets (aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles), etc. On the whole, in all the events formulated solutions are based on the evaluation and dynamics of altering the principal radio polarimetry characteristic of surveillance objects, i.e., their scatter matrix (SM). The present paper is devoted to the laws of the SM elements probabilities distribution.

Eduard Bolelov, Anatoly Kozlov, Nikolay Voskresensky, Vyacheslav Erokhin
The Technique of Determining the Operability Scope of an Airborne Flight Navigation Complex on a Set of Invariant Control Ratios

In the process of using airborne flight navigation complexes (AFNCs) for their intended purpose, a change in the operating conditions or the failure of its elements leads to various consequences, depending on the structure of the complex or the class of tasks being solved. Firstly, a change in the operating conditions (failure of individual elements of the complex) leads to a sharp decrease in the efficiency of solving flight and navigation tasks. At the same time, the AFNC as a whole can exist in one of two states: operable or failure. However, this model is typical only for particular problems. Secondly, the AFNC is reconfigured when the operating conditions change. This allows to temporary solve flight and navigation tasks with acceptable, albeit lower quality. This is the most typical situation for navigation tasks. Both in the first and in the second cases, the technical condition monitoring algorithms of the AFNC should inform the user about the violation of the operating conditions within a specified time with required detection and false alarm probabilities. The paper presents a technique for determining the operability scope of an airborne flight navigation complex on a set of invariant control ratios, which allows development of optimal control algorithms.

Eduard Bolelov, Stepan Shalupin, Nikolay Malisov
Applying LoRa Technology in Unmanned Aircraft Systems

Evolution in the methods of forming and receiving signals is continuously related to development of the information transmission media by using air. Information transmission radio channels have certain requirements for the hardware providing reliable data delivery from the information source to the end-user. One may attribute the presence of artificial and natural interferences that considerably deteriorate the quality of the received information to radio channel features. Especially, this is true for the systems transmitting control instructions. One of such systems is the ground—unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data-transmission channel, whose performance quality affects accomplishment of the mission set to the UAV and the resilience of latter. In this paper, we address application of the LoRa modulation in the UAV control channel and present a model for a signal shaper and a receiver in the Labview2010 software.

Muslim Mezhetov, Anna Tikhova, Uliana Vakhrusheva, Andrey Fedorov
Method of Determining Statistical Characteristics of Temperature Profile Measurement Errors for the Aircraft Take-off and Landing Phases

The air temperature and its profile is the most essential parameter of the atmospherse subject to be measured and predicted. It has a significant impact on engine thrust and fuel consumption; aircraft’s aerodynamic characteristics, takeoff and landing; the result of weather and dangerous meteorological phenomena forecasts, etc. Currently, civil aviation airfields are beginning being equipped with the systems of remote temperature profile measuring. These systems include the MTR-5 microwave temperature profiler. Experimental comparative studies of the MTR-5 profiler and radio sounding data allow us to make a conclusion about one significant disadvantage of the MTR-5, which is associated with the necessity of its calibration. The lack of calibration or insufficient frequency of its execution may leads to substantial deviations of a measured temperature profile from a real one. In order to increase the efficiency of the MTR-5 application, it is required to develop a mathematical model of the MTR-5 temperature profile measurement errors. This paper deals with the temperature profile measuring statistical errors determining the methodology and the temperature profile measuring errors model.

Nikolay Voskresensky, Vitaliy Karachentsev
Creation of Weather Datasets for Simulation of the Near Airfield Zone Weather Radars

The problems of modeling the signal-interference situation for solving the problems of certification of airborne meteorological radars are analyzed. The possibilities of using similar tools for the development and validation of ground-based weather radar complexes of the near airfield zone are considered. The method of forming the initial set of weather phenomena situation data for creating simulation scenarios of dangerous meteorological phenomena is shown. Created weather data includes set of radar reflectivity measurements, located on a regular three-dimensional grid. The essence of the proposed technique consists in direct interpolation of radar reflectivity data using the method of barycentric coordinates followed by spatial median filtering. Initial reflectivity factor values are obtained by using the weather radar of the near airfield zone. The simulation result is demonstrated in accordance with the proposed algorithm.

