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2024 | Book

Proceedings of AWAM International Conference on Civil Engineering 2022—Volume 1

AICCE, Sustainability and Resiliency


About this book

This book gathers the latest research, innovations, and applications in the field of civil engineering, as presented by leading national and international academics, researchers, engineers, and postgraduate students at the AWAM International Conference on Civil Engineering 2022 (AICCE’22), held in Penang, Malaysia on February 15-17, 2022. The book covers highly diverse topics in the main fields of civil engineering, including structural and earthquake engineering, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, highway and transportation engineering, water resources engineering, and geomatic and construction management. In line with the conference theme, “Sustainability And Resiliency: Re-Engineering the Future”, which relates to the United Nations’ 17 Global Goals for Sustainable Development, it highlights important elements in the planning and development stages to establish design standards beneficial to the environment and its surroundings. The contributions introduce numerous exciting ideas that spur novel research directions and foster multidisciplinary collaborations between various specialists in the field of civil engineering.
This book is part of a 3-volume series of these conference proceedings, it represents Volume 1 in the series.

Table of Contents


Construction Management

Risk-Level Assessment of Construction Risk Management Among the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Contractors

Projects are delayed due to a lack of construction risk management practice. Construction risk factors (e.g. labour and equipment, material, design, financial and administrative) affect contractors resulting in time delays and cost overruns. Inadequate, substandard and inferior quality of construction, changes in project scope, dispute and total abandonment, cost and time overrun, clients’ inadequate variations and lack of contractor’s skill and experience for site management are key risks linked with construction projects in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. There is a need for a robust and reliable scale for examining and accessing the degree of risk management in the construction sector for proper handling of construction risks. Current research evaluates degree of risk management of construction industry among 303 largest contractors’ (> 250 number of employees) companies working in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using descriptive statistics. For this study, simple random probability sampling is employed with a 5-point Likert scale. Multi-collinearity test, Common Method Variance (CMV) and non-response bias tests are performed as preliminary analysis. Construction risk factors are prioritized using Relative Importance Index (RII) technique. Results depict an overall mean score of 2.587 construction risk management in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which falls in the medium category. The top 5 construction risk management factors are linked with a safety inspection, modification of contract after bidding, material transportation, monetary losses and quality control. Methodologically, this study is practicably first to inspect, examine and investigate the degree of risk management in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia contractors. The current framework establishes benchmarking in managing performance based on the degree of construction risk management among Kingdom of Saudi Arabia contractors.

Muhammad Abdul Rehman, Md. Sayuti Bin Ishak
Identification of Delay Risk Factors in the United Arab Emirate Construction Projects

This study seeks to identify construction industry delay risk factors in the UAE. A structured questionnaire survey was prepared and distributed to engineers in the UAE construction industry to achieve the research objectives and aims. A review of the literature identified 106 delay risk factors. The findings indicated that the top delay risk causes are as follows: changes of orders; delays in decision-making and approval by clients; contractors’ financing difficulties; poor site management and supervision by contractors; and poor control of project progress. These findings can support the construction industry by assisting owners and contractors in decision-making, reducing change order requests, and managing projects by directing improvements to regulations in order to meet market needs.

Abdulhamid AlGheth, Md. Sayuti Bin Ishak
The Relationship Between Project Organizational Culture and Projects Performance in Construction Industry of United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Cultural influence in project management has recently been given a lot of attention by academics due to its vital role in the success or failure of projects. Numerous empirical studies have looked at how culture affects project management in the construction industry, but it is uncommon to look at organizational culture at the project level. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the project organizational culture and project performance in the construction industry of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) based on a work-practice perspective. A total of 124 recently concluded construction projects in the UAE were examined to determine the relationship between project culture and performance through specific data gathering through questionnaires. The significant positive relationship between project organizational culture and project performance has been made clear in this paper. The findings reveal that contractor commitment-related factors are the most important cultural factor influence overall project performance, while authority-related factors which was ranked a lowest impact on project performance. The findings of this study help professionals in the construction industry put practices in place to improve the culture at the project level, which can help to improve the performance and success of construction projects.

Adel Khalifa Mohammed, Md. Sayuti Bin Ishak
Effect of Project Organizational Culture on Participants Satisfaction of United Arab Emirates (UAE) Construction Projects

Academics in the field of project management have recently paid a lot of attention to the cultural topic because it is crucial to the success or failure of the projects. Although numerous empirical studies have been conducted to examine the influence of culture on project management, organizational culture at the project level is not frequently addressed in the construction industry. The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the effect of project organizational culture on participants satisfaction of construction projects in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) based on a work-practice perspective. In order to determine the relationship between project culture and participants satisfaction, 124 recently completed construction projects in the UAE that collected specific data through questionnaires were analyzed. In this study, there was a clear positive relationship between project organizational culture and participant satisfaction. According to results of participants satisfaction indicator, the participants satisfaction with safety was ranked highest, then client satisfaction with quality, then client satisfaction with cost, then contractor satisfaction with profitability, and then client satisfaction with schedule which was ranked lowest. The findings reveal that contractor commitment-related factors are the most significant cultural factor affecting overall participants satisfaction, client satisfaction with quality, client satisfaction with schedule, client satisfaction with cost, and participants satisfaction with safety. Cooperative orientation-related factors are the most significant cultural factor affecting contractor satisfaction with profitability. Authority-related factors have ranked a lowest impact on participants satisfaction. The results of this study assist construction industry professionals in putting practices into action to enhance project-level culture, which can help to raise participants satisfaction in the construction industry.

Adel Khalifa Mohammed, Md. Sayuti Bin Ishak
Preparedness of Small and Medium Enterprises for the Implementation of BIM in Malaysia

This study presents the preparedness of small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) to embrace the implementation of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in construction industry. For sampling purpose, this study conducted a survey among a carefully selected group of practitioners in Malaysian construction industry. The responses from the questionnaire were then analyzed to gauge the level of preparedness of the SMEs to accept the use of BIM. The main ideas established from this study were the competency of the respondents besides the knowledge level of practitioners in the construction industry about BIM. The effects of BIM on specifically the design and procurement stage were also discussed. Subsequently, the possible hindrances toward BIM implementation in construction industry were also identified. It was found that there are huge potentials for SMEs to explore the use of BIM since BIM is still not being widely used in this construction industry. Many practitioners in the industry have some fundamental knowledge about BIM application. This reflects the potential for these people to be trained to specialize in BIM technology.

Melvin Samuel Pakinathan, Chau-Khun Ma, Chee-Loong Chin, Abdullah Zawawi Awang, Mohamad Shazwan Ahmad Shah
A Systematic Review of Space Outlining in Lean and Takt Application

Construction is a complicated process with many unknowns. As a result, planning and scheduling a construction project is a difficult task. A dedicated workspace is required for each person in a building construction project to carry out the required tasks. In this environment, improper workspace planning on a construction site leads to workspace issues, which leads to a loss of productivity, safety risks, and poor-quality issues. As a result, one of the most critical resources and restrictions to manage on a building site is the workspace. When it comes to planning and scheduling stages, space management is always overlooked. As a result, the current study is primarily concerned with identifying the approach that earlier researchers have suggested for space planning in the construction sector. The goal of the planning is to impose an efficient workflow that is aligned with the lean approach. Because time and zones are involved in Takt planning, it can also be linked to space variation. The study’s goal is to highlight the importance of space planning in lean construction, as well as the relationship between space planning and Takt implementation. Thus, systematic literature review (SLR) method applied in this paper revealed the current adaptation of space planning and its implementation in lean construction and Takt application. As a result, method adapted for space planning in lean construction and Takt application has been published and assist for right planning method and adapting, also lead to a better understanding and future improvements.

Zulfairul Zakariah, Siti Hafizan Hassan
Evaluation Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) in Bridge Assessment

One of the worst infrastructure tragedies is bridge failure. Ageing and deterioration of bridges can lead to structural and/or functional failure. Since transportation infrastructure has a huge impact on sustainable development, bridge failure is one of the most serious infrastructure issues that frequently occur in every nation. In the construction industry, bridge failure is likewise seen as a significant problem that has considerable negative effects on society, the environment, and the economy because it can result in accidents, fatalities, and extensive property damage. However, the lack of sustainable management may be the real cause of this kind of bridge failure. Thus, it is important for the authorities to carry out an effective bridge assessment method to ensure the safety of the bridge condition and maintaining its life span. Structural health monitoring (SHM) is one technique that could be used to operate and undergo the assessment of the bridge’s structure. SHM is used in the building system not only to detect structural issues/damages and ensure public safety, but also to reduce the economic costs. The study’s objectives were to ascertain SHM’s contribution, evaluate its effectiveness, and highlight its significance in the bridge assessment process. These factors were assembled into a questionnaire survey that was distributed among stakeholders, e.g. clients, consultants, and contractors. Next, the data recorded through the survey were analysed using SPSS software to achieve the desired objectives. The majority of respondents concurred that SHM’s primary contribution to bridge evaluation is that it incorporates risk reduction, enhanced structural system safety and dependability, sustainability, and life cycle reduction. Besides, respondents also agreed that SHM implementation in improving the assessment of existing bridge conditions as the bridge structure would be in better state by referring to the bridge rating index. The significance of SHM implementation was also highlighted, with the major significance of SHM being the capacity to analyse the status of the bridge to determine whether it is in great or poor state.

Siti Hafizan Hassan, Qamarina Muhammad Junaiddin, Nurhidayati Mat Daud, Mohd Samsudin Abdul Hamid, Siti Isma Hani Ismail, Zulfairul Zakariah
Using Cross-Tabulation and Chi-Square Analysis to Validate Theories About the Causes of Building Defects Using Quantitative Likert Scale Data

Construction defects are prevalent in a construction project and worsen due to poor management and unstrict supervision. Thus, it is crucial to curb the problem from getting more significant. The objective of the study is to review various symptoms and causes of construction defects occurring in construction project. Compelling to the defects morphology aspect, X-tab with chi-square (χ2) helps to understand how “real” the relationship is between the variables meaningful and significant. Using a quantitative method approach with n = 86, ten drafted hypotheses on defect cause factors have been identified. Through Google Form of the Likert Scale survey results, the SPSS descriptive statistic analytical tabled out the dual-equation which denoted the hypotheses as a null (Ho) and should have not to be rejected. The conclusion is that controlling construction or building defects is the key and essential aspect of good construction.

Roslan Talib, Mohd Zailan Bin Sulieman
Government Perspective of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in the Nigerian Construction Industry

Building Information Modeling can be deduced to be a technological tool designed, while effectively and efficiently facilitate the process of construction with high-level collaboration of all parties involved in the construction industry. As we are in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the world is shaped into a global village, where it becomes essential for digitally based applications including Building Information Modeling (BIM) to be highly relevant. This research study the government perspective of Building Information Modeling (BIM) implementation in the Nigerian construction industry. The study area is Katsina State which is located in the northern part of Nigeria. The targeted population will be concentrating on medium to high-ranking bureaucrats in the Ministry of Works and Housing, Katsina State. The data collected for this study was through interview (primary) with thematic analysis. The findings indicate that there is high level of general awareness on BIM, but there is no governing or national policy to accommodate the needs. For a policy measures to be formulated and implemented, bureaucrats are the major decision-makers in the system. Without necessary awareness, the implementation of a policy will be insignificant particularly to policies that have direct relevance to government. Additionally, minimal application in the utilization of BIM tools at level 1 (one) can be fairly noticed. Findings also indicates that training is highly required directive to professionals to support BIM implementation adequately.

Buhari Nuhu Daura, Mariati Taib, Nadiah Md Husain, Aizat Mohd Taib

Disaster Management

Fire Safety Assessment on Blast Simulation Model of Petrochemical Engineering Based on the Most Disadvantageous Point

Based on the traditional research method of safety risk of petrochemical industry in China, the concept of safety capacity is not fully embodied: the principle of the most disadvantageous point was not considered in most cases. The objective of this research is using PHAST software to evaluate the worst case for the explosion risk of Yangpu Economic Development Zone petrochemical enterprises in Hainan based on different explosion mode. The main hazard sources in the zone were analyzed after actual investigation, and then two typical cases were selected: Huizhi Petrochemical 2000 cubic propane storage tank and 160,000 m3 CNOOC natural gas. The fire and explosion accident consequence simulation was carried out regarding on the process and damage area of the explosion accident to the surrounding environment under various explosion modes and different leak diameters. Key findings: (1) the radius of death and serious injury increased with the increase of leak diameters; (2) the death radius (critical injury radius) decreases with the decrease of the leakage concentration and tends to be linear; (3) at the same leakage concentration, the death radius of ME explosion is larger than that of BST explosion, and the vapor cloud explosion mode is larger than that of BLEVE mode.

Wenxu Yang, B. H. Abu Bakar, Hussin Mamat, Liang Gong
Exploring Building Information Modelling (BIM) Implementation in Disaster Risk Management Cycle

In Malaysia, Building Information Modelling (BIM) is becoming a standard technology adaptation in the construction industry. BIM has begun to change the way to design, construct, and operate buildings and infrastructure. BIM is not only about developing a three-dimensional model, but looking from a bigger perspective, BIM contains data and information on building that can be achieved by stakeholders anywhere and anytime. This factor can lead to the advanced application of BIM in disaster risk management. However, pursuing BIM implementation in disaster risk management requires various considerations. Thus, this paper aims to explore the use of BIM technology in the disaster risk management cycle (DRMC), which will improve the construction industry’s ability to handle and minimise the effect of a disaster. This study performed an in-depth literature review on every phase of the disaster risk management cycle. The study reveals BIM’s importance in the preparedness, response, recovery, prevention, and mitigation phases, particularly building analysis, construction process, rescue operation, and safety management and education. This study is intended to be of substantial value to the construction industry, relief bodies, policymakers, and community in improving disaster resiliency.

Sharifah Akmam Syed Zakaria, Siti Aisyah Ahmad Basri, Taksiah A. Majid, Zulkifli Yusop
Flood Hazard Potential Mapping Using GIS: A Case Study in Sungai Besi Camp, Kuala Lumpur

During the last few decades, floods have been the most common natural disaster on the world. For flood management and mitigation, flood hazard potential mapping is required. The goal of this study was to create a flood hazard potential map by utilizing the efficiency of the analytical hierarchical process (AHP) to identify potential flood hazard zones by comparing them to previous flood events that had been documented. Five parameters were used in the study area: distance from drainage, land use, elevation, land slope, and rainfall data. Ratings on the Saaty’s scale were prepared to determine the weight of each effective factor. The normalized weights of criteria/parameters were determined using the AHP and eigenvector methods, based on Saaty’s nine-point scale and its importance in specifying flood hazard potential zones. To generate a flood hazard potential map, the set of criteria was combined using the weighted linear combination method in ArcGIS 10.8 software. The flood hazard potential map was validated by comparing previous documented flood events that occurred in the study area. The results showed that the AHP technique has the potential to make accurate and reliable flood hazard potential. Hence, the AHP and geographic information system (GIS) techniques are recommended for assessing flood hazard potential, particularly in areas with limited data.

Nordila Ahmad, Muhammad Faiq Mohamad Amir, Wan Mohamed Syafuan Wan Mohamed Sabri, Zuliziana Suif, Maidiana Othman, Jestin Jelani, Neza Ismail

Earthquake Engineering

Deformed Shape and Ductility of Remodelled Reinforced Concrete Heritage Building in Pulau Pinang Subjected to Moderate Seismic Excitation

Vulnerability assessment of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings is carried out by determining the load carrying and deformation capacities of the structural members. After yielding, the plastic deformation of RC flexural elements is concentrated in a restricted zone known the plastic hinge zone. In this study, the deformed shape and the ductility of remodelled RC heritage building subjected to local earthquake in Malaysia, which has low to moderate seismic excitations, were obtained. The geometrical, members topology, section property information, lumped weight at nodes, and iteration control of the prototype building’s structural damage simulation and deformed shape are done using finite element modelling subjected to the 2015 Ranau Earthquake records for 18 s of time history. As a consequence of the findings, the building is considered stable under low earthquake excitations. Even when there are minor fractures, the building can be occupied once it has been repaired. The prototype building, which is designed using previous design code of practice, has lower ductility and inadequate resistance towards moderate to strong earthquake excitations. The building would have significant structural damages if it imposed with high seismic intensity. Because the structure is constructed as a weak-column strong-beam, the plastic hinge propagations would be larger at the soft-storey columns.

Kay Dora Abd Ghani, Mohd Ikmal Fazlan Rosli, Ainorkhilah Mahmood, Nur Maizatul Azra Mukhtar, Mohd Subri Tahir
Study on Earthquake Characteristics and Method of Assembling Repeated Earthquakes on the 2D Seismic Design RC Frames

Current paper presents two-dimensional reinforced concrete frames subjected to real repeated earthquakes. The frames are designed with seismic loading according to European codes. In this study, 14 sets of real repeated earthquakes with two different earthquake characteristics, namely source to site and near-field earthquakes with forward directivity are employed to study the frames response. Nonlinear static and nonlinear dynamic analyses are considered in order to measure engineering demand parameters (EDPs). The outcome of this study discovered that the method of assembling repeated earthquakes apparently influenced the outcomes of EDPs. The dissimilar characteristics of earthquakes, mainly source to site repeated earthquakes induced higher outcome for repeated earthquakes. On the other hand, near-field earthquakes with forward directivity indicate scattered pattern behavior where single and repeated earthquake events provide the same outcomes. Thus, earthquake characteristics and assembling repeated earthquakes influence the structure responses and should be carefully addressed in the analysis for accurate understanding of structures behaviors.

Tahara Ramadzan Md Kassim, Taksiah A. Majid

Environmental Engineering

Characterisation of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Trunk Starch as Coagulant for Landfill Leachate Treatment

The oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) produces 90% of the biomass, such as an oil palm trunk (OPT), an oil palm frond (OPF), an empty fruit bunch (EFB), and palm oil mill effluent (POME). In this study, starch is extracted from palm oil trunk waste and determined characteristics as a natural coagulant for landfill leachate treatment through the coagulation-flocculation process to evaluate the potentiality of native and crosslinking starch (C-OPTS). From the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) the bonding structure and functional group of starch-based coagulant from oil palm trunk are obtained. The salient groups of coagulation-flocculation such as carbonyl, carboxyl, amino (amine and amide) and methoxyl groups were identified in both OPTS and C-OPTS. The molecular weight and Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of PAC were approximately 177 kDa and 0.51 μm, respectively, comparatively lower than C-OPTS (886 kDa, 1.44 μm) and OPTS (865 kDa, 1.47 μm). It was thus clear that PAC should have a greater consistency of reactivity during the coagulation-flocculation process. Therefore, although both OPTS and C-OPTS had low consistency of reactivity towards leachate pollutants, however, the usage of OPTS and C-OPTS had the potential to remove pollutants inside the leachate due to the bigger molecular weight and the presence of an effective group for the coagulation-flocculation process. A portion of starch with larger molecular weights seemed to be washed out during the crosslinking process with epichlorohydrin (ECH), which improved the uniformity. A higher uniformity eventually increases the agglomeration among the particles during coagulation-flocculation. Furthermore, ECH-crosslinking triggered the amorphous sections of the starch particle through glycidyl ether link, which mainly elaborated the amylose that restrained starch flocculation capability as it was reticulated by amylopectin with a lower detrimental effect on coagulation efficiency.

Nur Hayati Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Suffian Yusoff, Hamidi Abdul Aziz, Zaber Ahmed
Organic Matter Removal of Landfill Leachate Using Integrated Electrocoagulation-Ultrasonic Method

The utilization of hybrid treatment technologies has been recognized as one of the treatment methods conducted to enhance the efficiency of wastewater treatment due to the various challenges such as the high concentration of pollutants and the limited ability of a single treatment process. Leachate from Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL) has been categorized as poor biodegradability leachate and it is composed of high dissolved organic matter, inorganic components, and toxic substances. In this study, an integrated treatment between electrocoagulation (EC) and ultrasonic (US) was introduced to evaluate the effectiveness of the hybrid treatment process in landfill leachate treatment of organic matter removal in terms of COD compared with a single treatment with different operating conditions of voltage, treatment time, and distance of electrode. Other than that, the effect of the control factors on the weight loss of electrodes was also investigated. The maximum COD reduction from both single EC and combined EC-US methods have achieved the same best operating condition which are potential of 10 V, treatment time of 25 min, and electrode distance of 2 cm, but the combined EC-US treatment (61.13%) provide better removal of COD compared with the treatment process of a single EC method (37.51%). On the other hand, the highest weight loss of the electrode was observed at the anode (Al-21.60%) with the same operating conditions for the best removal efficiency in the EC-US process. It is found that the cathode (Fe) experienced a slight increase in the final weight of the electrode due to the hydrolyzation reaction. Hence, this research work demonstrated that the utilization of combined EC-US treatment significantly enhanced the removal of COD from leachate compared with the single EC method.

Siti Suhaila Mohd Tarmizi, Noor Emylia Abdul Tahar, Mohd Suffian Yusoff, Herni Halim, Mohammed J. K. Bashir, Nurul Hana Mokhtar Kamal
Biochar Amendment on Palm Oil Biomass: Effect on Physicochemical Properties and Fiber Degradation

Empty fruit bunch has a complex structure that is difficult to break during the composting process due to the high lignocellulose content that consists of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of biochar in physicochemical changes in empty fruit bunch (EFB) composting and determine the degradation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose of empty fruit bunch fiber during the composting process. The composting sample consisted of EFB only, EFB + POME and EFB + POME + biochar. The mixture of EFB: POME: Biochar was prepared in the ratio of 10:1:5, respectively. Several parameters that need to measure consist of pH, electric conductivity (EC), moisture content, volatile solid (VS), carbon and nitrogen ratio (C/N), total phosphorus, and fiber to observe the behavior of composting process of empty fruit bunch. This parameter was examined in an environmental laboratory that was complete with a pH meter, YSI meter for electric conductivity, laboratory oven, and furnace 550 °C. The overall result obtained was the composting trend is quietly similar in pH, volatile solid, moisture content, total phosphorus, and C/N ratio. Electric conductivity and fiber show different profiles due to the different characteristics of composting with biochar and without biochar. Moreover, the composting rate in presence of biochar produces rapid compost due to it characteristics such as large porosity, large surface area, and favoring the microbial growth that increases the microbial activity. The presence of biochar in the composting process can produce effective compost and reduce the consumption time to stabilize the EFB product during the composting process.

Amila Hilmy, M. Hashim, Rosnani Alkarimiah
Extraction of Humic Acid Followed by Coagulation with Natural Starch Coagulant for the Elimination of Color and COD from Stabilized Leachate

Refractory organics (humic and fulvic acid) are the prime factors for the dark brown color and higher COD of stabilized landfill leachate. Because of increased loading, seasonal and compositional variation, leachate treatment is a complicated issue. A blended mechanism of microfiltration-centrifugation for humic acid (HA) separation and coagulation was investigated through this study to determine the removal (%) of COD and color from stabilized leachate. The synthesized natural starch from the bio-waste of palm oil trunk (OPT) was applied through the coagulation process to validate the potential reuse of annually produced OPT bio-waste. The research outcomes reported a maximum of 1325 mg/l HA separation with 56% COD and 83% color removal through the current study. Electron microscopic analysis of starch, sludge, and HA revealed the amalgamation of flocs through bridging. UV–vis analysis proved the efficient degradation of HA, which eventually accelerated the removals. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum analysis of HA and starch indicated the existence of respective functional groups, while the spectra of final effluent firmly identified the disappearance of higher molecular weight organic peaks. Therefore, the outcomes have recognized the effectiveness of this novel combination to eliminate the color and COD from matured leachate.

Zaber Ahmed, Mohd Suffian Yusoff, N. H. Mokhtar Kamal, Hamidi Abdul Aziz
Literature Analysis on Pollutant Removal Using Microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) in Different Wastewater Treatment

In today's world, wastewater is a common body of water that can be found almost anywhere. It can be found in textile mill effluent, factories, palm oil mill effluent, homes, and even restaurants. As the world's population and industrialization expand, so does the amount of wastewater produce. The contents of wastewater may cause unwelcome algae blooms, eutrophication, and contamination of water sources, posing a risk to the health of humans and aquatic animals. Chlorella vulgaris is a sustainable and cost-effective method for removing contaminants from wastewater, including nutrients [total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP)], organic matter [biological oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD)]. It has been discovered that it can withstand a wide range of environmental conditions, including temperature, photoperiod, and pH, making it the most promising candidate for removing the pollutant from wastewater. The findings showed that C. vulgaris effectively removes contaminants, with the majority of them eliminating more than 60% of them under various growing conditions and operations. The results demonstrated that microalgae-based wastewater treatment using the microalgae C. vulgaris can be used in conjunction with traditional wastewater treatment or innovative sustainable technologies to improve water quality. The goal of this review study is to identify and investigate the factors that influence C. vulgaris growth rate and efficiency in removing contaminants from wastewater.

Zuraisah Dollah, Nurul Syazwani Mohd Azuan, Muhamad Hasbullah Hassan Basri, Salina Alias, Nor Azliza Akbar
Assessment of the Correlation Between Particulate Matters and Weather Parameters in Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur and Malacca are the hub of poor air quality in Malaysia. This study was carried out to determine the concentration and trend in the pattern of air pollution in Kuala Lumpur and Malacca. Data comprising of PM10 and weather elements such as temperature, wind speed, and rainfall were source from the department of environment Malaysia from 2014 to 2020. Trend analysis was performed to analyse the data, and the correlation between PM10 and weather parameters was plotted. The result shows the significant relationship between the weather condition and the pattern of air pollution in Kula Lumpur and Malacca.

Faizah Che Ros, Siti Nurfatiha Binti Halil, Wesam Al Madhoun
Flat Sheet PSF/PVP Ultrafiltration Membrane for Leachate Treatment

Ultrafiltration membrane had proven to be effective in treating organic and physical contaminants from water and wastewater. Nevertheless, this membrane technology has its challenge due to its higher selectivity. The membrane selectivity is influenced by the materials used to fabricate a membrane. Recently, an additive was added into membrane formulation to modify surface roughness, increase hydrophilicity and alter membrane charge. Therefore, this study is focused on the exploration of new membrane formulation for leachate treatment. Process involved in this study includes dope formulation and fabrication, characterization and performance of the newly fabricated flat sheet membrane. Flux rate and salt rejection indicated that the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as an additive increased the formation of microvoids in the sublayer and improved pore interconnectivity in the membrane. Addition of PVP into polysulfone (PSF) and N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) mixture causes increases of solution viscosity and strong interaction with polymers. Then, the dope precipitation was delayed and led to decrease size of pores, PVP is hydrophilic which can attract a large amount of water which is 46 L/m2 h to pass through the membrane. This flat sheet membrane with weight percent of 21 wt%:76 wt%:3 wt% for PSF:DMAc:PVP showed excellent performance in the membrane system for leachate treatment with the result of approximately 100% rejection of heavy metals. In conclusion, this new membrane formulation tailored for leachate treatment is able to discharge treated effluent leachate that satisfies the Standards requirement of Environment Quality Act (EQA) 2009.

Hamizah Mokhtar, Afizah Ayob, Siti Aisyah Ishak, Duratul Ain Tholibon, Siti Safirah Rashid, Nurul Aishah Abd Rahman, Noor Safwan Muhamad
Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Treatment Using Plant-Based Bio-coagulant and Bio-flocculant

Increasing palm oil production in the country has led to a large amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME) generated in the mill. Treatment of POME using plant-based materials like fenugreek seeds and aloe vera gel seems to be a good option to treat POME. Fenugreek seeds and aloe vera gel were utilized as a natural coagulant and flocculant, respectively. The 3 input factors of the process, namely pH, coagulant, and flocculant dosage were used as the inputs, while turbidity, total suspension solids (TSS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were used as the outputs of the model. 11 training algorithms were used for the development of backpropagation feedforward neural network (BFNN). Conjugate gradient backpropagation with Polak–Ribiére (CGP) learning rate backpropagation training algorithm is optimized to be the best training algorithm, having 17, 5, and 20 hidden neurons for the percentage removal of turbidity, TSS, and COD, respectively, as the optimal values. The error factors obtained by the CGP training algorithm are as follows: mean squared error (MSE) values of 49.42, 55.23, and 20.94, mean absolute error (MAE) values of 4.89, 5.01, and 3.21, and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values of 0.13, 0.12, and 0.22 for turbidity, TSS, and COD, respectively. The overall coefficient of determination, R2, values as follows for turbidity, TSS, and COD, respectively: 0.9886, 0.9832, 0.9667.

Pak Jie Woo, Vasanthi Sethu, Anurita Selvarajoo, Senthil Kumar Arumugasamy
Assessment of Road Traffic Noise Level in Industrial Area Using a Smartphone App

This preliminary study focuses on measuring the road traffic noise levels in Kulim, Kedah. There are 20 points selected around the area including Jalan Raya Kulim, Jalan Tunku Asaad, Jalan Tunku Putra dan Jalan Lunas. Decibel-X Pro application has replaced Sound Level Meter (SLM) to record the noise levels for 15 min for the morning, afternoon, and evening period. The noise level measurements were monitored in the morning (0800-0930), afternoon (1200-1400), and evening (1400-1530). The traffic density was manually counted simultaneously with noise level measurement according to Arahan Teknik Jalan (8/86), A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads (cars, light vans, motorcycle, small lorries, and heavy lorries). The average sound level (LAeq) obtained at the areas ranging from 55 dB(A) until 65 dB(A). All the sound level (LAeq) recorded were exceeded the maximum permissible sound level (LAeq) according to the Planning Guidelines for Receiving Land Use for Planning and New Development for Environmental Noise Limits and Control by the Department of Environment. In conclusion, the Equivalent Continuous Sound Level (LAeq) results obtained throughout the measurement at 20 points in Kulim were primarily higher than the maximum permissible sound level set forth by the Department of Environmental Malaysia, especially during the morning and evening hours.

Mohd Faiz Bin Abu Bakar, Herni Halim, Ifa Shafiqa Bt Kamisan, Mohamad Firdaus Mahamad Yusob, Zaiton Haron
Assessment of Aircraft Noise in a Neighborhood Near the Airport

The growth of development, daily activities by the community and even land, air and water transportation noises may contribute to the environmental noise problem to the community. The source of the aircraft noise in the vicinity of an airport in Butterworth has been a major problem to the human health. Thus, this study focuses on the monitoring of aircraft noise at the low-density residential area, which is Taman Udara, Butterworth, Penang as it is situated less than three kilometers from the airport and thus any aircraft related activities can be directly heard. The noise measurement was carried out for 12 h monitoring during the day time using a precision Sound Level Meter (SLM) Class One to obtain the equivalent sound level (LAeq), Lmax, Lmin, L10, L50 and L90. Each of the 13 different characteristics of the sampling points was taken for 1 h (the sound level meter recorded every one-second noise level) in the study area. The results of LAeq value obtained from an environmental noise measurement at Taman A were analyzed descriptively and statistically. Different areas or sampling points would have different characteristics; therefore, different noise exposure limits would be obtained. The results revealed that the LAeq obtained at the low-density residential areas ranges from 51.9 to 77.9 dB(A) thus exceeded the exceeded the permissible sound level (LAeq) which is stated at 50 dB(A) during daytime according to the Planning Guidelines for Receiving Land Use for Planning and New Development for Environmental Noise Limits and Control. This research is very useful to be used as reference and guideline for future regulations on noise limits to be implemented in Malaysia and thus a more sustainable city without noise pollution will be realized.

Nur Ezzianty Azhar, Herni Halim, Abdul Hakim Salleh, Farah Hanim Mayadi, Mohamad Firdaus Mahamad Yusob
Preliminary Assessment of Selected Water Quality Parameters in the Lower Basin of Perak River Using GIS and QUAL2K

The issues concerning pollution concentration that significantly affects the water quality throughout a river network have led to the increase number of studies addressing this problem worldwide. Pollutants upon entering a water body immediately take course and disperse according to the flow and the magnitude of the water current. Depending on the concentration and volume, the receiving water body has a certain capacity to dilute and disperse it further downstream within a river basin. This research is conducted within the lower basin of Perak River to evaluate its water quality status and to map out the pollutant distribution. Three types of water quality parameter were carried out, i.e. total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). The results according to the parameters in sequence fall within a range of 30.67–742 mg/L, 21.55–87 NTU, and 0–4.928 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of heavy metals analysed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) yielded in the following descending order, Cu > Fe > Mn > As > Pb > Cr > Cd. The concentration of the analysed metals is Cu, 0.0465–26.1427; Fe, 0.5816–5.6658; Mn, 0.0461–0.3522; As, 0.0168–0.1816; Pb, 0.0456–0.0812; Cr, 0.0012–0.0685; and Cd, 0.001–0.0507 mg/L. A modelling software, Qual2K, was applied to model the dispersion of heavy metals throughout the lower basin of Perak River. The pollutant distribution is finally plotted out using geographic information system (GIS) mapping.

Mu’izzah Mansor, Mahani Mohamad Zaki, Nur Aina Mohd Roslan, Abdul Hakim Salleh, Siti Nurwajihah Abu Bakar, Mohd Aminur Rashid Mohd Amiruddin Arumugam, Mohd Remy Rozainy Mohd Arif Zainol, Safari Mat Desa, Nasehir Khan E. M. Yahaya, Fatehah Mohd Omar
Evaluation of Noise Levels at a District Hospital

The paper focuses on the evaluation of noise in the area within and around the Parit Buntar Hospital. The main objective of this study is to measure the noise levels of indoor and outdoor spaces around the hospital and produce the outdoor noise profile. The study was conducted for indoor and outdoor noise monitoring. Sound level meter (SLM) was used to measure noise level in 19 points (outdoor) and four wards (indoor). The data analysis used in the study was separated into three categories which are descriptive, inferential analysis and noise map. Data obtained for indoor at Ward Melor recorded the highest reading of LAeq with 63.0 dB(A) (morning), 63.2 dB(A) (afternoon), 63.6 dB(A) (evening) and 63.9 dB(A) (nighttime). For outdoor data, monitoring obtained that Point 13 was below permissible day limit (50 dBA) except during evening session. For outdoor, a study takes into consideration of vegetation around the hospital as a buffer zone to reduce the outdoor noise that enters hospital area.

Muhammad Haris Zulharis, Herni Halim, Hafizzul Hazzim Shah Jelani, Abdul Hakim Salleh, Khairusy Syakirin Norizan
Chicken Feather Fibers as Adsorbents for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Water

This paper investigates the use of chicken feather fibers (CFFs) as adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals from the synthetic wastewater. The CFFs were prepared using three different chemicals: NaOH (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 M), Epi, and EA-Epi. Structural and material characterization of CFFs before and after the adsorption process was done using SEM/EDX, FT-IR, and N2 physisorption studies. Batch experiments were performed to determine the optimum operating parameters for the highest removal of manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) from the synthetic wastewater. Results obtained from the optimization study showed that NaOH-0.2/CFFs had the highest removal efficiency for Mn and Zn, at optimum condition; 0.50 g mass of adsorbent, 23.64 h contact time, and 5.33 mg/L initial concentration of Mn and Zn. Finally, results obtained from the adsorption isotherm and kinetic adsorption studies showed that adsorption process fitted best Langmuir isotherm model and the kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model.

Ahmad Nikmall Syharifuddin Bin Ahmad Nizam, Omar Fawzi Suleiman Khasawneh, Puganeshwary Palaniandy
Application of Ultrasonic Extraction to Measure Particulate Bioavailable Phosphorus in Lake Sediment

Nutrient measurement to control eutrophication in closed water environment is an approach toward sustainable development. Accurate as well as fast measurements are vital to determine agricultural land use, watershed construction or urban planning. The nutrients, mainly nitrogen and phosphorus, contributing to eutrophication are clarified as rather their bioavailability to algal growth than the current standards of their total concentrations. In particular, the bioavailable phosphorus has been shown significantly partial and more related to fluctuations of a particulate fraction. Algal bioassays have been ideal to determine the bioavailability but it takes time and advanced labor. Therefore, extraction and chemical analyses have been suggested for routine measurements. This research examined an ultrasonic bath to fasten the extraction of particulate bioavailable phosphorus in certified lake sediment. The bioavailability of extracted phosphorus was confirmed by algal bioassays using Microcystis aeruginosa, common blue-green algae in Japan’s fresh water. The algal growth potential in bioassays illustrated ultrasonic extraction was useful for the measurement of bioavailable phosphorus in lake sediment.

Nguyen Minh Ngoc, Ting Ka Ling, Nguyen Tan Phong, Kuriko Yokota, Takanobu Inoue
Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Heavy Metals Distribution in Surface Water of Perai River, Malaysia

Heavy metals are frequently found in surface water, where their concentrations were dramatically changed. This study aims to determine the potential heavy metal pollution sources in the Perai River and analyse the temporal heavy metals distribution related to tidal effects. Perai River is surrounded by industrial areas, which is why it was selected as the case study. 15 sampling points were selected as potential point sources. The concentration of heavy metals was determined using ICP-OES, and the spatial distribution analysis was done using the ArcGIS Pro Software. It was found that iron, lead, copper, zinc and manganese were significant in this study. It can be concluded that, for spatial distribution, both tidal effects have one or more sampling points that are categorised as high in concentrations area for each heavy metal. For temporal analysis, all heavy metals except lead at specific sampling points and tidal effects exceed the permissible limit regarding the National Water Quality Standard Malaysia.

Muhammad Fitri Mohd Akhir, Aqilah Azhar, Nor Azazi Zakaria, Noor Aida Saad
Study of Effluent Water Quality from Pig Farming Area in Kampung Selamat and Sungai Kereh, Pulau Pinang

Untreated pig farm effluents are hazardous as they can cause environmental problems. Pig farming pollution studies are rare in Malaysia as pork demand is not high compared to beef and poultry. Largest pig farming area in Seberang Perai Utara located in Kampung Selamat, Tasek Gelugor. Since 40 years ago, many villagers have complained about river pollution and the bad smell of Kampung Selamat. This study investigates the source of pollution in Sungai Kereh, showing pollution inventory comes from Kampung Selamat. The method used for this study is by using WQI and Effluent Discharge Standards issued by the Department of Environment Malaysia. This method mainly focused on the BOD, COD, DO, SS, NH3N and pH of the effluent and Sungai Kereh. Laboratory tests determined the parameters according to APHA standard methods. Parameter of temperature, pH and COD from all five pig farms’ effluent discharge comply with Standard B Effluent Discharge, but SS (P2 and P3), BOD (P3, P4 and P5) and NH3N (P3 and P4) exceeded the limits. Six points along Sungai Kereh are tested for parameter WQI. NH3N parameter is the worst as all the sampling points are classified as Class V. SK1 is the most polluted sampling point located upstream of Parit Cina. The high concentration may be from the food consumed by pigs and their faeces. The upstream of Sungai Kereh (Parit Cina) is badly polluted with WQI in Class IV and the WQI value improved to Class III downstream.

Siti Multazimah Mohamad Faudzi, Aida Syazwani Johari, Danial Nakhaie Mohd Soukhri, Astri Rinanti Nugroho, Noor Aida Saad
Construction Noise Assessment and Noise Control Practice—Sites Investigation

Construction activities with inherent noise generation have become a major problem for human health. Thus, this study focuses on the monitoring of construction noise at the low-density residential areas within Bandar Baru Perda and Hospital Seberang Jaya, Penang. The noise measurement was monitored for 12 h during the daytime commencing from 7.00 a.m. to 10.00 p.m. by using a precision sound level meter (SLM) Class 1 to obtain the continuous equivalent sound level (LAeq), Lmax, Lmin, L10, L50 and L90. Each of the 10 different characteristics of the sampling points was taken in 1 h (the sound level meter recorded every one-second noise level) in the study area. The results of LAeq values obtained were analyzed descriptively and statistically. The difference in characteristics of sampling areas produced diverse noise levels. The result from the study shows noise levels range from 51.9 to 77.9 dB (A) recorded within the low-density residential areas which exceed the maximum permissible sound level (LAeq) pegged at 60 dB (A) during daytime by the Department of Environment, Malaysia. The findings from this work can serve as a reference for government regulatory agencies and policy frameworks for modern less noise-polluted cities.

Herni Halim, Siti Dayana Moen, Muralia Hustim, Odugbose Babashola Dapo
Water Quality Evaluation of Extensive Green Roof with Limestone as Growth Media

Vegetated roof application has been increasing as a sustainable development system component that can mitigate peak stormwater input. The water captured by a vegetated roof is usually redirected and stored in a storage tank(s) before released into storm drains. However, most of the studies that assessed the drained water found that these waters are rich in nitrogen and phosphorus due to the leaching from the vegetation. This can influence algal growth in the tank and the subsequent piping system, in the long term due to the accumulation in the system. Thus, this research looked at specifically the design characteristics of extensive green roof substrate, by comparing limestone of different sizes as porous media using a physical model. This study used two sizes of limestone: fine (1.18–2 mm) and coarse (5–10 mm) limestone. The permeability of coarse limestone is higher compared to fine limestone, thus allowing better infiltration of rainwater. On the infiltrated water quality, several parameters were tested to determine the efficiency of limestone in treating the rainwater. The parameters were turbidity, color, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), iron, zinc, Kjeldahl nitrogen, and phosphorus. Using limestone, pH of the initially slightly acidic rainwater was increased to pH of 6.3–7.6. From this study, it can be concluded that fine limestone was more effective in improving the harvested rainwater quality compared to using coarse limestone due the larger surface area and longer contact time between the limestone and the rainwater itself.

M. A. Ramli, C. L. Cheng, F. N. Rosli, N. Sabtu, R. Alkarimiah, Z. Ahmed, N. H. Mokhtar Kamal
The Application of Metakaolin in Nickel and Natural Organic Matter Removals from Anoxic Groundwater

Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in groundwater are one of the common water quality issues due to the anoxic and reductive conditions in groundwater. In addition, high NOM content in groundwater decreases the water aesthetic value and develops disinfection by-products when reacted with disinfectants. Such abstracted groundwater prior to any treatments is not suitable for consumption due to the elevated concentrations of contaminants that affect its acceptability and chemical aspects. This paper aims to assess the groundwater quality abstracted from a tubewell located in Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang. This study also evaluates the potential of metakaolin as an absorbent for nickel and NOM’s adsorption. In average, the selected groundwater samples contain high concentration of contaminants, namely iron (615.4 μg/L), manganese (444.0 μg/L), nickel (174.6 μg/L) and NOM (as measured in UV254: 1.23 cm−1). The anoxic and circumneural characteristics of the groundwater are known to be the governing factors for these contaminants’ concentrations. The removals of nickel and NOM were achieved at approximately 35% and 22%, respectively, with an optimum value of dosage of 14 g. The high ionic strength and competitive adsorption in a multi-solute system have been recognised as the limiting factors. The optimum contact time for these removals was 120 min.

Mohd Sharizal b Mohd Sapingi, Mohamad Fared b Murshed, Mustaffa Ali Azhar b Taib
Removal of Iron and Manganese from Groundwater Using Metakaolin

Usage of zeolite as adsorbent in water treatment has been well investigated and presented in many studies. Nevertheless, recent studies also suggest the potential of calcined clay or metakaolin in performing similar adsorbent function. This study aims to investigate metakaolin’s potential in groundwater treatment, mainly in the removal of iron and manganese. In the investigation, raw metakaolin (MK1) and calcinated metakaolin at 400 ℃ (MK2), 600 ℃ (MK3) and 1000 ℃ (MK4) were used as an adsorbent. The effect of dosage, speed and contact time were studied to determine an optimization. The highest removal obtained in the study was iron removal, which was 95.47%. MK4 was the best adsorbent among all adsorbents. The adsorption performance of MK1 was inconsistent in comparison to MK2 and MK3. However, MK1 adsorption ability was testified to be consistently below MK4. In the equilibrium data analysis, Freundlich isotherm model found to fit the adsorption data in this study better than Langmuir isotherm. Based on the removal rate established in the study, metakaolin is a potential adsorbent in the removal of heavy metals, specifically iron and manganese. The findings also indicated that all the physicochemical parameters measured except for pH were exceeding the values permissible level in the National Drinking Water Quality Standard.

Zaidin Matsin, Mohamad Fared Murshed, T. Y. David Chew, Mohd Fadhil Majnis, Sharifah Farah Fariza Syed Zainal
Proceedings of AWAM International Conference on Civil Engineering 2022—Volume 1
Nuridah Sabtu
Copyright Year
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN