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Proceedings of CIRMARE 2023

Recovery, Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Buildings

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About this book

This book highlights the latest advances, innovations, and applications in the field of resilience and adaptation of buildings and cities to climate change, as presented by international researchers at the VI International Conference on Recovery, Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Buildings (CIRMARE 2023), held in Covilhã, Portugal, on December 5–7, 2023. It covers a diverse range of topics such as accessibility of buildings and urban spaces, industrialization of rehabilitation processes, interventions in cultural heritage, building quality assessment, maintenance and requalification of built spaces, BIM and the digitization of construction, urban planning, circular economy in the construction sector, urban infrastructure rehabilitation, near zero energy buildings, urban resilience and climate change, recovery of degraded urban areas, service life, and pathologies in buildings. The contributions, which were selected by means of a rigorous international peer-review process, present a wealth of exciting ideas that will open novel research directions and foster multidisciplinary collaboration among different specialists.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Accessibility of Buildings and Urban Spaces

Frontmatter
Analysis of Urban Mobility in the Surroundings and in the Access Areas to a Shopping Center

Based on the principles of the Neighborhood Impact Assessment, this paper presents the problems related to urban mobility, specifically regarding non-motorized transportation and accessibility, resulting from the implementation of a shopping center and its effects on the surrounding area. The case study shopping center is located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro city. The methodology used involved a field study through on-site visits, as well as a bibliographic review of the topics covered, as well as the applicable legislation, both nationally and internationally. Based on the identified problems, possible solutions were presented, based on concepts of active mobility and universal accessibility. Although the analyzed shopping center project did not prioritize non-motorized transportation, it will be possible to make progress in these aspects with actions that do not require significant investments, such as the construction of ramps and changes in the layout of the motorcycle and bicycle parking areas.

Rafael Felipe Teixeira Rodrigues, Eduardo Linhares Qualharini, Carina Mariane Stolz

BIM and the Digitization of Construction

Frontmatter
BIM-FM Integration Tools: Comparative Analysis

The implementation of the Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodology in the construction industry, namely in the maintenance sector, has contributed to increasing the quality of buildings sustainability. In this context, several systems have been developed, integrating the BIM concept and Facility Management (FM) activity. The study presents a comparative analysis of the available BIM-FM tools, aimed at the capacity of assessing and managing data, the correctness of data transfer between platforms, the evaluation of the interoperability level and the costs involved in equipment acquisition and employees training. The novelty of the research is supported on the use of web/QR integrated tools as Archibus software, on the elaboration of COBie documents, and on the creation of Dynamo scripts to perform the extraction of information from the BIM model database to the Excel software. In the study, the main benefits and limitations were identified and carried out from a comparative analysis.

Manuel Pinto, Zita Sampaio, João Ruaro, Cleovir Milani
A Review of the Impacts Related to Building Information Modeling Implementation in Infrastructure Projects

Nowadays, the adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM) transforms the environment for the elaboration and execution of projects in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry worldwide. The application of BIM in the infrastructure segment brought up opportunities for using the methodology. The growing study of the subject makes explicit the gaps in knowledge and the progressive increase in demand for information that proves the beneficial results of BIM implementation in the sector, in addition to pointing out its challenges. Therefore, this study aims to collect the relevant literature on BIM in the infrastructure domain for review and analysis of the state of the art of research, about the impacts of BIM implementation in infrastructure projects. For this, we sought, through bibliographical research in scientific articles and master’s and doctoral dissertations, mostly in English, data and concepts concerning the subject. The literature review highlighted the already established knowledge on the subject, among which are case studies and their respective repercussions. The results obtained through the literature review demonstrate that the gains provided to the entire construction life cycle, such as the reduction of rework, considerably overcome the challenges that, for the time being, need to be overcome by professionals in the area, as required of technical qualification and cultural change.

Isaac Luiz Alves de Souza, Cristiano Saad Travassos do Carmo, Marcelo Jasmim Meiriño, Renata Gonçalves Faisca
HBIM Data Collection and Historic Evolution Identity

The research presents an application of the Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodology, on the preservation of buildings of historic and heritage value. The study of the built heritage encompasses several aspects, namely, the collection of information, the rigorous representation of the building, the identification of the applied traditional construction processes, and the classification of historic eras of construction, conversion or conservation. Within the BIM field, the topic related to old buildings, is referred to as Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM). In order to illustrate the type of previous work that needs to be done, a building heritage case is presented. The study is focused on the identification of the historic evolution of a castle and adjacent structural environment. The first step concerns the collection data: several institutional repositories of old documents were consulted; technical visits to the site were performed; a large photographic survey was taken. Based on the available information a historic stratigraphic HBIM model was generated. The text aims to contribute positively to the dissemination of HBIM issue.

Zita Sampaio, João Tomé, Augusto Gomes, Manuel Pinto
BIM Model as Support for Maintenance Activities

Project development in the civil construction industry is changing as technologies and methodologies are introduced, such as BIM methodology. Among the phases of a building life cycle, the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) phase requires a set of information that must be gathered throughout the construction process. Usually, this information is recorded on paper, thus it makes it difficult to access and carry out maintenance activities. The BIM methodology facilitates the management sharing and digital storage of information that is generated throughout the phases of the building life cycle. However, the maintenance phase needs only part of this information. Although there are open standards, such as IFC, for data exchange between BIM models and maintenance software, it is still necessary to specify the information according to each element source of maintenance (ESM). Therefore, this work aims to propose a model of a maintenance sheet based on six main maintenance activities: inspection, cleaning, proactivity, correction, replacement, and conditions of use, starting from the division of the building in ESM, to facilitate the extraction of BIM model maintenance data.

Ana Thereza Carvalho, Rui Calejo, José Santos

Building Quality Assessment

Frontmatter
Healing Environment: AEDET and ASPECT Assessment Systems and Instruments

Attention to healthcare and the need for resource optimization perpetuates the importance of designing more humanized hospital environments that positively contribute to patient recovery. Research and future healthcare facilities should be continuously expanded, considering changes in technology, systems, and the design of the physical environment. This article provides a concise analysis of the evaluation tools AEDET (Achieving Excellence Design Evaluation Toolkit) and ASPECT (Staff and Patient Environment Calibration Tool), created in the United Kingdom through a discipline called Evidence-Based Design (EBD), which studies the quality of the healthcare physical environment based on evidence. The central objective of this article is to highlight the importance of these evaluation systems and instruments, as well as their research methods and studies, through reports and opinions from patients and staff regarding their perceptions in the case study of the Oncology Unit at the University Hospital of Brasília - HUB.

Sualy Albernaz
An Evaluation of the Asset Condition of Buildings: A Case Study in UFRJ's Built Park

The management of public real estate assets in Brazil faces obstacles, including the precariousness of data and maintenance practices based on corrective actions. Thus, the practice of interventions at appropriate moments is crucial to ensure the conservation of these assets, and to address these problems, the REAB-IFES methodology is proposed, which standardizes inspections and evaluations, observing the physical condition of the real estate assets of Federal Institutions of Higher Education (IFES). The pilot application of this methodology in 6 buildings of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) indicated that it is an important tool for public managers, allowing comparative analysis of the existing situation and identification of urgent intervention needs. The study suggests the responsible parties, stages, and schedule to make the evaluation of the asset status of real estate assets a process that aims for continuous improvement and constant data updating, guiding public asset management, and proposes opportunities for improvement in the application of this method.

Christiano Ottoni, Eduardo Qualharini
Energy-Saving Optimization Analysis of the Perimeter Structure of a Lakefront Residence in Soochow, China

The text explores the possibility of reducing energy consumption and improving the indoor thermal environment of old residential buildings through different renovation schemes for the perimeter structure, using Building C6 in the Taihu Tianque community as an example in Suzhou. The study determines the optimal renovation sequence and solution based on energy-saving efficiency and cost-effectiveness, and verifies the indoor thermal environment and building load after renovation. The research shows that the cumulative annual cooling load of the renovated residence is reduced by 4.66 W h per square meter compared to before the renovation, and the average indoor temperature in summer is 3.5 ℃ lower than before the renovation. The maximum cooling load throughout the year is less than 4 KW. This research provides an effective solution for energy-saving renovations of similar residences.

