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2024 | Book

Proceedings of AWAM International Conference on Civil Engineering 2022—Volume 2

AICCE, Sustainability and Resiliency


About this book

This book gathers the latest research, innovations, and applications in the field of civil engineering, as presented by leading national and international academics, researchers, engineers, and postgraduate students at the AWAM International Conference on Civil Engineering 2022 (AICCE’22), held in Penang, Malaysia on February 15-17, 2022. The book covers highly diverse topics in the main fields of civil engineering, including structural and earthquake engineering, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, highway and transportation engineering, water resources engineering, and geomatic and construction management. In line with the conference theme, “Sustainability And Resiliency: Re-Engineering the Future”, which relates to the United Nations’ 17 Global Goals for Sustainable Development, it highlights important elements in the planning and development stages to establish design standards beneficial to the environment and its surroundings. The contributions introduce numerous exciting ideas that spur novel research directions and foster multidisciplinary collaborations between various specialists in the field of civil engineering.
This book is part of a 3-volume series of these conference proceedings, it represents Volume 2 in the series.

Table of Contents


Highway Engineering

Experimental Study of HMA Absorption According to Aggregate Types and Asphalt Grade

Different aggregate types tend to absorb asphalt differently, and these absorption and permeability properties can reduce costs and environmental pollution. At present, virgin aggregates (VA) with high-quality properties are not often used. Even though the quality of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) is low in some cases, most studies tend to use them. There are many tests used to calculate asphalt absorption. Most studies have been concerned with only the total absorption causes and have not addressed their selective natures. Therefore, studying the asphalt absorption phenomenon regarding the aggregates and asphalt properties is important. Three types of aggregates with different absorption properties were used to achieve this research goal: VA, RAP, and RCA. In addition, three asphalt grades 40–50, 60–70, and 85–100 were used to determine the relationship between asphalt and water absorption. The results showed that aggregates with a high degree of water absorption could absorb at a higher rate, and this relationship affects aggregate behavior and the layers’ future performance. The asphalt absorption rate increased with an increase in the viscosity of the asphalt at the mixing temperature, noting some increases were due to selective absorption. Furthermore, this study observed that the absorption ratio of both natural aggregates and recycled aggregates is related to the aggregate surface area. Based on these results, recycled aggregates are recommended to reduce the depletion of natural aggregates. The absorption ratio time also reduces waste, thus reducing economic and environmental costs.

Eman A. Al-Ghalibi, Israa F. Al-Saadi, Safaa A. Mohamad, Abbas F. Jasim
Evaluation on the Physical Properties of Asphaltene-Modified Bitumen

Bitumen is composed of four primary fractions, which are saturate, asphaltene, resin, and aromatic. All fractions are important in determining the linear viscoelastic behavior of bitumen including asphaltene. Changes in asphaltene content affected the stiffness and viscosity of bitumen. This study assesses the influenced of asphaltene on the physical properties of bitumen penetration grade 60/70 bitumen. Various asphaltene contents with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% were added and tested for the laboratory test. The test includes a penetration test, a softening point test, and a rotational viscosity test. Asphaltene-modified bitumen was compared to control bitumen to determine the optimum asphaltene content required. Conventional bitumen penetration grade 60/70 and PG 76 bitumen were used as a control bitumen in this study. The results show that increased asphaltene contents elevate the stiffness and viscosity of bitumen. Thus, the recommended amount of asphaltene content to be added into the bitumen is 5% of the total weight of bitumen. The findings show that asphaltene is an efficient and affordable additive to enhance the properties of bitumen.

Nurul Aliah Amirah Mazalan, Mohd Khairul Idham Mohd Satar, Azman Mohamed, Haryati Yaacob, Mohd Zul Hanif, Ashraf Abdalla M. Radwan
Effects of Beta-Carotene Palm Oil on Asphalt Binder Properties and Coatability Performance

Bio-asphalt has a high potential to be implemented as a petroleum-based asphalt replacement since it is a renewable and environmentally friendly resource that has identical rheological properties to the conventional binder. Excessive crude oil consumption and fluctuating prices urged researchers to adopt alternatives such as bio-asphalts to replace conventional binders. In this study, the beta-carotene bio-oil (CBO) partially replaced the conventional asphalt binder at 5, 10 and 15%. Penetration test, rotational viscosity test, specific gravity test, and mass loss after rolling thin film oven (RTFO) test were conducted to determine the physical and rheological properties of bio-asphalts. FTIR test is used to identify the chemical compositions and functional groups of the CBO bio-asphalt. The binder coatability was assessed by static water immersion and water boiling tests. The addition of CBO has lowered the viscosity and specific gravity while increasing the penetration and the mass loss after RTFO. The FTIR analysis shows that the functional groups of CBO bio-asphalt were mainly phenol, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids. The CBO bio-asphalt enhanced the service characteristic in terms of bonding and coatability behavior. The CBO has a high potential for use as a rejuvenator in the production of asphalt mixtures incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), as it improves the mixture’s workability and adhesion characteristics.

Tai Han Mok, Tai Guo, Tracy Leh Xin Wong, Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan, Mohd Asyraf Kassim, Abdulnaser Al-Sabaeei
Coatability and Bonding Characteristics of Asphalt Binders Modified with Alkylamines-Based and Polyalkylene Glycol-Based Bonding Promoters

Conventional asphalt binder is widely used to produce asphaltic concrete mixtures. The rheological weakness of conventional asphalt binder has developed an interest among researchers in modifying conventional asphalt binder by using various kinds of additives. Bonding promoters are used as additives in asphalt binder that have shown a significant effect in enhancing the physical and rheological properties as well as its performance. This study aims to enhance the coatability of modified asphalt binder and bonding characteristics by using bonding promoters, namely polyalkylene glycol-based (PLG) and alkylamines-based (ALM). The laboratory study was divided into three phases. The first stage involved the determination of the physical properties and performance of modified asphalt binders. The coatability index was evaluated in the second phase, whereas the third stage evaluated the asphalt-substrate bonding performance. The physical properties showed that incorporation of bonding promoter reduces the penetration values, which indicates the increment of the ability to stiffen the binder. However, the penetration grade of all modified binders is still within 60/70. Meanwhile, the incorporation of bonding enhancers increased the modified binders’ rutting performance via DSR test by over 40% for 0.5% ALM. In terms of coatability performance, the static water immersion test shows insignificant changes resultant from the addition of PLG and ALM. Moreover, under the action of boiling sodium carbonate, the coatability index of all modified asphalt binder reduces as it is used to accelerate the moisture damage effect. Lastly, both bonding promoters can improve tensile strength and resist shear stress according to asphalt-substrate bonding performance.