Sergei Zyabkin, Oleg Vasiliev, Boris Lezhankin
Correlator of the Preamble of an Automated Dependent Surveillance Signal

A problem of implementing the methods of optimal signal reception, particularly the algorithms of optimal filtration and smoothing, is in selecting the parameters of message and observation models corresponding to real data. An urgent scientific and practical problem, therefore, is research of peculiarities of the methods for optimal information processing when applied to real signals of modern radio-technical facilities. To solve the problem, a scientific and experimental apparatus composed of an antenna system, an attenuator, a digital receiver and a PC was constructed. The authors formulated the essential problems of the optimal radio reception theory regarding SSR and ADS-B signals. The paper presents the research results of correlation processing when applied to real RTF signals. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of applying a correlator for detection a desired signal in the accepted implementation and determination of delay time.

Vyacheslav Erokhin, Muslim Mezhetov, Tatyana Portnova, Sergey Turintsev
Aircraft Position-Fixing in a Multilateration System

The problem of increasing the level of civil aircraft flight safety in zones with no radar control for economic and geographic reasons is solved by applying a multi-position surveillance system. A promising means of data exchange between an aircraft and an air traffic controller (ATC) is automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) which provides transmission of aircraft navigation information. The problem of aircraft position-fixing in a multi-position surveillance system on the basis of multilateration technology in a stochastic statement has been formulated and its solution with the help of modern methods of optimal signal filtration has been proposed. To implement range tracking and pseudorange measurements in a multilateration (MLAT) system, the authors propose applying a second-order filter. An a priori model of signal delay dynamics has been proposed in order to synthesize a filter of the tracking system. Using the selected model for signal delay time, a Kalman-filter-based algorithm of optimal estimation and its characteristics were examined. The paper describes theoretical and experimental studies of a multilateration surveillance system and factors influencing its operation. The accuracy characteristics within the system coverage in accordance with the presumed location were analyzed. The research on characteristics of an MLAT system with a variant of station location in the Bodaybo region of Irkutsk regional center of air traffic management (ATM) was carried out.

Nikolay Povarenkin, Boris Lezhankin, Tatyana Portnova, Vyacheslav Erokhin
Universal Generator for Signal Constellations

Present-day digital data transmission systems should provide a high accuracy for information transmission, maintaining, at the same time, the maximal rate. The systems that apply spectral-effective signal modulation methods enabling to reasonably use the selected section of the frequency spectrum. The orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is among spectral-effective. This kind of modulation uses its own signal constellation at each subcarrier when transmitting information. The system noise immunity generally depends on the signal point arrangement of a signal constellation. At low noise and interference levels, the signal point arrangement increases, which leads to an increase in the information rate. As the noise and interference level increases, the signal point arrangement decreases, which leads to the transmission rate decrease. In the digital information transmission systems, particularly interesting are asymmetric signal constellations, applying which enable generally improve the system operation quality. Therefore, studying signal constellations is a vital problem nowadays. In this paper, we address the structure and the operation principle of a generator for signal constellations, implemented in the NI LabVIEW software. Using such a generator enables to create signal constellations with an extended configuration, which provides a possibility to investigate the system noise immunity by applying symmetric and asymmetric diagrams (maps).

Muslim Mezhetov, Anna Tikhova, Vladislav Karelin, Nikolay Povarenkin
Developing a Virtual Device to Identify Signals for Aviation Communication Monitoring System

Rapid loading of the used-frequency bands inevitably leads to an increase in the number of unintended interferences related to the system operation features. Also, there exists a danger of unapproved access to the professional communication frequency band. This is most critical for the metric-wave band, because it is here, where the main communication between an aircraft and the ground control occurs at the take-off and the landing. Data losses, in this case, may lead to a terrain accident, because the take-off and the landing are the most complex flight stages demanding prompt information exchange. Due to this, it is important to quickly find and identify the preventing effect impeding the radio communication. The goal of this paper is to develop an algorithm for detecting and identifying the signals in the set band, based on analyzing their in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) components, which enables to essentially increase air safety.

Muslim Mezhetov, Anna Tikhova, Alexey Shalayev
Attitude Indicators in Bank Angle Determination: A Study of Errors

The article discusses the results of an experiment that was conducted in the spring of 2021 at Saint Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation. The experiment was aimed at analyzing errors in bank angle determination made when using two different types of attitude indicators: the direct one, in which the horizon bar moves relative to the aircraft symbol, and the reverse one, in which the aircraft symbol moves relative to the horizon bar. As the direct type of indication currently prevails on board of almost all aircraft in use, it seems important from the safety point of view to understand what individual attributes are characteristic of those who find this type of indication inconvenient. This can serve as a foundation for solving the problem of improving professional screening procedures in civil aviation. In the experiment, heat maps and gaze plots were analyzed that had been obtained with the help of the Tobii REX eye tracker. Also, psychological testing was conducted to gather information on such characteristics of the participants as temperament and mental strength. Relationships between the results of the experiment, the data produced by the eye tracker, and the results of temperament and mental strength tests were studied. The sample included 46 fifth-year students at Saint Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation who major in flight operations management.

Olga Arinicheva, Natalia Lebedeva, Aleksei Malishevskii, Roman Arefyev
Research of Projection Algorithms for Solving Problems of Measuring Angular Coordinates of Low-Flying Radar Targets

In the presented work, the urgent problem of detecting low-flying radar targets is touched upon. The problem has been known for a long time, but only now, there are computing capacities for testing algorithms for measuring angular coordinates. In this regard, the study of the ESPRIT super-resolution algorithm is carried out, and the error of measuring angular coordinates is estimated depending on the height of the surface irregularities. The presence and magnitude of this error are directly related to an increase in the power of the diffuse component of the signal, which in turn destroys correlations in the elements of the antenna array, on which the measurement of angular coordinates by the ESPRIT algorithm is based.

Aleksandr Ermakov, Nikolay Povarenkin, Nikolay Malisov
Methods for Assessing the Influence of External Factors on Airplane Flight

The article proposes three methods for predicting deviations from the specified parameters caused by an unfavorable environment in order to increase the flight safety level. The most effective method has been established for each stage of the flight. The corresponding functions with stationary coefficients for calculating the probable force impact of factors on the aircraft have been determined. During the research, it was observed that stationary coefficients in the function have a significant drawback. In a long flight, weather conditions can change a lot, and the coefficients will remain the same. The application of dynamic coefficients, the determination of which became possible thanks to the use of an artificial neural network, is most likely to solve this problem.

Aleksey Verstiuk, Gennadii Kovalenko, Artem Fedorov, Oleg Patrikeev
Assessment of Aircraft Conditions in Flight

When flight conditions become more difficult, the pilot needs to control a greater number of parameters than in normal modes. This results in higher workload on the pilot and an increase in the probability that some mistakes will be made when operating highly automated aircraft. The problem lies in the fact that in such situations, the pilot is to perform operations safely regarding the use of both the flight control system and the air traffic control system, even if the number of information signals exceeds that which can be processed by the pilot. The article presents the results of a study on the assessment of different methods by which the aircraft status can be determined and its control systems can be monitored. The study was conducted due to the need to meet stringent requirements in flight safety regarding pilots’ ability to serve as backups when flying highly automated aircraft. In order to do this, pilots need to develop an integral skill in processing static and dynamic information coming to them from various sources.

Gennadii Kovalenko, Sergey Lobar, Ivan Muravyev, Sergey Turintsev
Integrated Piloting Skills Training

Operating highly automated aircraft requires transitioning from automatic to manual control and back. In this process, problems can be caused due to information overload, changes in the operation mode and the pilot’s being exposed to forces in excess of 1 G (Kletz and Amyotte in What went wrong? Case histories of process plant disasters and how they could have been avoided. Butterworth-Heinemann, UK, 2019 [1]; Megson in Aircraft structures for engineering students. Burlington, USA, 2021 [2]; Guoqing and Wenhao in The principles of integrated technology in avionics systems. Academic Press, Shanghai, 2020 [3]; Muravyev and Kovalenko in Helicopter pilots safe landing outside the airfield in conditions of uncertainty skills training methods. Nauka, St. Petersburg, 2017 [4]). The existing method for training pilots using cognitive converters of activity algorithms does not take into account the way how pilots control the dynamic characteristics of the aircraft in flight. The article proposes a new method that allows the pilot to develop an integral skill that takes into account both static and dynamic parameters of the aircraft. The relevance of the study stems from the fact that it is vital for pilots to know how to backup automated systems in modern aircraft.

Gennadii Kovalenko, Yuriy Mikhal’chevskiy, Ivan Muravyev, Sergey Turintsev
Emergency Performance Assessment in Air Traffic Control

The article discusses the influence of the human factor in air traffic control on flight safety. Errors made by air traffic controllers in emergencies are explained primarily by lack of professionalism or low stress resistance. Since psychological testing is the first step in screening out candidates unfit for the job, the task of identifying candidates with low performance in emergencies is important and relevant. In order to study methods for assessing emergency performance, an experiment was conducted using the expert and navigator simulators. Also, to analyze the innate component of stress resistance in the participants, personality assessment tests were carried out in order to determine their neuroticism scores. The acquired component of emergency performance was assessed indirectly by comparing how accurately the participants evaluated the risks of potential conflict situations with expert assessments. An analysis was performed of the correlations between experimental results. The experiment was conducted on a sample of 20 fifth-year students at Saint Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation who major in air traffic management.

Aleksei Malishevskii, Igor Krivoborsky, Alexander Khumorov, Sergey Vorobyov
Analysis of the Accelerometer Signal for Gait Asymmetry Detection

The analysis of informative signal parameters is popular with researchers in various scientific fields. This scientific paper presents a method for detecting gait asymmetry in aircraft crews by analyzing the vertical acceleration signal generated during walking from the accelerometer of a mobile device. This method allows detecting asymmetry by a number of features that are revealed in the signal structure in the time domain, and does not require large computational resources. In the presence of gait asymmetry, the durations of one and the other leg steps are determined, followed by a comparison of their numerical values, and the largest average difference between the extremes of the vertical acceleration of the steps is determined.

Roman Pirozhkov, Aleksandr Ermakov, Danil Muzafarov, Vitaliy Karachentsev
Comparison of the Effectiveness of the MUSIC and ESPRIT Superresolution Algorithms

In radar, it is of great importance to distinguish targets separated by a small angular distance, for example, two close-flying aircraft located at a great distance from the radar station or distinguishing a low-flying target and its antipode, arising due to signal reflection from the underlying surface. This article compares the efficiency of the MUSIC and ESPRIT superresolution algorithms for the problem of distinguishing two targets separated by a small angular distance. According to the simulation results, the ESPRIT algorithm is faster than MUSIC for the same antenna array and signal parameters, ESPRIT has a smaller RMS deviation for the same parameters, which suggests that the ESPRIT superresolution algorithm is more efficient.

Timur Tagaev, Aleksandr Ermakov, Danil Mokhort, Nikolay Malisov
Development of a Multifactorial Flight Safety Level Assessment Methodology in the Russian Federation Civil Aviation

Currently, the main factor in assessing the flight safety level in Russia is the number of aviation occurrences—incidents and accidents, while other multiple parameters directly affecting or powerful to affect flight safety are not taken into consideration and remain in the shadows. The research article proposes a variant of developing a methodology for a multi-factor assessment of the flight safety ensuring effectiveness applicable to operators acting in different segments of civil aviation and incorporating a variety of performance indicators. Use of multifactorial flight safety level assessment methodology with account of all operators’ features make it possible to create a comparative assessment of flight safety level for various operators, which will make it possible to take the necessary measures to improve the civil aviation flight safety level.

Vyacheslav Besogonov, Anatoly Kostylev, Mikhail Ushakov
Application of ADS-B for Providing Surveillance at Civil Aviation Regional Aerodromes

Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast is an inexpensive promising technology that can ensure the required surveillance quality. This technology, however, has some shortcomings and vulnerabilities due to which the ICAO insists on confirming the ADS-B data by other surveillance tools, including radars and multi-position systems, which can increase surveillance infrastructure costs. For regional Russian aerodromes, particularly those located in the Arctic zone, the economic component is crucial. The task to conduct observations using the ADS-B stations and alternative coordinate confirmation methods is urgent. The article provides an overview of methods employed in the algorithmic confirmation of ADS-B data reliability based on estimating mathematical expectation and standard deviation (for different levels of reliability) of normally distributed aircraft positioning errors. The gating method, which involves selecting an area around the extrapolated aircraft coordinate, is proposed. The methodology can be applied to describe the ground and air traffic in the working area of aerodromes and the aerodrome area.

Andrey Kalintsev, Evgeniy Rubtsov, Nikolay Povarenkin
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Aviation Personnel, Their Behavior, and Erroneous Actions

The cause of many adverse aviation events is the erroneous actions of the flight crew on board the aircraft and aviation personnel performing maintenance of aircraft on the ground. As part of the study, the biotropic effects of fluctuations in non-ionizing radiation, helio-geomagnetic background, electromagnetic radiation, and the surrounding ionosphere were assessed based on changes monitoring in the hydrogen parameter (pH) and redox potential of the aquatic environment in the measurement zone (radius up to 100 m). The indices of the heart rate autonomic regulation were estimated. The circadian rhythms of heart rate variability indicators were studied. It has been shown that the stressful state of the organism, explaining the non-standard behavior and errors of aviation personnel, can also be associated with abrupt changes in the power of electromagnetic radiation in the workers’ environment surrounding their workplaces. It is justified that the effect of electromagnetic radiation on humans occurs through a change in the redox properties of the body’s aquatic environment. Some measures have been developed to prevent erroneous personnel actions and improve flight safety.

Vladimir Tsetlin, Galina Stepanova, Nikolay Nikolaykin, Natalia Korepina

Application of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

Frontmatter
Decision-Making Related to UAV Control Under Uncertainty

The article is devoted to the decision-making onboard of the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) under complex or, in some cases, even uncertain operating conditions, for example, automatic and even unplanned landing on improvised sites. We have proposed applying decision-making to specific tasks, e.g., decisions to “land” or to “continue flight” within the “Game Against Nature” framework. In addition, decisions are made, while a UAV performs an autonomous flight, which is why various scenarios should be taken into account, based on uncertainty of a current situation. To identify nature’s strategies, situation awareness method has been used in this work to assess the state of the current situation and to predict the consequences of decisions made and controls implemented. The current technology for situation awareness has been implemented, based on the use of databases built in advance and containing information about possible objects of interest, including area maps, knowledge bases containing products that describe cause-and-effect relationships between objects (phenomena, processes), as well as a set of models describing current statuses. The UAV and its subsystems that safeguard efficient task execution—namely, the UAV performance, including range, speed, and maneuverability under current conditions; the operating spectral range of the surveillance system, etc. The environment, e.g., time of day, weather conditions, etc., includes effects of destabilizing factors. Objects of interest specified for a task assigned. We have proved that making decisions about landing or continuing flight through implementing onboard algorithms implies taking into account possible nature’s strategies, the status of the UAV, and the expected pessimism index of the Hurwitz criterion.

Nikolay Kim, Nikolay Bodunkov
Environmental Monitoring in the “Land–Water” Contact Zone of Water Bodies with the Help of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

The paper presents the results of using UAV, small unmanned aerial vehicles, for the purposes of environmental monitoring of coastal ecosystems of large continental bodies of water. Large water bodies of the Lake Baikal system in the south of Siberia were used as test sites. The survey was carried out using small unmanned aerial vehicles—the Geoscan 101 aircraft type and DJI multi-rotor UAV—during the warm season. From June to September, more than 6,000 high-resolution aerial photographs were obtained, which were used to compile orthophotomaps. As a result of the analysis of the aerial photographs, a classification of objects for environmental monitoring of coastal ecosystems of a specific area was developed, as well as a technical algorithm for the stages of shooting. The results of the study demonstrate the advantages of using small unmanned aerial vehicles as an additional control tool in monitoring the state of environmental objects, which significantly expands the range of factors of potential and real impact on the state of ecosystems, helps to identify the location of impact sources and to obtain quantitative estimates of a wide spatial coverage.

Denis Efimov, Alexandr Shablov, Elena Shavalieva
A Complex of Ground Equipment for an Unmanned Search Aircraft

Approaches to the creation of a complex of ground equipment for an unmanned search aircraft are considered. To ensure stable control and information acquisition, it is proposed to use the main and additional channels for control and reception of video information with a combined antenna system as part of the complex. For stable operation of the main channel, it is proposed to use a system of two circular polarization antennas: spiral and clover. The technical characteristics of the antennas are presented. The results of practical application of two circularly polarized antennas are presented. It is shown that the inclusion of two different antennas makes it possible to compensate for the deficiencies in the directivity characteristics and to ensure the stable operation of the transceiver devices of the complex. Experiments were carried out with flights of an unmanned search aircraft along the route. Recommendations are given for the practical application of the ground equipment complex for an unmanned search aircraft.

Sergey Stukalov, Vladimir Kostenkov, Roman Gavryushin

Transport Economics

Frontmatter
Methodology for Evaluating Transport Accessibility in the Arctic Zone: Organization of Passenger Transportation

The article defines the concept of transport accessibility of the territory, examines the existing methods for assessing transport accessibility. The reasons that do not allow using the existing methods of assessing transport accessibility in relation to the areas of the Arctic zone were identified. Statistical methods such as transport network density per 1000 square kilometers of territory, per 1000 inhabitants; Engel, Goltz, Uspensky, Vasilevsky coefficients; methods of topological analysis of transport networks; methods of spatial analysis and delimitation of transport networks; methods of potentials and balance methods have been considered as existing methods of transport accessibility assessment. Based on the analysis of the state of networks of different types of transport and the survey of the local population, the main reasons that limit transport accessibility of these territories have been identified. These reasons include: the lack of railway service, the lack of roads for year-round use, the high cost of passenger intra-regional air transportation, the low regularity of flights, and the limited regular route network of existing airlines. Taking into account these factors, the paper proposes a methodology for assessing the transport accessibility of the regions of the Arctic zone in terms of the organization of passenger transportation, which is based on the calculation of the full cost of all correspondence from a particular area to all other considered areas of the region per 1 km of distance between them. The full cost of transportation is calculated as the direct costs of purchasing tickets for transportation, the cost of waiting time for connecting flights, and the waiting time for flight delays due to weather conditions. The cost of waiting time is estimated based on the calculation of the average cost of accommodation for one day in Yakutsk.

Irina Poleshkina
Modeling of Sustainable Business Processes of Solid Municipal Waste Removal in Civil Aviation

The article deals with the problems of organizing business processes for the removal of solid municipal waste (MSW) in civil aviation, taking into account the construction of a closed-cycle economy. Particular attention is paid to reducing the overall consumption of natural resources by recycling waste into secondary resources and goods. A typical scheme of the main business processes of accumulation, transportation and disposal of MSW in civil aviation, developed using a business process modeling system, is given. Based on the conducted functional and cost analysis and ABC-analysis of business processes on the Pareto principle, economically sound recommendations are given for the organization of sustainable business processes for the export of MSW at air enterprises, which consist in the need to increase the share of separate waste accumulation and recycling.

Alexander Sukhorukov, Nikolay Koryagin, Ekaterina Bogdanova, Elena Zakharova
Problems of Introducing Digital Products into the Technological Processes of Organizing Air Transportation

This article considers the aspects of the introduction of digital products in the technological processes of organizing air transportation, as well as the specifics of the processes of organizing air transportation. The aspects of software solutions which are necessary for the effective operation in the air transportation management system are shown. By establishing mathematical relations, the values of the criterion of the effectiveness of digital products in the overall system of transport organization are identified.

Anastasia Stepanenko, Elena Stepanenko, Leila Nikiforova
Efficiency Indicators of Airlines’ Business Processes

In the article, in accordance with the significantly increased requirements for ensuring the competitiveness and efficiency of airline management, taking into account the specifics of modern Russian air transport anti-crisis risk management, as well as in connection with the transition of many enterprises to process-oriented management, the problem of creating a measuring mechanism for quantitative assessment of the efficiency of business processes of airlines is considered. The authors substantiated the basic set of the system of performance indicators. Taking into account the stochastic nature of business processes, mathematical models are proposed for indicators of reliability, productivity and cost-effectiveness of a business process, as well as approaches to constructing an integral indicator of efficiency.

Elena Pronina, Mihail Rodionov
Metadata
Title
Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Recent Advances in Civil Aviation
Editors
Oleg Anatolyevich Gorbachev
Xiaoguang Gao
Bo Li
Copyright Year
2023
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-19-3788-0
Print ISBN
978-981-19-3787-3
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-3788-0

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