Zhijun Xue, Jie Wu, Xinyue Liu, Jinghua Shen, Wei Zhang
Complex Framework for Condition Assessment of Residential Buildings

In the big cities of Europe large-scale construction of apartment buildings took place at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. In the process, buildings were created based on unique plans, but very similar to each other, containing similar technological solutions and built from similar building materials. Over the past 100 years, some of the buildings have been continuously maintained, while the condition of other buildings has deteriorated significantly. The renovation of these buildings has now become necessary and in many cases, unavoidable. In the current economic and energy situation, it is important that maintenance or conversion is carried out in a sustainable manner to the necessary extent. The method and extent of the interventions can be provided in a uniform manner with help of a computer system. We have developed a condition assessment and decision support model and algorithm that can be used for this purpose. We call it Complex Building’s Decision Support System based on Fuzzy Signatures (CBDF system). We use fuzzy signature-based model to handle uncertainties, inaccuracies and possibly missing data that occur during the condition assessment. The presented decision model prepares the status assessment based on 4 main components (project info, knowledge base, preparatory work process, fuzzy system). After defining the objectives (e.g., general condition assessment, evaluation from the perspective of accident prevention, examination of the possibility of roof installation), the system requests the necessary data and generates the fuzzy signature required for the condition assessment of the given building. Based on the input data for the specific project and the knowledge base, the decision model searches for failures and anomalies in the building based on the preparatory work process, manages the existing uncertainties and inaccuracies, and determines the load bearing surplus of the examined load bearing structures. Using the existing information and conclusions, based on various fuzzy set-based descriptors and aggregation operators, the condition assessment is prepared, and then, if necessary, the intervention proposal as well. The final goal of the decision model is to put a tool in the hands of experts examining the condition of buildings, which can be used to prepare uniform and objective assessments (also suitable for ranking) and to reduce error in condition assessment.

Ádám Bukovics, Ferenc Lilik, László T. Kóczy, Balázs Lukács

Case Studies in Recovery, Maintenance and Rehabilitation

Frontmatter
Comparative Analysis of Thermal Behaviour in Heritage in Different Seasons. The Royal Hospital of Granada

Intervention in cultural heritage buildings today involves improving energy performance that achieves a reduction in energy consumption and emissions, improving the quality of the environment. To carry it out, the studies and actions are mainly focused on the facades, which forces us to propose strategies for which it is necessary to carry out specific studies of the envelope, since various construction and material solutions are recognized in these buildings. On the other hand, the preservation of the protected elements forces to discard proposals applied in buildings of recent construction. The objective of this study focuses on the comparison of the thermal behavior in the Royal Hospital of Granada (Spain) in locations with different orientation and for two different periods. For this purpose, a methodology based on the study of thermal patterns in situ is used through the application of non-destructive techniques and the thermal simulation of the rooms by computer systems, for the different periods. The results confirm the importance and improvement of the thermal behavior in the analyzed spaces depending on the orientation, the use of the adjoining spaces, the climatic conditions and the construction system based on thick stone walls. In addition, thermal comfort conditions offer significant differences between rooms. As a whole, they offer valuable information that will allow strategic planning of the building to be carried out in the actions planned for the future, taking into account its use and its location, guaranteeing more efficient and effective rehabilitation actions.

Maria Paz Sáez-Pérez, Jorge A. Durán-Suárez, Joao Castro-Gomes, Luisa M. García-Ruiz, Alberto Martinez-Ramirez, M. Angeles Villegas-Broncano
The State of Urban Rehabilitation in Funchal City – Analysis of Collected Data – Part I

The rehabilitation of built heritage in rural, urban and historic centers is a growing market in Portugal and Madeira Island (Outermost Region of European Union) is no exception. The high demand in real estate has driven up prices, reaching €7,000 to €8,000 per square meter in the center of Funchal city due to “lack of supply.“ As a result, there has been a strong investment in residential projects (and others,) totaling around €1 billion in recent years, with the trend expected to continue in line with the Urban Rehabilitation Strategic Program (URSP). Therefore, the Government of Autonomous Region of Madeira (ARM) has been promoting and publicizing various financial mechanisms to boost urban rehabilitation (UR) in Funchal City and consequently in ARM, including Invest Madeira, the Urban Rehabilitation and Revitalization Financial Instrument (IFFRU) 2020, Rehabilitate Madeira, and the Program for the Recovery of Degraded Properties (PRID).In this context, three young students in their third year of the Civil Engineering bachelor’s degree at the University of Madeira, under the supervision of a lecture, conducted data collection on the subject with the aim of creating a database. The data presented and discussed here were obtained from the Regional Agency for Energy and the Environment of ARM (AREAM) for the period between 2017 and 2022. The most relevant findings are presented graphically or summarized in synthesis tables. Finally, three practical cases were selected for a more detailed discussion of the main conclusions drawn.

Afonso Oliveira, Diogo Freitas, Tomás Dias, Deesy Pinto
The State of Urban Rehabilitation in Funchal City – Analysis of Collected Data – Part II

The rehabilitation of built heritage in rural, urban, and historical centers is a major challenge for all stakeholders involved, including promoters (both public and private, in this case public). At the national level, urban rehabilitation (UR) is a growing market, in Portugal and in the Autonomous Region of Madeira (ARM – Outermost Region of European Union) is no exception. In this context, three young students in their third year of the Civil Engineering bachelor’s degree at the University of Madeira, under the supervision of a lecture, conducted data collection from PATRIRAM – Ownership and Management of Regional Public Heritage, S.A. for the period between 2017 and 2022. In this research, the focus is on public rehabilitation works (PRW) compared to new construction works (NCW). Similar to NCW, rehabilitation works (RW) should provide a detailed description of the current state of the building to be intervened (including a characterization of structural and non-structural elements regarding their state of conservation – presence or absence of degradation mechanisms), present solutions for the respective intervention, and indicate the associated costs. This information is essential and should precede the execution project as it will provide essential inputs, helping to prevent budget deviations and construction delays. This study presents 14 selected cases in which the following information is provided: building type, contractual price, identified pathologies, level of intervention performed, materials used, and respective Energy Class of the Buildings (ECB). Among the 14 cases presented, the RW carried out at Quinta Magnólia, located in Funchal City, was selected. The most relevant conclusions are highlighted through photographic records or summarized in synthesis tables, and the main findings from the conducted study are discussed.

Afonso Oliveira, Diogo Freitas, Tomás Dias, Deesy Pinto
Pathologies and Rehabilitation of Eclectic Buildings: The Case of Avenida Modelo

This paper intends to present the main pathologies found in eclectic buildings in Rio de Janeiro, based on the analysis of the two-story house that integrates the architectural complex known as Avenida Modelo, located in the Centre of the city and listed by IPHAN in 1985. To solve the pathologies found in this building, we focus mainly on one of the most fragile parts of this construction, the main façade, which still retains architectural elements characteristic of eclecticism. It shows itself as an important example to be consolidated and preserved. For the choice of the consolidation technique, we used a successful case located in Salvador, the Casarão dos Azulejos Azuis and the dissertation presented by Jorge Miguel Vital Rodrigues, which addresses the main techniques of consolidation and strengthening adopted in walls of old buildings. From understanding the pathologies and the definition of the consolidation techniques for the object of study, it was possible to elaborate on a project to rehabilitate the house. This work is part of the author's research to obtain a master's degree as part of the Professional master’s in design and Heritage from the Graduate Program in Design and Heritage at UFRJ.

Diana Santana, Maria Angela Dias, Margaret L. Chokyu
Rehabilitating 3 × 3 Schools: The Paradigm of a Typified Case

The School architecture responded with standardized models to the need for rapid construction, with controlled costs, time and material resources, reflecting the social and political changes that resulted from the 25th of April revolution. The standardized pavilion type solution, based on the ideal of an industrial production, appeared in the 1980s, under the 3 × 3 designation, and was replicated throughout the national territory.However, although this strategy met the conditions emerging at that time, it was noted that the architectural solution favourised a dilution of the values that had been characterising the public-school building, whether those relating to the urban setting, the social dimension, or the significance and recognition of the educational institution through its architecture.In 2007, within the scope of a large-scale rehabilitation operation, conducted by the Programme for the Modernisation of Secondary Schools (PMEES) and promoted by Parque Escolar, E.P.E., buildings of that type were also rehabilitated with the aim of becoming efficient and effective schools in response to the pedagogical, social and urban needs posed by contemporaneity, making them able to make themselves (re)known as facilities for public education.This article aims to reflect analytically and comparatively on the results of the rehabilitation of this type of schools. How did these schools, non-hierarchical, unconnected and uncommitted to the urban fabric, anonymous and architecturally considered of less value, benefit from a rehabilitation process? In what way have they been transformed and brought back to contemporary times? How have they been re-dignified?

André Santos, Mariana Peneda
Restoring History: The Revitalization of a Chapel

This article describes the main rehabilitation works carried out at the Chapel of S. João do Deserto. During the restoration process, non-structural and structural anomalies were identified. The structural ones were causing cracks in the walls. While the Chapel had undergone several interventions over the years, not all of them had been successful, and some problems persisted to this day. A thorough analysis of the structure's behavior was essential to properly address these issues and prevent future damage. A structural reinforcement was carried out at the level of the roof, in addition to the consolidation of the masonry walls and mortars. To maintain the Chapel's original layout and identity, traditional materials and techniques were used whenever possible.

M. Teresa Pinheiro-Alves, Manuel J. Carretero-Ayuso, Sérgio Costa, Nuno Ramos
Rocha Do Conde De Óbidos Maritime Station: Preliminary Results of the Inspection

The Rocha do Conde de Óbidos is a classified heritage maritime station in Alcântara, Lisbon. The building, dated back to the 1940s, is one of the earliest examples of reinforced concrete in Portugal. Due to its vulnerability and being exposed to a quite aggressive environment, completely isolated and close to the mouth of the Tagus river, the maritime station shows severe deterioration of the structural elements, especially the ones located outside, such as spalling of the concrete cover, corrosion of the rebars, water penetration with deposit and biological growth in the joints. Moreover, there is evidence of previous interventions and repairs followed by relapse of the pathology. Due to its relevance as legacy of the architect Pardal Monteiro and the artist Almada Negreiros, key figures of the avant-garde and modernism in Portugal, an inspection and diagnosis programme has been planned and carried out by the authors. The present paper aims at presenting the preliminary results of this investigation.

Ramos Joaquin, Camacho Alexa, Flaum Glynnis, Lejava Elisabed, Barontini Alberto, B. Lourenço Paulo, Gil Milene
Systematization of the Evaluation of Building Envelope Conditions in Residential Multi-family Buildings from the Perspective of Integrated Rehabilitation - Practical Cases

The performance and durability of buildings are closely related to their maintenance and rehabilitation activities. For these actions, knowledge of pathologies/anomalies present in the respective buildings assumes central importance, as well as their repair cost, and it is necessary to promote the procedure of systematic records of these operations. In this way, joint actions are activities of special interest such as the elaboration of comprehensive models and tools techniques, that help register pathologies/anomalies and correlation between them and the building, and others that can consolidate the technical legacy, understanding the importance of maintenance, quality and durability of buildings. In this framework, the article reflects, essentially, a proposal for assessing the conditions of envelope of current multifamily buildings under a condominium regime. Still within the scope of this proposal deserves particular highlight, in this work, the demonstration of methodologies and tools developed for this evaluation, complementing each other with the brief presentation of a case study.

Vitorino A.M. Neves, João C.G. Lanzinha, João P.N.D. Miraldes

Circular Economy in the Construction Sector

Frontmatter
Earthquake Generated Construction and Demolition Waste

The complexity of disaster effects has elevated post-disaster management to the forefront of policy debates.Earthquakes can have far-reaching consequences on a region's economic, population health, and natural environment, all of which necessitate careful management of the massive amounts of construction and demolition waste (CDW) that result. Besides these effects, disaster waste has the potential to overwhelm already overburdened solid waste disposal facilities and interfere with emergency response and recovery efforts. Disaster waste management (DWM) is essential to overcome these problems.Substantial economic and environmental benefits, support in reconstruction, and a model for the resource usage of CDW worldwide can be expected from post-disaster waste management, safe demolition, and environmentally acceptable disposal and recycling methods for CDW.The purpose of this study is to present the findings of important case studies examining post-earthquake waste management solutions and issues. Focusing on the resources, the present work analyzes the amounts of waste created by earthquakes.

Burhan Kubilay Kaptan, José Luís Barroso Aguiar, Sandra Cunha
Thermal Expansion/Energy Storage Characteristics of EAF-Slag Mortars for Passive Solar Energy

This study investigates the thermal expansion and absorption characteristics of electric-arc-furnace slag (EAF-slag) mortars and Portland cement (PC) mortars with river sand. The aim is to compare the properties of EAF-slag mortars, an innovative recycled material, with those of PC mortars, a commonly used material in civil construction, for passive solar energy storage in roofs, facades, and pavements. ASTM C531 standard was followed for preparing the samples, with PC samples undergoing hydration curing and EAF samples undergoing accelerated carbonation. After curing, the samples were placed in an oven at 60 ºC for 24 h. Results show that the thermal expansion of EAF-slag mortars was 0.11 cm, while that of PC mortars was 0.05 cm. The linear coefficient of thermal expansion for EAF-slag mortars was 18.16 × 10–5 (cm/cm °C), and that of PC mortars was 8.30 × 10–5 (cm/cm °C). At room temperature of 22 ºC, the EAF-slag mortar samples had a temperature of 20.9 ºC, while the PC mortar had a temperature of 18.8 ºC. After being removed from the oven, the EAF-slag mortar sample had a temperature of 57 ºC, while the PC mortar sample had a temperature of 51.7 ºC. The EAF-slag mortar sample maintained a higher temperature than the PC mortar sample. These results suggest that EAF-slag mortars have great potential for passive solar energy storage in constructing pavements, facades, and roofs.

Luciana Sucupira, João Castro-Gomes

Housing, Occupant Comfort and Health

Frontmatter
Assessment of the Impact of the Urban Environment on the Emotional State of Citizens

The issue of the influence of the urban landscape on the emotional state of citizens is considered within the scope of this article. The paper reviews and analyzes technical tools that allow to get objective data on the emotional state of an individual in conjunction with geolocation. For the empirical part of this article, data was collected through an open social network. The simplest method of statistical processing of these data was proposed and tested, with Moscow being chosen as geolocation. Information about the emotional state of people in various parts of Moscow identified through their photos with a geotag was collected and processed. Based on the results obtained, estimates were given on the influence of the urban environment on the emotional state of citizens and guests of the city.

Anastasia Burova, Vasily Nikonov
Experimental Evaluation of a Social Housing Dwelling Under Extreme Heat Climate Conditions

Current and future climate challenges are an important field of study regarding their impact on building performance. The predicted increase of summer severity in many Iberian Peninsula locations increases the need to quantify the performance of social housing buildings exposed to extremely hot climatic conditions, given the poor thermal criteria of their constructions and the predominance of energy poverty in these contexts. The objective of the present study is to understand the indoor temperature and relative humidity conditions monitored in a social housing dwelling, without the use of active cooling systems and during a particularly demanding period in the summer, so as to assess the suitability of its performance. The results obtained were evaluated according to reference values defined in national regulations and international standards, demonstrating that buildings present thermal performances that are very distant from those recommended, when exposed to these conditions and without resorting to active systems. This work therefore contributes to reinforcing the need for strategies and/or programs to retrofit social housing buildings regarding the climate challenges, in order to safeguard the well-being and health of residents, including risk groups.

Pedro Brandão, João C. G. Lanzinha
Qualitative Evaluation of Occupancy Influence in Social Housing Dwellings

Qualitative assessments are essential in studies regarding indoor conditions of use of buildings, including social housing in Portugal, which presents a significant part built before the introduction of thermal regulation. Therefore, attention should be given to the impact of their performances - including thermal performance - on the health, comfort and quality of life of residents, as well as the influence of occupation in defining these indoor conditions, namely active and passive systems used to control its temperature. This article presents the results of a qualitative research carried out in a set of social housing buildings located in the city of Covilhã, Portugal, with the aim of knowing the use given to active and passive strategies in housing, both in winter and summer seasons. For this purpose, surveys were developed and distributed to residents about their dwellings and its impact on their health. The results show that residents resort more often to the use of active systems in winter than in summer, that the potential of passive strategies is sometimes wasted due to lack of perception or constraints existing in apartments, and that the limitations of buildings sometimes result in the need to choose the improvement of interior lighting conditions instead of the improvement of thermal conditions.

Pedro Brandão, João C. G. Lanzinha
Study of a Thermally Enhanced Light Steel Framing Building Incorporating Phase Change Materials Towards Passive Thermal Comfort

Increasing attention has been given to the impacts of buildings on the environment, economy, and society since it is the sector responsible for the highest energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. As a roadmap for carbon mitigation, reducing energy consumption and improving thermal performance are the key factors for achieving efficient and sustainable buildings. The Thermal Energy Storage systems (TES) incorporating Phase Change Materials (PCM) are a possible strategy to reduce the dependence of buildings on fossil fuels. Notably, in the case of Light Steel Framing buildings (LSF), PCM are also a promising approach to enhance their thermal inertia, avoiding possible overheating issues. In this work, a monitoring campaign was carried out focused on the study of the thermal performance of two identical real-scale LSF buildings: one representing a common LSF as a reference case building; and the other represents a thermally enhanced building incorporating PCM. Therefore, a comparative analysis of the indoor thermal environment in the two twin buildings was conducted, considering both indoor air and inner surface temperatures. The surface temperature behaviour highlighted the thermal regulation capacity of the PCM: a reduction of up to $$1.5\,^\circ {\text{C}}$$ 1.5 ∘ C in the maximum peak and an attenuation of about $$2.5\,^\circ {\text{C}}$$ 2.5 ∘ C in the minimum peak temperatures were achieved. As expected, the thermally enhanced building also exhibited a slower heating and cooling rate of the indoor environment, compared with the reference (37% and 54% reduction in heating and cooling rate, respectively).

Margarida Gonçalves, António Figueiredo, Ricardo M. S. F. Almeida, Romeu Vicente, António Samagaio

Interventions in Historical and Cultural Heritage

Frontmatter
Ambient Vibration Test of the Monastery of Salzedas and Optimisation of the Sensor Placement

This study focuses on the ambient vibration tests carried out at the Monastery of Santa Maria de Salzedas, a heritage building located in the north of Portugal. The fieldwork particularly focused on the south wing of the main cloister, which required urgent remedial measures in the past. The operational modal analysis allowed to identify five modes, three global, mainly horizontal, and two local, vertical, of the accessible roof. Several challenges arose, complicating the interpretation of the data, mainly due to low ambient-induced vibrations and intrusive activities. A Data-driven Optimal Sensor Placement (OSP) approach was explored as a strategy to determine the best sensor locations for collecting high-quality information while minimising the number of measurement points. To this end, the effective independence heuristic method was tested demonstrating that although the selected points ensure a good quality of the signal, their spatial distribution might hinder a correct interpretation of the mode shapes.

Alberto Barontini, Eduarda Vila-Chã, Paulo B. Lourenço
An Approach to Industrial Heritage and Singular Values: The Schindler's Ark Case Study

This article aims to delve into the meaning of heritage with some specific and singular value in collective memory as a key fact for its recovery. This study has been carried out taking as a basis of an industrial element with strong historical and intangible symbology: the Schindler’s Ark, an old abandoned textile factory located in the town of Brněnec, Czech Republic and linked with the second World War.

Benito Sánchez-Montañés, Manuel V. Castilla, José-Manuel Romero-Ojeda
Augmented Reality as a Tool for Heritage Education and Valuation of Historical Heritage

The abandonment of historical buildings remains a prevalent issue in numerous cities worldwide. This problem can be attributed to various factors, such as shifts in the economic sector, escalating property values, inadequate inspections, the absence of tax incentives, and the insufficiency of repairs due to deficient or nonexistent regulations in the Master Plan, among other challenges. In light of these challenges, digital technologies have proven to be valuable tools for documenting, conserving, and restoring buildings and cultural artifacts. Augmented Reality (AR) is one such technology that can serve as a powerful aid in heritage education, with the objective of raising awareness among the population about the historical heritage within their environment. By leveraging AR, efforts can be made to preserve and enhance the value of these buildings. This study examines the application of Augmented Reality technology in representing the historical-cultural heritage of Crissiumal/RS, focusing on heritage education and the appreciation of the city’s historical assets. The city is home to several historical buildings that have unfortunately been forgotten and undergone modifications over the years. For this study, the focus was on analyzing the city’s first bus station, constructed in 1944. The methodology employed encompassed four main stages: investigating the building’s history, analyzing the architectural features and modifications applied to its facade, developing a 3D model, and implementing Augmented Reality (AR) for practical applications. Through the utilization of AR technology, immersive experiences were made possible for the community, granting them access to historical information about cultural buildings. The findings of the study indicate that AR technology can serve as a valuable tool in initiatives targeting heritage education within the community. By generating a sense of recognition and belonging, AR fosters an appreciation for and preservation of historical buildings.

Gabriela Luiza Leismann Bertaluci, Thaísa Leal da Silva
Carlo Ceschi and the Restoration of the Church of Santo Stefano Rotondo in Rome

The article ‘Carlo Ceschi and the Restoration of the Church of Santo Stefano Rotondo in Rome’ is part of the research project carried out in Rome, under the guidance of Professor Dr. Claudio Varagnoli from G.D’Annunzio University. Carlo Ceschi, architect, played a leading role in restoration works throughout Italy during the 20th century, working in the regions of Liguria, Puglia and Lazio. The Church of Santo Stefano Rotondo, built in the 5th century, is considered one of the most important of the Paleo-Christian period, and also one of the two fundamental monuments of religious architecture in Europe and also the masterpiece of restoration carried out by the architect. Its oriental influence and it’s original form are valued in its importation. The article aims to present these characters, Carlo Ceschi and the Church and, based on the theme, address the main issues that involved the restoration and understanding of its symbolic value.

Maria Clara Amado Martins
Evaluation and Correlation of the Mechanical Characteristics Using Non-Destructive (NDT) and Destructive Techniques in Macael Marble

The environmental exposure that heritage buildings have suffered for centuries results in many cases in problems of alteration and modification of their original conditions that can cause deterioration and even building ruin. The necessary study and intervention require carrying out previous investigations that guarantee a correct diagnosis and a rehabilitation proposal according to the state of conservation and entity of the property. In the present investigation, once the incidence of temperature on the behavior of Macael marble is known, the analysis of its mechanical resistance and its possible alteration is proposed. The study is carried out on quarry material and in the material on which 50 cycles of accelerated aging have been applied, in which high thermal gradients are produced. Through the application of non-destructive (ultrasonic pulses measurement and Rebound Smith Hammer) and destructive (compression test) techniques, results are obtained that show a high reduction in compressive strength as the number of cycles applied increases and the thermal gradient applied increases. The correlation obtained shows a high index R both for the non-destructive tests with the destructive test, as well as the correlation between the two non-destructive tests, confirming the validity of this type of technique to carry out the analysis of the state of a building.

Maria Paz Sáez-Pérez, Jorge A. Durán-Suárez, Joao Castro-Gomes
Removable/Reversible Solutions for the FRP-Confinement of Historical Masonry Columns

The retrofitting of historical masonry is often limited by strict rules of reversibility and aesthetical impacts. In this scenario, the use of fibers reinforced polymers (FRPs) is generally forbidden because of the epoxy-based matrix is glued on the substrate, even if their effectiveness is largely proved. Since the reversibility of the intervention is one of the most relevant aspects in the field of cultural Heritage, further research aiming to the optimal compromise between safety and conservation is still needed.The present research aims to experimentally demonstrate two methods oriented to the removability of the FRP-confinement of masonry columns. The first consists of a liquid adhesion-inhibitor applied by brush before the hand lay-up installation of the FRP-wrapping. Alternatively, a MylarTM layer placed between the substrate and the FRP-jacket was experienced to fully-eliminate the bond between jackets and core substrate. Pure compression tests were performed in order to check the mechanical effectiveness of the proposed techniques. After testing the FRP-jacket was removed in order to observe the substrate conditions in terms of detachment of material and/or discoloration. The main results are herein discussed demonstrating the validity of the proposals for two different types of masonry (i.e. tuff and limestone).

Alessio Cascardi, Francesco Micelli, Maria Antonietta Aiello, Antonio Occhiuzzi
Riomanzanas Village as Part of the Landscape of Meseta Ibérica

Research has been done in Meseta Ibérica to characterise its landscape. Meseta Ibérica is a biosphere reserve. It is located in the North-East part of Portugal and includes the territory of Portugal and Spain. Due to its natural variety, preserving and valuing this region is essential. Therefore, a detailed survey was carried out to gather data about the urban landscape. The analysis of the results of the surveys will guide the managing entities in their decisions. This team was focused on studying the urban areas of Meseta Ibérica from a village-scale perspective. The analysis of the results of the surveys was done on six villages that were chosen as references to guarantee a manageable process. These six villages are Atenor, Rio de Onor and Bemposta, from Portugal, and Fariza, Riomanzanas and San Martín de Castañeda, from Spain. Exhaustive fieldwork was done to collect several technical data concerning the buildings of these villages. This paper is focused on Riomanzanas village. Maps of the building type, utilisation type and conservation stage are delivered. Some data on the most relevant building details are also given. It was concluded that there is an appropriate amount of intact vernacular construction and that this village is perfectly merged with the landscape.

Jorge Pinto, Sandra Pereira, Anabela Paiva, João Lanzinha, Ricardo Bento

Maintenance and Requalification of Built Spaces

Frontmatter
Old Areas: Protection and Conservation for the Evaluation of the Cultural Landscape of Muriaé, Brazil

The paper highlights the importance of the protection and conservation the old areas of the City of Muriaé - Minas Gerais, for the enhancement of its Artistic, Cultural, and Landscape Heritage. The rapid urban growth and lack of planning directly impact the preservation of pre-existences, especially in terms of architectural, landscape and cultural heritage. The analysis is structured based on the system of open spaces with environmental (Muriaé River) and cultural (Hastenreiter, Cel Pacheco, João Pinheiro, and Rosário squares) importance, all of them with recognized heritage value. The analysis involves their surroundings in terms of morphology, functionality, and demographics. The extensive data collection has been synthesized in maps and the proposal aims to identify in the different landscapes, old buildings that are not protected by existing laws, presenting strategies capable to demonstrate their importance to increase the visibility to the city’s historic central area and reinforcing its different identities.

Maria Alice Bouzada, Andrea Queiroz Rego
Buildings Maintenance and Retrofits in Brazil: Discussions About the Use of Innovative Wall Systems

A part of construction works in Brazil uses wet techniques, with ceramic bricks and concrete blocks as the main examples. Having a high self-weight as one of their attributes, similar elements must be chosen carefully when retrofitting a building to avoid overloading the existing structure. In that sense, this paper proposed an analysis of innovative wall systems, focusing on their self-weight and comparing them to conventional options. The main goals were to understand the current state of the art and propel the discussion further about developing technologies with reduced self-weight as an advantage for retrofitting in Brazil. The study was initially structured by a thorough understanding of the national context regarding the most used conventional wall systems, followed by an approach of relevant technical regulations involving them and an investigation of academic works based on innovative alternatives. Data comparisons between both types of walls were conducted aiming at the system bulk density and a final analysis based on a hypothetical 100 × 100 cm wall was performed, with standardized thicknesses in order to properly compare them. Said analysis had to vary from quantitative to qualitative whenever an absence of sufficient information was found. Results showed that conventional and innovative panel-based wall systems had a higher potential to be incorporated in retrofits when it comes to bulk density, since they tend to present lower values than brick systems. The raw materials applied to their production could also interfere in such results. It was observed a lack of publications focused on analyzing the self-weight among construction elements destined to retrofit processes.

I. S. de Morais, S. A. L. Bessa, R. M. Loura
Life Cycle Costing Analysis: Implementation in Buildings in the Phase of Use – Systematic Review

Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) consists of a way to obtain costs during the construction, maintenance, use and operation, and building disposal phases. It aims at better decision-making concerning the allocation of financial resources and analysis of the point of environmental view. Although created a few decades ago, LCCA still does not represent a consolidated decision support way in the building management process. In this sense, this work presents a systematic review of the main issues related to implementing LCCA in buildings during maintenance and retrofit situations. We conducted searches in the Web of Science and Scopus databases based on steps involved in the PRISMA protocol. The results present the main application ways, the adopted discount rates that strongly influence Life Cycle Cost (LCC) results, the approaches associated with LCCA, and the main barriers and opportunities for the LCCA application. We conclude that, although there is a long history of publications on the subject, there is still no consolidation in the methodology used. A relevant gap is the absence of an integrated methodology of decision support management based on controlling life-cycle cost, which considers the profile of building use, energy efficiency improvements through retrofits, and optimized maintenance of resource management. Additionally, with other approaches and techniques, more benefits and results with greater robustness can be obtained.

Ivo Almino Gondim, João Poças Martins, Hipólito Sousa
Maintenance Management Systems: A Perspective on Their Need Based on a Bibliometric Analysis

The choice of the maintenance management system should be made based on the alignment between performance and cost, which, when combined, should generate the necessary effects to achieve the intended results. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss ways to implement management solutions, as these systems would allow for optimization tailored to different types of buildings. This study aims to highlight the need for a discussion on maintenance management systems as a means to address evaluation processes’ needs. The analysis was based on bibliometric research and complemented by interviews with professionals exclusively involved in maintenance management in Brazilian public institutions, focusing on seven management parameters. It is considered that the objectives have been achieved, as it has been proven that there are no evaluation mechanisms for maintenance management systems. The bibliometric analysis indicates a lack of research on the topic, and the evaluation of the interviews revealed that each stakeholder makes their maintenance management decision process without any consultative and analytical reference. Therefore, after individualizing the seven analyzed parameters (characterization, documentation, team, information, decision, intervention, and evaluation) and structuring the argumentative orientation through a question script, the verbalization of the answers led to the interpretation of the lack of parameters and metrics used in management processes. The fulfillment of the objectives leads to the following conclusion: there is room for future work on the characterization and evaluation of maintenance management systems, as the current literature has not directly addressed this topic. Furthermore, the evidence points to the absence of methodological propositions that encompass conceptual and applied references to maintenance planning and execution.

Ygor Freitas Almeida, Rui Manuel Gonçalves Calejo Rodrigues
Maintenance Plan in the Conservation of the National Library of Portugal

Maintenance management encompasses all management activities that dictate the objectives, strategies and responsibilities for maintenance and their implementation, through methods such as planning, control and supervision of the maintenance and the search for improvement of methods in the organization, including the economic aspects and legal obligations required.More and more companies look at the maintenance department as one of the main allies to cost reduction, optimizing the operation of their equipment, thus being able to establish a financial objective. Faced with this scenario, the maintenance departments of the companies find great difficulties in determining the best maintenance plan, which allows to advance and put into practice a preventive maintenance plan for the building and its equipment.This case study the National Library of Portugal, aims to define a model of planned maintenance ensuring the proper functioning of the building as a whole. Through a proposal of a Preventive Maintenance Plan, related to the existing integrated systems, the improvement of processes and the optimization of costs will be achieved.

João Mestre, Susana Lucas
Towards Health and Comfort: Architectural Design and Indoor Air Quality in Naturally Ventilated Classrooms

The maintenance of adequate indoor environmental quality is crucial for the health and performance of building occupants. In educational buildings, particular attention should be given to air quality due to high occupancy levels and the significant impact that a conducive learning environment can have on a student’s lifelong achievements. Existing literature suggests that design strategies can influence air quality by promoting ventilation and air circulation. However, in Brazil, this field of study remains relatively unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between architectural features of higher education classrooms and their indoor air quality. To accomplish this, a comprehensive database comprising architectural characteristics of 527 classrooms from a public university that utilizes natural ventilation as the primary air conditioning mode was compiled. The focus was placed on factors that could potentially affect indoor air quality, such as the window-to-wall ratio, the presence of cross ventilation, and occupancy density. The number of air changes per hour was calculated for a representative classroom with and without cross-ventilation, and the results were compared to recommended air renovation rates found in the literature. The findings revealed that only 12% of the database consisted of classrooms with cross-ventilation design in naturally ventilated settings. Moreover, the calculated air renovation rates for cross-ventilated classrooms were 3.8 times higher than those for single-sided ventilated classrooms. Given the limited research on this topic in Brazil, this study aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion and raise awareness about the significance of air quality in academic environments and its correlation with architectural design.

Marina Silva Garcia, Roberta Vieira Gonçalves Souza, Fernando José Silva

Recovery of Degraded Urban Areas

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Analysis of the Variation of Rio de Janeiro City Resilience in Different Scenarios

Disasters has been happening more frequently around the world. In Brazil, from 2010 to 2021 alone, almost two thousand fatalities and economic losses in the tens of billions of dollars were recorded due to these events. Therefore, in order to reduce and recover from losses, resilience is necessary. Resilient cities have the ability to better face the events they are exposed to, reducing losses over time. Measuring resilience can offer a possibility of greater knowledge of the territory, for planning and management purposes, but it is not a simple task. One possibility for measuring resilience refers to the use of tools derived from the concept of DROP (Disaster Resilience of Place) for the formulation of the BRIC index (Baseline Resilience Indicators for Communities), created by Cutter, Burton, and Emrich (2010). This method was adapted and applied to the city of Rio de Janeiro. This exploratory article aims to evaluate the relevance of the range of indicators proposed in the formation of the considered index by comparing its result for different application scenarios, gradually reducing the number of indicators used to arrive at the optimal number of indicators, simplifying the index without losing representativeness. Therefore, it is intended to evaluate the interference of the number of indicators on the final resilience obtained. The analyses show a small variation in the final indices, demonstrating the possibility of reducing the choice of indicators for measuring local resilience without direct harm to the final result. This index can be used for guidance in the application of disaster risk reduction policies, contributing to the analysis of strengths and weaknesses in the construction of more resilient cities.

Mariana Ribeiro Charles, Rafael Felipe Teixeira Rodrigues, Marcelo Gomes Miguez, Eduardo Linhares Qualharini
Green Infrastructures Driven to Tackle Sustainable Development Goals into European Urban Areas

The increase in urban population concentrated in a reduced spatial area, combined with landscape change (removal of natural areas of vegetation) cause significant environmental pressures with severe effects, which have been getting worse given the current context of climate change (e.g. increased urban heat island effect, urban floods that oppose to significant dry periods). As such, and to mitigate harmful effects from landscape changes, several EU agreements and protocols have been developed and published, from a perspective of environmental protection, sustainable and resilient development of cities. The benefits provided by urban green infrastructures (NbS) have been widely publicized and this type of technologies are a key element to overcome some of the current urban challenges. Nevertheless, NbS strategies are diverse, and each solution must be carefully designed and selected according to the objective to be achieved. A careful planning is therefore essential when trying to implement and endow cities with a more natural and resilient configuration. The implementation of green roofs and/or vertical gardens are an example of NbS that can be applied at a local scale within cities centres, with the advantage to be implemented at the building level and, therefore, not requiring using useful soil area. In addition, the implementation of NbS contributes to the achievement of the European Green Deal and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 11 and 13, of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. However, there is still no legal political coordination at EU level that would oblige investment in these NbS. Thus, urban guidelines and legislation must be developed to make the integration of vegetation in urban planning and design a mandatory solution.

Cristina M. Monteiro, Ana Briga-Sá, Cristina Matos, Cristina Santos

Service Life and Pathologies in Buildings

Frontmatter
Inspection and Diagnosis of Bond Strength Loss in Ceramic Coatings on Building facades: A Case Study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Ceramic coating has been widely applied in facade projects as an element that adds value to buildings since it has a wide range of colors, textures, and options available. However, over time, ceramic facades begin to show damage and deterioration. Among the pathological manifestations that affect ceramic coatings, efflorescence, cracking, and loss of adhesion between the tiles and the substrate are considered the main ones, with the latter being the most serious due to the risk of accidents if any piece becomes detached. The globally used test for diagnosing this anomaly is the tensile bond strength test, but this method has limitations for widespread use. Alternatively, there are simpler methods that do not require specific equipment, such as visual inspection and percussion testing. Therefore, this study aims to compare these testing methods to evaluate the feasibility of using simpler and cost-effective methods for diagnosing bond loss in facade coatings. For this purpose, a comparison between the results of percussion testing and tensile bond strength testing was conducted on the facades of a building in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results presented that percussion testing was able to accurately estimate areas with insufficient bond strength as determined by the bond strength test. Additionally, weakened areas were observed on facades with greater exposure to winds and a stronger influence of darker tile colors, which correlated with a higher frequency of anomalies.

Beatriz Machion Souza Lima, Mayara Amario, Carina Mariane Stolz, Elaine Garrido Vazquez, Assed Naked Haddad
Methodology for Quantification of Staining in Historical Facades

The conservation conditions of historic buildings are fundamental to preserving them and mitigating their degradation. Environmental conditions of exposure can favor the appearance of pathological manifestations, such as staining, humidity problems, and the formation of organic matter, situations commonly found in facades. Although the influences of these phenomena are climatic conditions, characteristics of the surroundings, and constructive details present in the facades. In this context, this work aims to develop a methodology to quantify the stains on historical facades, correlating it to their geographical orientation. For that, we analyzed twenty buildings inventoried by the historical patrimony of the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Images of these facades were taken through Google Street View and then staining was quantified using Adobe Photoshop CC software, using controlled tolerances. Data analysis showed that the geographic position significantly influences the staining, and the southern orientation presented the highest percentage of this degradation. Regarding the constructive details, it was identified that the stain occurs mainly in the upper areas of the facades, in plaques and cornices. Finally, the method developed was adequate for the analysis of facade staining, having similar aspects already used in works of several areas and it is possible to be replicated. This method can be useful to identify patrons and to turn possible preventive maintenance to preserve the historical patrimony.

Carina Mariane Stolz, Cloémara Valerão Lemos, Mayara Amario, Eduardo Linhares Qualharini, Elaine Garrido Vazquez
Surveying Outdoor Timber Walkways and Pedestrian Bridges – Case Studies

This paper presents the outdoor use of timber from a protection perspective. Durability based design must consider various aspects, which include: the evaluation of the environmental conditions and impacts, the correct choice of material, implementing constructive solutions, applying the appropriate treatment and suitable coatings. The methodology applied in this study focuses on the visual inspection and non-destructive testing of two case studies located in urban environment in Lisbon, Portugal. The consequences and causes of each type of deterioration and design issues will be analysed and discussed. Afterwards, the effects of extremely wet and/or dry conditions on structures in correlation with modern construction and design techniques can be used to find suitable solutions to increase the service life. Finally, in-situ testing and the potential of visual assessment are highlighted, providing future research to advance in terms of the most advantageous methods of timber construction regarding durability, saving costs during manufacture and extended service life. This work is part of the research activity carried out at Civil Engineering Research and Innovation for Sustainability (CERIS) and has been funded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) in the framework of project UIDB/04625/2020.

Dulce Henriques, Emmanuil Dialynas, Inês Flores-Colen

Sustainability of Buildings

Frontmatter
BIM and Experimental Design Analysis Toward Sustainable Energy Efficiency in Buildings: A Modular Construction Case Study

This work proposes a novel framework to evaluate the energy consumption of construction projects and empower the decision-making process toward sustainable energy efficiency and management in buildings, through a parametric analysis. A modular construction unit is applied to validate the proposed framework of this work, which intends an integration between Building Information Modeling (BIM) and the Parametric Analysis of construction components (i.e. external walls, roof, lighting control, and glazing type). Autodesk Revit is used to simulate the modular construction unit and its components, Minitab software is applied to simulate an experimental design analysis via the use of several performance parameters related to the design of the modular construction, and Autodesk Green Building Studio is used to simulate the sequences designed in the experimental study. Insights into the potential improvements in energy efficiency in buildings, mainly modular construction buildings, are presented due to the possible integration between BIM and experimental design analysis to perform the changes related to the design factors and performance parameters. This work highlights that some modular construction components such as structural insulated panels could optimize energy consumption when used for external walls, however, using the same component shows less efficiency when used for roofs. Furthermore, using occupancy sensors for lighting control and insulated and reflective glazing types are recommended to increase energy efficiency in such types of construction.

Mohammad K. Najjar, Laryssa Franco de Carvalho Willcox, Mohammad Khalas, Bruno Da Costa, Assed Haddad, Dieter Boer
Buildings Sustainability Certifications and the Common European Framework Level(s)

Climate change, which is already having consequences today, requires changes in humanity’s lifestyle. This necessarily involves the way we inhabit the planet and exploit its natural resources. The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector, due to its importance in the economy, must contribute effectively so that the results have an impact in solving problems such as CO2 emissions and in reducing the consumption of environmental resources, inserting circular economy concepts in the current economic model. One important tool is building certification systems such as LEED and BREEAM. These systems help professionals identify, implement, and measure sustainable practices in buildings during their life cycles. With their own methodologies, the certifications aim to mitigate the impacts generated on the environment, reducing waste production, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions. On the other hand, to achieve the goals set by the European Union for the sector, the European Commission developed the Common Framework for Sustainable Buildings - Level(s), which seeks, through a simple and common language for all Member States, to provide support in the development of “greener” buildings. This framework aims to facilitate the introduction of circular economy concepts in buildings, through a series of indicators that can complement and facilitate the implementation of certification systems. This article aims to analyze these certifications and compare them to the common Level(s) framework to demonstrate how the application of the approach suggested by the EU can contribute to the implementation of certifications. At the end, the correlation found between the indicators of Level(s) and the assessment criteria of both certifications is presented.

Rodrigo T. Lima, Paula Couto, T. Francisco Bastos
Technical and Economic Feasibility Study of Greywater Reuse System Using the Bim Methodology

Rapid urban growth, combined with a lack of investment in infrastructure and pollution of water sources, has led to a shortage of drinking water in Brazil. According to the literature, billions of people in the world lack drinking water and adequate treatment of their domestic wastewater. Therefore, the depletion of water resources in recent decades has required the attention of governments to the need to create environmental policies aimed at the environmental awareness of the population and the search for technological advances in water treatment and management, such as the greywater reuse system. The objective of this work is to carry out a case study on the feasibility of the greywater reuse system in a single-family house using the BIM tool, which allows the technical, economic and social analysis of the project and the comparison with possible scenarios. In the proposed project, water from showers, tanks and sinks will be used for toilet flushing, garden irrigation and washing of waterproofed areas. The methodology consists of the theoretical study of the impact of the subject on the social aspect, followed by sizing calculations for technical analysis, budget of works and financial feasibility study, applying the concepts of payback and return on investment. As a result, a viable project was obtained regarding the social and technical aspect, since the system raises awareness of the population about water waste, reduces the effects of the water crisis and results in the production of greywater greater than the demand for non-potable water. Regarding the financial aspect, the BIM tool was used to project scenarios with 1 bathroom, 2 bathrooms and 3 bathrooms, all of which were found to be infeasible. The payback period for all projects was over 80 years and the ROI period was 100%. Therefore, it is necessary to analyse new parameters for the feasibility of the system.

Milena Silva Andrade, Cristiano Saad Travassos do Carmo, Renata Gonçalves Faisca
Life Cycle Environmental Impact Assessment of a Social Interest Housing Unit: Strategies for Constructive Systems Decision-Making

The objective of this research is to analyze the environmental impact of constructive systems of a social interest housing unit using LCA (Life Cycle Assessment), comparing its elements in order to contribute in project decisions that aim to reduce environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of buildings and to enable more sustainable urban developments. The method for applying the LCA followed the guidelines of NBR ISO 14040 and NBR ISO 14044. From the results found, it is possible to verify that the wall system was the element with the highest concentration of impacts compared to the other analyzed systems. It is then confirmed the importance of defining and choosing the constructive techniques and materials for the building since the elements can contribute to reducing or leveraging the generated impacts. In this way, the main contribution of this research refers to identifying strategic points for the definition and considerations on solutions to be employed for the design of less environmentally impacting buildings.

Marianne Bazzo Di Domênico, Lauro André Ribeiro, Thaísa Leal da Silva
Operational Building Management: Key Aspects in the Pursuit of Greater Efficiency and Sustainability

Whatever the nature of the built heritage, its operation is an important part of the overall management function. It encompasses a wide range of services, skills and tools required to ensure that the built environment meets its objectives, not only in terms of effectiveness but also in terms of economics and sustainability. Indeed, more efficient buildings help us fight climate change and improve our daily lives, putting sustainability concerns on the agenda. In this sense, it is essential to identify the main drivers of change that need to be taken into account, particularly by building managers, who should work in full harmony with other stakeholders such as users, operators, service providers, etc. Based on a comprehensive review, this article summarises what may be the best guidelines to help managers incrementally improve the sustainability of existing assets. In this case, the analysis drivers affecting facilities will focus simply on issues such as water, energy, materials, waste and recycling, and environment and comfort. The aim is that by taking these details into account, managers will be able to plan and achieve sustainability goals in a stepwise manner, incorporating best practice measures, achieving significant cost savings, lasting social impact and making buildings more environmentally friendly and comfortable.

Jorge G. F. Falorca
Analysis of Individualized Water Metering and Its Impact on Water Consumption in a Residential Building

Brazil has at its disposal approximately 12% of the planet's fresh water. Despite this, the coastal regions, where much of the country's population resides, have only 3% of these waters. The conventional standard for measuring water consumption in multifamily buildings is based on the installation of only one water meter before the distribution branch. Therefore, the division of the condominium's water bill is usually done through an apportionment among the residents, based on the total consumption and the built area of each housing unit. However, this method does not encourage a significant concern with consumption patterns and hinders the rational use of water. In this context, this paper analyzes the case of a multifamily residential building, in which an individualized water consumption measurement (SMI) system was implemented. The effectiveness of the implementation of the new SMI, enabling the reduction in water consumption, was evaluated, namely: analysis of the general consumption data of the evaluated building and of an identical building, without the SMI in monthly analysis of both, in a monthly breakdown from 2019, the year in which there was the individualization of the measurement. For this, a field study was carried out, to observe the interventions in a building and illustrate the sequence of procedures to monitor individual consumption, with the identification of leaks, and in a closer monitoring of users that will provide the formation of an awareness about the importance of reducing consumption, being feasible to be implemented, without significant interventions in the buildings. The results showed a progressive decrease after the installation of the individual measurement system. Starting at 14% in 2019; 14% in 2020 and 25% in 2021, when compared to the two buildings.

Rodrigo Penido Lima, Rodrigo Amado Garcia Silva, Monica Pertel, Eduardo Linhares Qualharini
Sustainable Vernacular Architecture to Improve Thermal Comfort in African Countries

This study highlights the importance of bioclimatic design, passive solar cooling and heating systems, and traditional building materials in improving the sustainability and thermal comfort of vernacular architecture in Africa. The lack of available technology, financial resources, and increasing urban populations are significant challenges in implementing sustainable vernacular architecture. To overcome these challenges, this study suggests creating awareness, providing financial aid, preserving traditional buildings, and implementing sustainable urban-development strategies. The study also emphasizes the need for further research to evaluate the impact of renewable energy solutions, energy-responsive designs, and climate change reduction in traditional settlements to inform the development of sustainable vernacular architecture in Africa. Achieving sustainable vernacular architecture presents an opportunity to promote ecological embeddedness, sustainable architecture, land-use planning, and integrated green infrastructure, leading to improved indoor air quality, reduced energy consumption, and protection of occupant health. Therefore, it is crucial to develop strategies that promote sustainable design, community engagement, and locally sourced materials to create a more sustainable future for African countries, thereby contributing to climate change resilience and adaptation.

Michael M. Santos, Ana Vaz Ferreira, João C. G. Lanzinha
The State of the Sustainability Factor for Construction Procurement: The Case of Portugal

Construction procurement criteria can be defined according to multiple factors, most commonly, the price and quality of the proposal. Construction companies must access these criteria during the development of their proposals to increase their chances of being awarded the project. In recent years, after the publication of NP ISO 20400, the sustainability of the proposal has been increasingly included in the procurement criteria in conjunction with other factors, creating a new paradigm for clients and bidders. This paper seeks to describe the use of the sustainability factor in construction procurement procedures and its initial impacts in Portugal, as it pertains to its frequency, designation, and weight in the proposal. Additionally, this document performs a descriptive statistical analysis of the public construction procedures that used the sustainability factor from 2015 to 2022, with the support of PPPData – an open-access dataset comprised of over 5000 procurement contracts. The results of this statistical analysis diagnose Portugal's sustainable public procurement in terms of its geographical, temporal, financial, and performance dispersion, in addition to drawing out its main trends. The paper concludes by discussing this research's main implications and findings and providing the best practices for clients and bidders to implement during the construction procurement concerning the sustainability factor.

Luís Jacques De Sousa, João Poças Martins, Luís Sanhudo

Technological Updating of Constructions

Frontmatter
An Overview of ‘Intelligent’ and ‘Smart’ Approaches in the Context of Buildings

The world has experienced an unprecedented period of technological development over the past decade, largely as a result of continuous improvements in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and, more recently, the powerful impetus provided by remarkable advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI). The impact on buildings has been significant, particularly via monitoring, automation, digitalisation and intelligence - the latter a word often used interchangeably with ‘smart’. It therefore seems important to separate and clarify the existing approaches to ‘intelligent’ and ‘smart’ within a framework that is also consistent with the scope of Building Maintenance Management (BMM). The aim is to provide a detailed and up-to-date picture of the situation. A broad literature review provided the basis for the research strategy. The article reports on some approaches already important in industry today and increasingly applied to the built environment. AI, Intelligent Materials (IM) and Intelligent Buildings (IB) are briefly addressed under the heading ‘intelligent’. From ‘smart’, in turn, terms such as Smart Technologies (ST), Smart Systems (SS), Smart Sensors (SSe), Smart Materials (SMa), Smart Infrastructures (SI), Smart Environments (SE), Smart Homes (SH), Smart Buildings (SB), Smart Cities (SC), Smart Facilities Management (SFM) and Smart Maintenance (SM) can be derived. Overall, the results seem to indicate that the ‘intelligent’ approach emphasises not only technology but also sustainability, adaptability and interaction between users and the built environment, while ‘smart’ is being widely used, and focuses on the application of advanced technologies, connectivity and data analytics to optimise building operations and management.

Jorge G. F. Falorca
Mag Welding of High-Strength Civil Constructions

There is an increasing interest in new, high-strength steel grades in civil constructions. They can be used on various truss elements such as truss nodes and other types of lightweight building structures. Steels for building structures should be characterized by high tensile strength and good yield strength. Joints made of high-strength steels (AHSS) are difficult to weld and do not guarantee comparable mechanical properties. The aim of this work is to find the right method of MAG welding constructions made of DOCOL 1300M steel, which allows obtaining quality joints without defects and with good mechanical properties. DOCOL 1300M is a new construction material with very high strength, but it still poses welding problems. For various filler materials the influence of different welding parameters, such as, electrode wires, shielding gases, the role of preheating and the temperature of the inter-fluid layers on the correctness of the MAG joint with a thickness of 4 mm was analyzed. Results show that a mandatory 100 ℃ preheating and an interpass temperature of no more than 170 ℃ are required to obtain a correct 4 mm DOCOL 1300M joint.

Tomasz Węgrzyn, Bożena Szczucka-Lasota, Abílio Silva

Urban Infrastructure Rehabilitation

Frontmatter
Urban Resilience Concerning Mobility in Downtown Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

Urban Resilience is a city's ability to resist and regenerate in the face of chronic problems and stress. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current situation of aspects of resilience linked to mobility and transport infrastructure and, finally, to propose improvements for the city of Rio de Janeiro. Projects carried out in Rio de Janeiro and other cities will be evaluated based on the comparison of aspects of the urban mobility culture of each city, seeking to highlight the critical points and potential for improvement in Rio, considering applicability and feasibility in the current context of the country and the city.

Thiago Ribeiro, Kêyshilla Rodrigues, Olavo Bastos, Bruno Da Costa, Mohammad Najjar, Dieter Boer, Assed Haddad

Urban Planning - Innovation and Inclusion

Frontmatter
Social Acceptance of Urban Spaces Rehabilitation in a Climate Change Adaptation and Biodiversity Framework

The creative project entitled ‘‘Reimagining of the Cardinal Points Fountain as a biodiversity island” reunited eleven multidisciplinary teams from the Faculty of Arts and Design, the Faculty of Chemistry, Biology and Geography and the Faculty of Sociology and Psychology of the West University of Timisoara, aiming, on one hand, to boost co-creation amongst students and members of civil society, and on the other to include principles of citizen participation as a means of increasing socially acceptance of the urban change. In short, the purpose of this trans-disciplinary student project was to propose alternative routes for the rehabilitation of the “Cardinal Points” Fountain by actively engaging citizens in the co-creation of the desirable new model.Within multidisciplinary teams, the methods employed varied, and embedded in each discipline. Biology students identified plant species suitable for this project through bibliographic documentation of different categories of plants, psychology students measured the social perception of local citizens through two questionnaires developed for this purpose, whereas arts students integrated the results from the other two disciplines and creatively imagined the new vision of the landmark using technologically assisted rendering. The citizen participation was ensured by two questionnaires, one before the new visions of the fountain were created and one after, urging citizens to vote for their most preferred vision.This trans-disciplinary method resulted in eleven imagined versions of the fountain being created based on scientific methods, encompassing both suitable vegetation for the landmark and the attitudes and perceptions of citizens.The future directions refer to the integration of his research in the actual urban rehabilitation of the “Cardinal Points” Fountain as an island of biodiversity. This purpose will be served by an open dialogue between multi-stakeholders, and alternatively, the research result can be integrated into other projects that lead to the urban regeneration of Timisoara.

Patricia Albulescu, Diana Andreescu, Adrian Sinitean, Alexandra Petcu, Sergiu Zegrean
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Proceedings of CIRMARE 2023
Editors
João Carlos Gonçalves Lanzinha
Eduardo Linhares Qualharini
Copyright Year
2024
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-48461-2
Print ISBN
978-3-031-48460-5
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-48461-2