Hanizah Osman, Muhamad Zulfatah Izham Muhamad Rodzey, Tracy Leh Xin Wong, Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan, Abdulnaser M. Al-Sabaeei
Mechanical Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt Incorporating Coal Fly Ash Filler

In coal-fired power plants, fly ash accounts for 60–88% of the total combustion residues. Coal fly ash (CFA) has been frequently used in concrete production; however, there are just a few occasions where CFA have been used in the construction of asphalt pavement. The research aims to evaluate CFA's performance as a filler in hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures. In this investigation, four CFA contents were used as filler by aggregate weight in the dry method. The resilient modulus (MR), dynamic creep, and wheel tracking tests were used to investigate the performance characteristics of mixtures. Increasing the CFA content in asphalt mixtures improved rutting and fatigue performance compared to a conventional mixture. Thus, it can be concluded that CFA can be used as an alternative filler in HMA.

Ashraf Abdalla M. Radwan, Mohd Khairul Idham Mohd Satar, Norhidayah Abdul Hassan, Muhammad Naqiuddin Mohd Warid
Characterization of Asphalt Emulsion with Different Percentage of Asphalt Content

Asphalt emulsion is known as an environmentally friendly product to be used in today’s paving and conservation efforts. In many road construction, the use of emulsions offer a safer technique than conventional hot asphalt given that the risks of fire, burns, and emissions are averted and the use much less energy. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of asphalt content on the attributes of the emulsion. The test was carried out by using three different percentages of asphalt content on emulsion which are 55%, 60%, and 65%. The tests conducted on asphalt residue are softening point, penetration, ductility, viscosity, and solubility. By using Decision Matrix Analysis, it turned that emulsion with 60% asphalt content is best to be used as it presented the first-rate percentage to develop low penetration, high softening point, and high penetration index.

Ahmad Kamil Arshad, Mohd Izzat Asyraf Mohamad Kamal, Juraidah Ahmad, Ekarizan Shaffie, Noryantizputra Rais, Sanjay Grover, Xavier Guyot
Full Extraction Asbuton Bitumen Using Different Organic Solvents for Binder Replacement

Natural asphalt buton or asbuton can be utilized as alternative binder in asphalt mixture by semi-extraction or fully extraction process. Semi-extraction asbuton or called refinery buton asphalt contained of bitumen and mineral asbuton, while full extraction asbuton by using solvent can maximize the content of bitumen and discarded the mineral. However, usage of different solvent influenced the asbuton bitumen properties. Thus, this study evaluated the effect toluene and turpentine on the full extraction asbuton bitumen properties. Four different percentages of solvent content (1–4%) of both turpentine and toluene were used in this study. The asbuton bitumen was then tested for penetration, softening point, flash point, specific gravity, and thin film oven test. Based on the results, 2% solvent either turpentine or toluene is recommended to produce full extraction asbuton bitumen.

M. R. A. Maha, M. K. Idham, M. R. Hainin
Determination of Optimum Binder Content of Dry-Mixed Crumb Rubber in Stone Mastic Asphalt Using Sandstone Aggregate

The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the optimum binder content of the stone mastic asphalt blending different types of crumb rubber and locally available sandstone aggregate in Sabah, Malaysia. The crumb rubber was dry mixed from 0–3% and bitumen ranging from 5–7% of the aggregate weight, compacted at 150 °C compaction temperature. Gradation of stone mastic asphalt used was following the CR-SMA grading in the Malaysia Standard. The process was adapting the Marshall mix design method, including stability and flow test, and volumetric testing to discover the bulk density and voids in mix, and binder drain down test. In short, engulfing sandstone locally from Sabah in SMA with crumb rubber has some drawbacks finding compared to the past research.

Nurul Ariqah Ispal, Lillian Gungat, K. T. Jeffrey Koh

Structural Engineering

Non-standard Large-Scale Fire Tests of Structures: A Mini Review

Testing of large-scale structural fire has seen a resurgence in recent years, after nearly a century of using the test of standard fire resistance to understand how structural members respond to fires. The regulatory and scientific communities are grappling with a host of issues related to demonstrating adequate structural performance utilizing unrealistic temperature–time curves that are applied on isolated structural members. As a result, non-standard fire testing that is done on a large scale with real fire rather than conventional fires is gaining popularity. Several non-standard, custom-made testing facilities have recently been developed or are almost finished. Over the last three decades, non-standard fire testing has revealed substantial faults in our knowledge of real-world building performance in the face of real-world fire; in most cases, these problems would not have been discovered in tests of conventional furnaces. This study provides a brief overview of necessary non-standard structural fire engineering research conducted on a wide scale in recent decades. It highlights gaps and study requirements based on past research findings and the writers’ evaluation of the information. There is also a summary of comparative research needs evaluations that have been conducted or presented in the last ten years. The overall goal is to identify knowledge gaps and guide future studies in structural fire engineering, especially large-scale experimental studies focusing on reinforced concrete structures.

Ibrahim Almeshal, B. H. Abu Bakar, Bassam A. Tayeh
Effect of Hollow Bodies on the Strength and Density of Bubble Concrete

Bubble concrete is a new type of lightweight concrete achieved by mixing high-strength hollow bodies into concrete. Different from the stress mechanism of the voided biaxial slab, the hollow bodies are used not only to create multiple cavities in concrete but also to transfer internal stresses. To achieve a better strength of the specimen, this study investigates the arrangement and shape effects of the hollow bodies on the mechanical properties. In addition, a novel hollow body model was proposed to improve the stress distribution to increase strength and reduce density. The density, strength, and stiffness of three types of bubble concrete were investigated through concrete compression experiments. Then, the stress distribution and failure mechanism of the bubble concrete were explored with nonlinear elastoplastic analysis. The results show that the strength and density of bubble concrete with regular arrangement hollow bodies yielded better than the random arrangement. Furthermore, with the new hollow body models, the bubble concrete further increased the strength of concrete to 79.7–85.3% and reduced the density to 80.0–85.0%.

Xiangdong Yan, Pei-Shan Chen, Bashar S. Mohammed, Baoxin Liu
Thermal Performance of Natural Fiber-Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete

Malaysia has a hot tropical climate; hence, the energy required to cool buildings increases daily. Therefore, an attempt was made to produce an eco-friendly construction material with good thermal performance. Geopolymer concrete (GPC) reinforced with two different types of natural fibers, kenaf fiber (KF) or coconut fibers (CFs), was introduced as insulation material. The proposed concrete mixtures were subjected to a non-destructive thermal test using a hotbox apparatus. Three panels of 100 mm thick were fabricated; the first panel consists of GPC as control, the second panel consisted of GPC with 1% KF, and the third panel consists of GPC with 0.75% CF. The composite that achieved the best test performance was selected and used to fabricate different thicknesses, 75 and 50 mm. The results showed that the compressive strength of GPC prepared with KF was 2.4 and 5% higher than that of GPC with CF at 7 and 28 days, respectively. Moreover, the thermal conductivity of GPC prepared with KF was more effective than that with CF which was lower by 3.8%, while compared to GPC without fiber, the thermal conductivity of geopolymer kenaf fiber decreased by 7.1%. In addition, the decrease in the thickness of the panel leads to a decrease in the thermal conductivity by 23% and 42% of 75 mm and 50 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of KF to GPC can improve compressive strength and thermal insulation. Hopefully, this compound provides the industry with an alternative material of high thermal resistance for wall panels.

Al-Baldawi Maryam Firas, Farah Nora Aznieta Abdul Aziz, Al-Ghazali Noor Abbas, Noor Azline Mohd Nasir, Nor Azizi Safiee
Performance of Natural Fibre-Reinforced Geopolymer Composites Exposed to Sulphuric Acid

Increasing interest in using waste materials and by-products from different industries as renewable sources of construction materials is mainly for environmental concerns and sustainability. Geopolymer and natural fibres are examples of industrial wastes and by-products used. However, their acceptability in the industry is relatively low due to insufficient research on their durability performance. This paper presents an investigation into the durability of kenaf fibre-reinforced geopolymer composites (KFRGCs) when exposed to a 5% solution of sulphuric acid. The main parameters evaluated were the changes in the visual appearance, weight, and compressive strength. Geopolymer specimens’ reinforced composites with a 1% volume fraction of different lengths of kenaf fibres (20, 30, and 40 mm) were produced to evaluate the impact of the fibre addition and fibre length on the performance of geopolymer composites. The results showed that the KFRGC in the acidic environment demonstrated a reasonable level of resistance to the attack as compared to plain geopolymer concrete (GPC). Fibres’ length effects show shorter fibres which have better resistance than longer fibres. These findings display the positive impact of natural fibres on the performance of GPC in an acidic environment.

Al-Ghazali Noor Abbas, Farah Nora Aznieta Abdul Aziz, Khalina Abdan, Noor Azline Mohd Nasir
Experimental Evaluation of Bond Properties in Textile-Reinforced Concrete by Digital Image Correlation

The advancement in construction technology leads to the development of sustainable structural systems with a motive of minimal natural resources usage, lightweight, and slender with added economic benefits. To attain this, the studies are evolved to alter partially conventional reinforcement with short fibers. However, the nonuniform distribution of fibers and the difficulty to achieve targeted slender sections resulted in the development of continuous fiber concrete, also termed textile-reinforced concrete (TRC). Due to its non-metallic property, concrete cover can be reduced, which allows for slender and lightweight structural systems. Even though TRC possesses vast possibilities in terms of its usage, the bond–slip relationship is very difficult to identify experimentally, and design standards are still in the research stage. This study aims to determine bond–slip at interface experimentally and explain how the bond length influences the overall performance of the textile-reinforced composite. The bond performance of TRC was assessed on tensile specimens, utilizing double-sided pullout tests with different anchorage lengths. The anchorage length is limited by creating two-sided notches, making sure that only one fiber is tested. The samples are reinforced with one layer of carbon textile coated with epoxy. The bond effect is measured in the form of applied load versus the displacement using the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. Multiple images are collected and analyzed using GOM correlate tool, and a detailed bond behavior is visualized with the increase in the loading. The failure due to rupture and pullout are observed in experiments and pullout load–slip curves are obtained. The results were compared with local bond stress–slip interface models, where shorter bond length experimental results are in good agreement.

Sanjay Gokul Venigalla, Abu Bakar Nabilah, Noor Azline Mohd Nasir, Nor Azizi Safiee, Farah Nora Aznieta Abd Aziz
Characterization of Spent Bleaching Earth Ash (SBEA) and Assessing Its Use as Partial Cement Replacement in Cement Mortar

Spent bleaching earth ash (SBEA) originates from spent bleaching earth (SBE), which has been shown to possess pozzolanic properties and has been considered for use as cement replacement in various applications such as concrete and masonry. With large amounts of SBEA being produced annually and often treated as hazardous waste, it would be more sustainable to re-use it an application that could reduce the demand on our environment, such as the cement industry investigated in this paper. This paper characterized SBEA in its untreated form and found that it can be classified as a Class N natural pozzolan as defined by ASTM C618 in terms of chemical composition, fineness and water requirement. At the same time, its 7- and 28-day strength activity index both exceeded 75%, further demonstrating its good pozzolanic reactivity. Finally, an assessment of its early (3- and 7-day) and late (28- and 56-day) compressive strengths as well as its flexural strength further reinforces the theory that SBEA could be effectively used as partial replacement of cement in cement mortar applications.

Andrew Lim, Abdul Karim Bin Mirasa, Hidayati Bte Asrah
An Innovative Shear Connector for Composite Beam with Cold-Formed Steel

In steel construction, it is well established that composite construction is very popular in the construction of buildings and bridges with hot-rolled steel (HRS) and headed stud connectors. Due to the composite action of concrete and steel, composite beams are more cost-effective to be constructed in buildings than conventional hot-rolled steel beams. This is due to shallower beam depth, very stiff and significantly reduces the steel's weight. The increasing in demand of residential and housing construction necessitates the development of low-cost, simple, and rapid construction systems to meet the growing demand for housing. As a result, using cold-formed steel sections as an alternative to the conventional hot-rolled steel sections could contribute to better cost-effective construction to the total cost of the building and could lead to better sustainable construction requirements. Typically, the composite action is accomplished through the use of conventional headed shear stud connectors. However, the use of headed studs is impractical for cold-formed steel (CFS) sections due to their extremely thin section, which results in welding difficulty. The behaviour of novel shear connectors used in cold-formed steel–concrete composite beams comprised lipped C-channels with profiled metal decking was investigated experimentally in this study. The purpose of the experimental work is to ascertain the maximum resistance of the proposed shear connectors. Two push-out test specimens in accordance with Eurocode 4 were prepared and tested. It was discovered that the strength capacity of a shear connector is highly dependent on its deformation and the crushing of concrete. The ductility of the shear connectors tested met the Eurocode 4 requirements for ductility. The proposed shear connectors are found to be suitable for construction of composite beams with CFS because they are stronger than standard headed studs.

Ahmed N. M. Almassri, Mahmood Md Tahir, Arizu Sulaiman
Approximate Equation for Estimating Global Buckling Load of Single-Layer Cylindrical Space Frames

This study proposes an approximate equation to evaluate the global buckling load of a single-layer cylindrical space frame without buckling analysis. In this research, large amounts of linear buckling analysis are carried out with various geometric parameters, and an imaginary stiffness G is proposed to represent the overall stiffness of the whole structure. Then, according to the influence of geometric parameters on buckling load factors and imaginary stiffness G, the authors derive an approximate equation based on regression analysis. Finally, the authors prove that the proposed approximate equations can evaluate the global buckling load in a high precision range.

Baoxin Liu, Pei-Shan Chen, Jialiang Jin, Xiangdong Yan
Palm Oil Clinker as Coarse and Fine Aggregates in Lightweight Concrete

This study presents the investigation of the properties of lightweight concrete (LWC) with the palm oil clinker (POC) as the lightweight aggregates. The investigation began with the characterization of the properties of the POC to ensure its suitability in the production of LWC. The fresh state and mechanical strength of concrete was then compared between normal concrete (NC) and LWC. In comparison with NC, LWC had a maximum decrement of about 25%, 37%, and 22% for compressive, splitting, and flexural tensile strengths, respectively. It has been demonstrated that the properties of the aggregates used in concrete production have a direct influence on the workability and strength of concrete.

Nor Fazlin Zamri, Roslli Noor Mohamed, Dinie Awalluddin, Shariwati Mansor
Dynamic Properties and Seismic Performance of 1.5-Layer Space Frames with Lap-Units whilst Considering Vibration of Lower Joints

A new structural system called 1.5-layer space frame is proposed as the third member of the family of space frames, which may provide new design possibilities. The 1.5-layer space frames with lap-units are susceptible to deformation due to key part rotation about the axis of its upper chords. Therefore, it is necessary to capture the dynamic behaviors of the lower joints of the lap-units. Considering the vibration of lower joints, the main dynamic properties of four typical structures, including natural frequency and vibration mode shape are first examined, and the seismic performances are then assessed within the linear elastic range under selected earthquake excitations. To provide helpful information for practical design, the investigation on the relationship between structural properties and geometrical/design parameters is also conducted. As a result, the seismic response of the structures is significant when the depth-grid ratio (the ratio of web member and upper chord length) is greater than 0.5.

Jialiang Jin, Pei-Shan Chen, Baoxin Liu, Xiangdong Yan
Study on the Concrete Strength Development with Power Plant Waste as an Aggregate Replacement

Concrete is the most widely utilized construction material due to its design adaptability, availability, and cost effectiveness. Concurrently, the production of power plant waste had become one the major issues in the disposal process that can cause harm toward environmental and economic consequences. The aims of this paper is to compare the strength development of concrete incorporate coal bottom ash (CBA) and fly ash (FA) as a partial and full replacement in concrete. A variety of mix designs were developed based on the varied CBA and FA replacements. CBA is used to replace 50% of fine and coarse aggregate content for partial replacement, and 100% of aggregate content as fine and coarse material for a complete replacement. The FA was utilized as a 20% substitute in cement. The test pieces are manufactured in 100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm cubes, and all samples are wet cured for a set duration before the compressive strength and water absorption tests. Result shows that the maximum potential of coal ash can be used as 100% replacement. The findings also show that the concrete integration of CBA and FA exhibits a remarkable strength development when compared with the normal concrete. According to the findings of this study, using ground CBA as a material in concrete improves its resilience to harsh environments.

Muhammad Nor Syahrul Zaimi, Nur Farhayu Ariffin, Sharifah Maszura Syed Mohsin, Abdul Muiz Hasim, Nurul Natasha Nasrudin
Experimental Study on Column Strengthening Using Pre-tensioned Steel Straps Confinement

Earthquake excitation can exert combined flexural, axial, shear, and torsional loading on reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Although behaviour of confined columns under cyclic pure bending load has been extensively investigated, the research on interaction between bending and torsion in confined columns is still limited. The studies of active confinement on its effectiveness in enhancing the behaviour of RC column subjected to combined loading are also scarce. This paper presents experimental studies on two similar concrete columns. One of the columns served as control specimen, while the other one confined with steel straps. Both columns were tested under constant axial and cyclic lateral load including torsion. This paper aims to study the effectiveness of the steel straps in upgrading the performance of the columns. Load deformation curves, energy dissipation, column cross-section curvature, rebar and steel straps strain value are being compared and presented in this paper. From the result, steel straps tensioning technique (SSTT) managed to improve the performance of column and achieve the purpose of strengthening the column under cyclic lateral load.

Jia-Yang Tan, Chau-Khun Ma, Chee-Loong Chin, Chin-Boon Ong, Abdullah Zawawi Awang, Wahid Omar
Experimental Report on Compression Loading Test of Tempered Glass Panels

There is indeed a significant growth of glass panels in the modern contemporary building and construction industry. Primary load-bearing members used in glass structures, such as columns consisting of glass panels, are frequently subjected to in-plane loading. Its allowable stress for safety design appears to be a significant subject. In general, fragile and thin members are more susceptible to compression. The present paper focuses on the safety design of tempered glass panels under in-plane compression loading. The authors explored the mechanical features through in-plane compressive loading tests, including ultimate stress and Euler-Johnson buckling. Glass panels with high slenderness ratios satisfy the Euler buckling formula, while a lower slenderness ratio is not. Secondly, for the design of compression-resistant glass components, developing the limit for the under Euler and Johnson buckling curves based on a low slenderness ratio is a practical option, and so does the direct secondary stress analysis. The experimental results show that the ultimate loads of specimens with high slenderness ratios satisfy Euler's critical load formula.

Saddam Hussain, Pei-Shan Chen, Yuta Matsuno, Baoxin Liu
Experimental Study of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint Using Pre-tensioned Stiffened Steel Angles

Retrofit is one of the effective and sustainable ways to upgrade seismically deficient structures. The beam-column joint is an important structural member that should be prevented from damaging during a seismic event. An innovative retrofit technique named pre-tensioned stiffened steel angles had been proposed to retrofit the joint shear deficient beam-column joints which aimed to achieve the “strong column-weak beam” design philosophy. Two half-scale exterior joints without joint transverse reinforcement had been constructed and tested under cyclic load. The results showed that this proposed technique successfully eliminated the joint shear failure and resulted in the beam flexural failure as well as enhanced its seismic properties. Hence, this proposed retrofit technique is effective to retrofit the seismically deficient beam-column joints.

Chin-Boon Ong, Chee-Loong Chin, Chau-Khun Ma, Jia-Yang Tan, Abdullah Zawawi Awang, Wahid Omar
Compressive Strength of Light-Transmitting Concrete (LTC) Incorporated with Optical Fibre

This paper aims to investigate the effect of incorporating optical fibre on the concrete compressive strength by varying the fibre diameter and fibre grid (spacing) in light-transmitting concrete (LTC). Optical fibres made of polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) are used as translucent material for the production of LTC. The fibre diameters considered are 0.75 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, and 2.0 mm, while the fibre grids are 4 × 4 grids (25 mm), 5 × 5 grids (18.75 mm) and 6 × 6 grids (15 mm). Self-compacting concrete (SCC) was used for casting. The specimens were tested for UPV test and compressive strength test on the 7th and 28th day. SEM analysis was also carried out to observe the fibre-matrix interface of the LTC specimens. The addition of optical fibre did not necessarily deteriorate the strength of the concrete. It was found that LTC with a fibre diameter of 1.0 mm had the highest compressive strength, while thereafter the strength started to decrease with increasing fibre diameter. It was found that the smaller fibre spacing reduced the concrete compressive strength. All specimens reached the design strength of 40 MPa. The UPV results showed that all specimens were of good quality regardless of the incorporation of the optical fibre. The microstructure analysis showed that there were no visible gaps within the fibre-matrix interface of all LTC specimens except for LTC with a fibre diameter of 1.5 mm. Overall, the effect of the use of optical fibre on the concrete compressive strength is insignificant.

Shing Mei Chiew, Izni Syahrizal Ibrahim, Mohd Azreen Mohd Ariffin
Development of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System to Predict Concrete Compressive Strength

Predicting the compressive strength of concrete is one of the complex problems in civil engineering because different parameters and factors must be considered. There is several research that have predicted the compressive strength of normal concrete using neuro-fuzzy systems. However, little research has been done to predict the strength of high strength concrete. Recently, machine learning techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), fuzzy logic, and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are becoming extensively established in predicting complex problems. ANFIS has the advantages of both ANNs and fuzzy systems and is most suitable in engineering complicated applications. This study focuses on the development of ANFIS in predicting the compressive strength of high strength concrete. A total of 550 experimental datasets of concrete were used in this research. Each dataset was consisting of six input variables that were water, cement, fine and coarse aggregates, silica fume, and superplasticizer. The compressive strength of high strength concrete was considered as the output of the ANFIS model. In this study, 440 datasets were assigned as training datasets and 110 datasets were considered as testing sets to verify the ANFIS model. The mean square error (MSE) for the training set was 0.00573, and 0.00647 for the testing datasets. The ANFIS model was able to quickly predict the concrete compressive strength with high accuracy. Also, in this research, a sensitivity analysis was applied to study the contribution of input parameters to predict the compressive strength of concrete.

S.J.S Hakim, N. Jamaluddin, K.H. Boon, S.N. Mokhatar, A. Nasradeen Khalifa, Z. Jamellodin
Investigation on Mechanical Properties of High Strength Ductile Engineered Geopolymer Composites (EGC)

In this paper, high strength ductile engineered geopolymer composite (EGC) is investigated. EGC is an environmentally friendly and more importantly it is bendable geopolymer with tensile strain-hardening behaviour which possesses enhanced mechanical properties compared to normal geopolymer concretes and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. Bond performance or the bond strength between the rebar and the EGC is the main study in this research as it is an important factor as it influences the structural load bearing capacity and failure modes of elements. The idea of casting and creating the best mix design is required in order to generate higher strength EGC cured in ambient temperature. On top of that, the mechanical property is also a part that was discussed in this research which includes the compressive strength. Hence, in this study, the compressive strength of ductile fibrous EGC cured in ambient temperature is investigated. Moreover, bond strength between EGC and rebar with various diameters was used as variables in experiments to examine the results leading to bonding strength using the pull-out test method and from the analysis of bond strength it was observed that the bond strength of EGC increases with the increase in rebar diameter. Other than that, the slip behaviour of the EGC specimens decreases with the increase of rebar diameter. Critical analysis was made and calculated to conclude this investigation.

Vishal Avinash Ramesh, Ehsan Nikbakht Jarghouyeh, Nurizzati Amirzali, Dayana Eddie Hirawan
Effect of Chevron, Single and Cross Bracing in Optimized Planar Steel Braced Frames on the Mitigating Progressive Collapse

Improving the behavior of structures can be a vital requirement in order to the enhancement of the building strength against progressive collapse. To investigate this, structural optimization methods are used to cost-effectively design three types of steel moment frames, namely chevron-, single- and cross-braced frames. The frames were assessed by using an alternative path method (APM), based on the General Services Administration (GSA) code, as well as the linear static analysis. One meta-heuristic algorithm was also used to optimize different layouts of braced frames. In this regard, eighteen different steel frames in five and ten-story buildings with four-bay steel dual systems, which are combined with chevron-, single- and cross-braced frames, were assumed to investigate the vertical displacements and weight of the structures through OpenSees, MATLAB and “TEKLA structures” software. However, the design requirements were on the basis of “LRFD360-10” and “GSA2003” code provisions. The studied models were subjected to different scenarios of one-column sudden removal on the ground floor. The obtained results showed that the chevron-braced frame has the desired structural behavior for the progressive collapse due to less value of vertical displacements in the location of column removal, and can be more economical in comparison with single- and cross-braced frame optimized weight of the structures.

Vahid Jahangiri, Mehdi Maghfouri, Seyed Mohammadreza Ghadiri
Natural Localized Corrosion of Steel Bar in 44-Years Old Cracked RC Beam Structures Exposed to Marine Tidal Environment

The chloride-induced corrosion processes of exposed structures are very complex. Locally isolated anodically and cathodically active steel surface areas may form on reinforcing bars of RC structures. Corrosion processes may only be examined indirectly using electrochemical methods due to the obscurity of the cathodically active steel surface areas. In this study, an experiment was undertaken to identify the development of natural corrosion on broken, 44-year-old RC structures exposed to the actual marine environment. Observation of the inadequate appearance of the concrete and electrochemical measurements were used to predict the probability of the deterioration phase. The greatest corrosion risk was recognized in the middle tensile section, and a check of the actual state of the steel bars was conducted there. Natural localized corrosions were obviously generated on the middle tensile steel bar of the pre-cracked RC beam as a result of the accelerated development of macro-cell corrosion current brought on by the first cracks in the constructions.

Pinta Astuti, Rahmita Sari Rafdinal, Daisuke Yamamoto, Hidenori Hamada
Influence of Waste Crumb Rubber as a Partial Replacement for Fine Aggregates on Concrete Properties

This study investigated the effect of using waste crumb rubber as a partial replacement for the fine aggregates on the fresh and hardened properties of normal mix concrete. Waste crumb rubber with particles sizes of 2 mm–4 mm was supplanted in the mix design of the concrete as part of the fine aggregates. Three different percentages of waste crumb rubber were considered to replace the fine aggregate which are 5%, 10%, and 15% by volume. The properties of fresh concrete were evaluated through standard slump test, while the hardened properties were examined through compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strength tests after curing at 7 days and 28 days. Furthermore, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) tests were also carried out to evaluate the integrity and quality of the crumb rubber concrete. The test results revealed that the partial replacement of the fine aggregate with waste crumb rubber significantly decreased the workability and mechanical properties of the concrete. In addition, the concrete workability decreased with the increasing substitution of the waste crumb rubber replacement to that of the fine aggregate. Similarly, by increasing substitution of the waste crumb content, the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength showed a decreasing trend from the control mixture at 7 days and 28 days.

Che Azrul Asyraaf Che Ani, Mohammed Yahya Mohammed Al-Fasih, Izni Syahrizal Ibrahim, Noor Nabilah Sarbini, Khairul Hazman Padil
Numerical Analysis of Arch Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams with Various Cross Sections

Beam member is one of the important components in a building structure with the functions to transfer loads to column and foundation. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of cross-section arch deep beam structure with a different type of cross-section. The deep beam in this study consists of two types of longitudinal versions called non-arch and deep arch beam. Besides, and four different cross-sections are applied as a variation to investigate the effect of cross-sections on flexural behavior. This study only used finite element analysis to investigate the stress distribution, load, and displacement relationship, ductility, and stiffness of the model. The loading used in this analysis is in 4 points where the load is located at 1/3 and 2/3 of the span. The results show that the deep arch beam experience a decrease in flexural performance compared with the normal deep beam. Deep beam with rectangular section produced high performance compared with other cross-sections. However, the damage pattern indicates that shear failure is still dominant in all models.

Martyana Dwi Cahyati, Muhammad Rizki Fadillah, Risky Dwi Erlinda, Hakas Prayuda, Fanny Monika, Muhammad Mirza Abdillah Pratama
Experimental Investigation on the Behaviour of Modified Connections at the Overhang Roof Under Uplift Pressure

The northern area of Peninsular Malaysia discovered that most of rural houses with the overhang roof was built without structural considerations, the overhang roof is the most vulnerable part of the roof system during strong wind events. Due to a lack of information about the behaviour of the modification connection to the overhang roof, this paper studies the behaviours of the prototype using modified connections with three variance parameters applied for the corrugated cladding and trapezoidal cladding with the same gauge. The three variance parameters are the type of reinforced material, number of reinforced materials, and the length of reinforced material. The PVC pipes and metal straps were added to the connection at the overhang roof part, and applied surface loading test was to simulate the uniformly uplift wind pressure. Results of modified connection using metal straps showed that the increment ratio on the total applied force for corrugated cladding in between 1.05 and 1.26, and the increment ratio for trapezoidal cladding in between 1.01 and 1.05 only. Moreover, results for modified connection using PVC pipe for corrugated cladding have an increment ratio for the total applied force of 1.47–1.79, while trapezoidal cladding only has a ratio of the increment of 1.20–1.60. In conclusion, the modified connection using PVC pipes was found to be the most efficient modified connection compared to metal straps, and metal straps are shown more suitable to be used for corrugated roof cladding.

T. L. Tan, T. A. Majid, S. S. Zaini
Development of Floating Platform for Water Quality Monitoring

The fast development of the population and high-tech industries is driving water quality control unusually more critical. In addition, recent climate change is also a major factor in this issue. Regular inspections of water and collection of samples could also contribute greatly to water distribution management. Even though the water quality parameters are measured by the senor station automatically in the water reservoir, only a small number of the station is placed in the reservoir, and the “resolution” is not sufficient for modern applications. Thus, the major goal of this study is to design and develop a surface platform prototype for water quality monitoring. Hence, this paper proposed and developed a floating device which is well known as an unmanned surface vehicle to measure water quality parameters with several advanced sensors.

Nazirul Mubin Zahari, Puventheran Sankar, Mohd Hafiz Zawawi, Nursyadzatul Tasnim Roslin, Nurhanani A. Aziz, Farah Nurhikmah, Muhammad Husni Faiz Khamarudin
Grillage Analysis of a Simply Supported Bridge Under Varying Skewing Angles and Span Lengths

Modern highways are designed to be as straight as possible to accommodate greater speed and safety in today’s traffic. However, it is impossible to arrange for a bridge to span straight to the feature it crosses, especially when a relatively straight roadway alignment is required. Here, a ‘skew’ bridge is needed, but it will have a greater span length and create an angle at the support, the implications of which have received little attention in the current literature. The linear static behavior of a simply supported bridge with skewing geometry was investigated in this paper, and the effect of skew angles and their influence on the internal forces of the U-beam bridge at three different span lengths were observed. A three-dimensional (3D) grillage model of the proposed U-beam bridge was created in the STAAD.Pro software. Three different span lengths (15, 20, and 25 m) were investigated at three different skew angles (0°, 15°, and 40°), totaling nine grillage models studied. The BS 5400 and BD37/01 were used to design and analyze the bridge. The variation of bending moment and shear force was investigated using various skew angles and span lengths. The analysis has revealed that a non-skewed bridge behaves similarly to a one-way simply supported slab, in which load was transferred directly to the support. The analysis also showed that a skewed bridge developed a high shear force that was concentrated at the obtuse corners of the bridge deck. The load distribution of a skewed bridge was based on the shortest distance between the supports, which was located in between the obtuse corners. The grillage analysis was extended to a parametric study to further investigate the behavior of bridges under varying span lengths and skew angles. The study found that skew angle variation had a greater impact on bending moment demand and shear force demands than span length variation. This study also revealed that a bridge with a relatively low skew angle, specifically 15° or less, can be treated as a non-skewed bridge because the bending moment and shear force demands were found to be comparable.

Nur Ezzaryn Asnawi Subki, Hazrina Mansor, Nurul Qhairun Nisaq Kamarul Zaman, Yazmin Sahol Hamid
Investigation of Waste Clay Brick Powder as Supplementary Cementitious Material in Self-compacting Concrete

The disposal of construction waste has emerged as one of the most critical environmental concerns in recent years. The demolition of clay bricks in building structures generates a significant volume of waste. This waste clay brick material can be effectively utilized in powdered form as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM), due to its inherent pozzolanic activity, which allows it to interact with the hydration products of cement. In essence, the waste clay brick can be recycled and reused in the construction industry, especially in the concrete production. The present communication aims to investigate the effect of using waste clay brick as a supplementary cementitious material in the production of self-compacting concrete (SCC). In this study, SCC mixtures were produced with 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% waste clay brick powder and class F fly ash as a replacement of cement, based on weight. Consequently, a series of tests were conducted in the fresh state, including slump flow and V-funnel tests, as well as assessments of compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance. From the obtained results, it was concluded that the fresh state performance of waste clay brick-based SCC mixtures was lower than control SCC mixture and fly ash-based SCC mixtures. Additionally, the compressive strength of the waste brick powder-based SCC mixtures was found to be lower compared to the fly ash-based SCC mixtures. In addition, freeze–thaw resistance of the mixtures increased by increasing the substitution level of waste clay brick powder in SCC mixtures.

Murat Tuyan, Mehdi Maghfouri
Self-compacting Concrete Using Eggshell Ash and Rice Husk Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

The usage of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is highly recommended in heavy construction as it helps to ease concreting process during construction and improves productivity, energy consumption, as well as the working environment. This research study is to show the efficiency of self-compacting concrete made of waste products as cement replacement. Concrete structure is becoming a vital element in the construction industry, hence the increase in cement demand. As proven in various studies, cement production leads to environmental pollution. Thus, a new material made up of waste material is proposed as a partial cement replacement in concrete. The percentage of cement content in SCC will be reduced by replacing it with eggshell ash (ESA) and rice husk ash (RHA) in the mix design mainly to improve the concrete strength. Thus, the optimum percentage of RHA and ESA will be determined throughout this research. Several tests were conducted to test the mechanical and physical properties of the specimen and comparing with the SCC control. It was proven that SCC with 3% ESA 8% RHA produced maximum strength compared to the control and other design mixes with 0%, 6%, and 9% ESA, respectively. The increment of 14.31% compressive strength on the 28th day compared to the control mix has created the optimum silica and calcium hydroxide reaction for the hydration process.

N. M. Husain, Y. Yajid, S. N. C. Deraman, S. A. Masjuki, S. A. Saad, S. L. Ibrahim, N. K. Basri, M. Taib
Effect of Pressure Coefficient on a Rural House Due to the Neighboring Building’s Arrangement Using Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Test

Most of the rural houses in Malaysia especially in the Northern region of Peninsula Malaysia experienced severe damage during windstorm events due to the lack of engineering consideration. Moreover, these types of houses are also mostly made from timber or a combination of concrete and wood. Therefore, the study on the effects of wind flow surrounding the rural houses as the low-rise building becomes the focus of the present study. Generally, rural houses will be surrounded by other structures such as houses and trees. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyze the wind tunnel simulation of wind pressure on a rural house due to the effect of the surrounding building’s arrangements. The rural house model that has been scaled down has been tested in the wind tunnel to simulate the wind flow toward the rural house, resulting in pressure distribution and flow visualization surrounding the house. By comparing the value of pressure coefficient (CP) and the flow visualization, this study comes out with the most suitable location and arrangement of neighboring buildings for the rural house which is Case 2 with CP = 2.179 for the highest pressure and CP = -1.997 for the highest suction that occurred at the roof house. It can be concluded that the arrangement for Case 2 has the balance pressure and suction among the three cases since the pressure and suction that occurred at the roof house are not too high compared to other arrangements.

S. N. C. Deraman, M. A. A. Mohamad Zaki, N. M. Husain, S. A. Saad, S. A. Masjuki, N. K. Basri, S. L. Ibrahim
Compressive Strength Development and Homogeneity of Concrete Incorporating Fly Ash and Used Engine Oil as Chemical Admixture

In this paper, the hardened properties of concrete with the utilization of waste materials of pulverized fly ash (PFA) and used engine oil (UEO) as chemical admixtures are conducted in order to improve concrete properties in terms of its compressive strength development and its homogeneity. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is replaced by PFA at the percentage of 20% and 40%, respectively. Meanwhile, UEO is added by the dosage of 0.15 and 0.3%, subsequently. Slump test was done for determination of rheological properties of fresh concrete. Compression test and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test are conducted to analyze the mechanical properties of hardened concrete and its homogeneity. Based on the non-destructive test, UPV test recorded the highest value with concrete sample of 20% PFA and 0.3% UEO of 4.19 km/s at 28 days, which demonstrate a high integrity of a concrete. For a destructive test, it also follows the same trend having concrete sample of 20% PFA and 0.3% UEO recorded the highest compressive strength which was at 42.74 MPa at 90 days. It can be concluded that, utilization of these waste materials improves properties of fresh concrete without much adverse effect on properties of hardened concrete.

S. A. Saad, A. N. Jamaluddin, S. A. Masjuki, N. M. Husain, W. N. F. W. Hassan, W. N. A. W. Azahar, N. Kasim, S. Beddu
Effect of Incorporating Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Properties of High-Performance Fine-Grained Cement Mortar

Using supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) as partial cement replacement is a common practice in the construction industry to achieve more durable mortar and less CO2 emissions associated with producing mortar materials. This study investigated the properties of high-performance cement mortar (HPM) containing SCMs, which include fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), palm oil fuel ash (POFA), and ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). The examined properties include flowability, compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, porosity, and absorption for four replacement levels (5, 10, 15, and 20%). At replacement levels up to 20%, mortar containing SF and GGBS exhibits significantly better and enhanced properties than the control mix without any cement replacement material, while the incorporation of POFA and FA led to a decrease in all mortar properties. However, both of POFA and FA could be used at lower replacement ratios < 10%. The cementitious and pozzolanic properties of SF and GGBS permit higher cement replacement levels (> 10%) which can achieve equivalent or superior properties and durability performance than the conventional cement mortar. Based on the overall results, HPM containing SCMs can exhibit a similar effect and therefore reducing global warming potential of the cement-based materials.

Salem Giuma Ibrahim Sagr, M. A. Megat Johari, M. J. A. Mijarsh
Feasibility Evaluation on Potential High Volume of FA-Based Binder as Early Strength at Ambient Cured

In general, strength development of fly ash-based geopolymer composite is still in focus of some researchers due to its low strength gain under ambient condition, particularly at early age of strength. An alternative way in formulating mix design for fly ash-based geopolymer with the aim to enhance the geopolymerization reactivity of fly ash in alkaline system is still in the depth of research. Many efforts have been conducted in combining various aluminosilicate materials in fly ash-based geopolymer with variation of content levels such as ground granulate blast furnace slag (GGBS), pulverzied oil palm ash (POFA), metakaolin (MK) and silica fume (SF). Despite the selection of aluminosilicate and its content level, alkaline activator concentration also gives major influence in the development of engineering properties of geopolymer composites. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the potential formulation in achieving high early strength without compromising fresh properties. Thus, this research is focusing on the evaluation of the potential binder combination of fly ash-based geopolymer paste with fly ash as the primary binder. Also, this study intended to explore the potential of POFA in enhancing the early engineering properties of fly ash-based geopolymer paste. In relation with this, the engineering properties have been evaluated which includes setting time, flowability, and compressive strength. Also, study evaluated the compatibility between the molarity and geopolymer binder combinations in achieving the promising engineering properties at the early engineering properties development. The results show that 12 NaOH concentration plays a viable role in the performance of geopolymer paste. The most pre-eminent combination is 60F40G and 60F30G10MK where both performed well in early and matured age of compressive strength. Besides that, it is also found that POFA has potential in replacement up to 30%, however combination of 60F40P with 12 M performed well at 28 days.

N. Archanaah, M. N. Noor Azline, A. B. Nabilah, S. Nor Azizi, Mohd Saleh Jaafar
Mechanical and Leaching Properties of Solidified Clinical Waste Incinerator Fly Ash Mortar

With the rise of COVID-19 pandemic cases, the volume of clinical waste delivered to incinerator plants from hospitals, clinics, laboratories, temporary quarantine centres, and research institutes worldwide has increased significantly. These incinerator plants will produce clinical waste incinerator fly ash (CWIFA), which will overburden the landfill if all is placed there, but it has the potential to be utilized as a supplementary cementitious material in cement mortar or concrete. The goal of this cement-based mixed CWIFA (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% as a partial cement replacement) research is to study the strength, the leachability of heavy metals, and the resistance to chloride ion penetration of the mortars with CWIFA inclusion. This will enable this CWIFA to be used in construction, while being disposed of safely in landfills that only need minimal environmental protection. The solid mortar leaching behaviour and mechanical properties were investigated with a ratio W/C of 0.485. Results show that adding 2.5% CWIFA as cement replacement in mortar mixture achieved the highest compressive and flexural strength of 41.04 MPa and 8.00 MPa, respectively. Further increase in CWIFA content in the mortars reduced compressive and flexural strengths. The rapid chloride permeability (RCP) values also increased with the inclusion of CWIFA in the mortar mixtures. A toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test performed on all solidified mortar mixtures portrays that the heavy metals investigated (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) are strongly immobilized by the cementitious matrix. Therefore, 2.5% CWIFA as cement replacement in mortar is better to be utilized in mortar due to good strength, RCP, and leaching results.

Ezliana Ghazali, Megat Azmi Megat Johari, Mohd Azrizal Fauzi, Noorsuhada Md Nor
GPR Assessment Method of Reinforced Concrete Structures: A Review

Reinforced concrete (RC) structural damage has become a global issue. As a result, there is an increasing need for actual health monitoring methods. The development of reliable monitoring tools for assessing the damage and condition of RC structures has been identified as a pressing requirement. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) method is a valuable non-destructive testing method that depicts excellent potential for being a part of an automated assessment component in RC structures. This paper explores the application of GPR for assessment in RC structures (i.e., localization and estimation of reinforcement bars (rebar), corrosion detection, and void detection). However, the success has been confined to simple scenarios, necessitating the usage of post-processing techniques, i.e., image processing, signal processing, and classification technique. Combining GPR with other NDT methods has long been recognized as having the ability to increase the value of test combinations. This study aims to review GPR as an assessment method of RC structures.

Ahmad Zaki
Proceedings of AWAM International Conference on Civil Engineering 2022—Volume 2
Nuridah Sabtu
Copyright Year
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN