Skip to main content

2023 | Book

Proceedings of International Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing and Automation

ICIMA 2022

Editors: Hari Vasudevan, Vijaya Kumar N. Kottur, Amool A. Raina

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering


About this book

The book comprises of selected papers presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing and Automation (ICIMA 2022), which was organized by the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Production Engineering of Dwarkadas J. Sanghvi College of Engineering (DJSCE), Mumbai, jointly with Indian Society of Manufacturing Engineers (ISME). The book focuses on specific topics of Intelligent Manufacturing, Automation, Advanced Materials and Design. It includes original research articles, focusing on the latest advances in the fields of Automation, Mechatronics & Robotics, CAD/CAM/CAE/CIM/FMS in Manufacturing, Artificial Intelligence in Manufacturing, IOT in Manufacturing, Product Design & Development, DFM/DFA/FMEA, MEMS & Nano Technology, Rapid Prototyping, Computational Techniques, Nano & Micro-machining, Sustainable Manufacturing, Industrial Engineering, Manufacturing Process Management, Modelling & Optimization Techniques, CRM, MRP & ERP, Green, Lean & Agile Manufacturing, Logistics & Supply Chain Management, Quality Assurance & Environment protection, Advanced Material Processing & Characterization and Composite & Smart Materials. It is hoped that the contents in the book will serve as reference for future researchers. The book is also expected to act as a valuable resource for the students of Post Graduate and Doctoral Programmes.

Table of Contents



Analysis of Poor Quality Cost in Auto Industry: A Case Study

Due to high competition and globalization in the current market, there is tremendous pressure on production to reduce the costs of the parts without compromising quality. After manufacturing the parts if it gets rejected, we have to bear the most costly than the raw material used. Continuous quality improvement is a key factor for competitiveness. By correctly applying quality tools, it is possible to find out the root cause of the quality problem to enhance productivity and quality. In this paper, the case study method is used to analyze the poor quality cost in the auto part manufacturing industry by using different tools and techniques to find the root causes and to improve the existing process that delivers quality products.

Umesh Bhushi, Lokpriya Gaikwad, Vivek Sunnapwar
Innovativeness in Indian Defence Sector: An Academic Strategy Perspective and the Way Ahead

The defence sector has been widely recognized as the sunshine sector by many developed and developing countries. India has started shifting its gear in this sector very rapidly, particularly in terms of design, manufacturing and testing facilities. The extant research work in the field throws light on the latest reforms in the defence sector, conducted from different perspectives. The reforms made in the defence sector show elite level of innovativeness happening in the Indian way. This study is inspired by the various reforms happening in the Indian defence sector that too in the midst of COVID 19 challenges. It is important to understand these reforms, so that various strategies can be formulated further to boost innovations in the defence sector, so as to make the experience of Atmanirbhar Bharat and Make in India a reality. This paper further comes out with strategic contributions and identifies key enablers for Atmanirbhar Bharat from an academic perspective, so as to expedite its contribution in making India a global manufacturing destination in the defence sector. This study also concludes with some suggestions and provides for future directions in the country’s efforts towards achieving autonomy in the defence sector.

Anup Chawan, Hari Vasudevan
Work Centre Productivity Analysis for Making the Manufacturing Lean: A Case Study on Glass-Lined Pressure Vessels

Any organization to be lean should have tools and techniques which can be deployed and maintained easily to achieve targeted productivity. The study was carried out at GMM Pfaudler, a leading process solutions supplier for agro, pharma, chemical, and other industries in their glass-lined pressure vessels division. The objective of the study was to make the manufacturing cycle leaner and more productive. Hence, work centre productivity analysis was carried out. Process bottlenecks were carefully examined at each step of the operation, and data for machining processes, downtime of shifts, and daily targets was gathered. It was found that there was a lot of inconsistency in the data which resulted in faulty reporting of machine downtime. Another bottleneck observed was the forming process which is performed on the swaging machine, 150, 300, and 600 Ton Press. To make the manufacturing process leaner, dashboard displays were designed which help not only in understanding the process better but also helped in setting focus on points which otherwise go unnoticed. In the forming process, torch heating of jobs was replaced by induction heating which reduce the time and the labour required to finish the job substantially.

Turvasu Amin, Meeta Gandhi
Improvement in Productivity of Assembly Line by Cycle Time Reduction: A Case Study

This study was undertaken in a biomedical equipment manufacturing organization, situated in Mumbai, so as to improve the assembly process using various ways to reduce cycle time as well as by applying other productivity-oriented methodologies. The primary motive was to generate a lean solution and calculate the value added to the overall production. Installation of automated tools in order to enhance the cycle time reduction of subassemblies, gathering individual worker efficiency data, and usage of jigs in photometer assemblies was involved in the study. After this study, total cycle time was reduced from 52 h per machine to 43.3 h per machine approximately. The organization achieved a saving of Rs. 3.2 LPA and also more number of machines were delivered to the markets per year.

Devanshi Vaghela, Hari Vasudevan, Rajendra Khavekar
A Challenging Future of Industry 4.0—New Technologies and Lean Production Systems

In current years, the industrial system has experienced significant changes as a result of additional advancements known as Industry 4.0 (I.4.0), particularly in the fields of digital automation and production. Industry 4.0, the fourth industrial revolution, was first proposed in Germany and has received a lot of attention in current research. The Internet of Things (IoT), information and communications technology (ICT), Enterprise Integration (EI), Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) and Enterprise Architecture (EA) and are all tightly linked to it. Industry 4.0 is the downfall of the standardized. The purpose of this article is to delve into this new domain and provide the current state of research on I4.0 and lean production systems along with the definition and framework, with the use of novel and key technologies used in I4.0 such as cloud computing, additive manufacturing, industrial Internet of things, cybersecurity and autonomous robots and then tried to find out the correlation between lean manufacturing and Industry 4.0.

Jayvardhan Vyas, Agnel Jenson Arunkumar Paul, G. K. Marthande, Dherya Agarwal, Omkar Yadav
Productivity Improvement Using Principles of Kaizen

Today’s technologically driven environment where the business landscape shifts rapidly, forces many industries to face challenges and complexities be it manufacturing or service-oriented. And thus, to respond to these challenges, adopting lean methods has become important for organizations to sustain their business. Producing or delivering good quality products at higher productivity using minimum resources is the primary objective of any organization. The application of Kaizen, one of the pillars of the lean methodology helps accomplish this purpose.

Krutik Panchal, Atul Dhale
Application of Work Measurement to Reduce the Cycle Time in Manufacturing Firm: A Case Study

One of the factors affecting the productivity of any manufacturing firm is the Cycle time. Lesser the cycle time required, the more production is obtained. Motion and time study techniques are used as productivity improvement techniques in many manufacturing firms. This case study was conducted in a manufacturing firm, situated at Satara, western India, which is engaged in the manufacturing of machines used for construction work. In this study, an attempt was made to reduce the assembly time of crusher machine, using time and motion study. After conducting this study, assembly time was reduced by 9 m, i.e., 10.71% reduction in cycle time was achieved. Work measurement also helped in proper planning of various tasks and scheduling, in order to reduce the indirect costs like electricity bill and rent, etc.

Tejaswini Sapkal, Hari Vasudevan, Rajendra Khavekar
Rapid Tooling Technologies Based on Additive Manufacturing: A Comprehensive Review

This study aims to give an overview of additive manufacturing-based rapid tooling technologies. Rapid tooling is a pre-production segment where AM technologies truly shine, as the tools to be manufactured are less in quantity, and each component should be custom-made according to the process requirements. Therefore, a case study to compare the two manufacturing processes for the production of components based on cost and time constraints is showcased. According to the case study analysis, we can infer that FDM technology offers better cost when it is to be produced in small quantities and when the requirement for customization is very high. In injection molding, the flexibility is significantly compromised, but it yields better results when the component is to be produced in large quantity. In conclusion, it has been shown that the FDM process is advantageous for small businesses or luxury automakers that produce small-scale components.

Ganesh Borikar, Varun Velankar, Sanjana Joshi, Parth Dandawate, Sachin Deshmukh
Role of Drivers, Barriers and Critical Success Factors for Lean Readiness in Indian Manufacturing Industries

Manufacturing sector in India is currently geared up to increase its competitiveness, lower production costs and make goods up to par with industry standards, in the era of Industry 4.0. They are reviewing their manufacturing processes, as a result of increased market rivalry as well. Many industries have adopted lean in recent years to increase their firms’ competitiveness due to the competition's recent escalation. Lean is a corporate approach that seeks to increase efficiency throughout the organization by removing waste, enhancing quality & service and reducing costs. Lean manufacturing has been recognized as one of the critical approaches to enhancing the performance of an organization. The Indian Manufacturing Sector's readiness to adopt lean tools is a challenge in the current environment. In this context, a review of lean manufacturing, covering drivers, barriers in lean implementation, critical success factors, organization readiness for lean and the intention to adopt lean was carried out to build a theoretical framework. The research aimed to identify the critical success factors required to implement lean tools successfully. This study also sheds light on contextual factors, such as organizational culture, which can be used to investigate the link between critical success factors and organizational readiness for lean, leading to the intention to adopt lean tools in Indian manufacturing industries.

Dhaval Birajdar, Hari Vasudevan
Investigation of Quality of Clean-Cut Surface for Sheet Metal Blanking Using Decision Tree

In case of sheet metal blanking, inadequate trimmed condition of such a blanked material may produce fit concerns in the assembly. Cracks may form due to uneven surfaces, leading to a loss of exterior smoothing and improved efficacy. Four underlying parameters are selected after punching: shear angle, punch penetration, burr height, fracture angle as decision-making input parameters to measure quality of clean-cut surface. The fracture depth is determined by gradually increasing the punch penetration. Experiments are conducted with uni-punch tool on the power press, and sheet metal material is IS277GI. This research aims to assess the cut surface quality using surface roughness value, which is categorized into three groups. To measure the efficiency of the cut surface, a classification model is developed adopting the machine learning decision tree classifier technique. The model's reliability is 93% of the Gini and Entropy index.

Pradip Patil, Vijaya Patil
Increasing Time Efficiency in Jewellery Industry Using Lean Manufacturing Principles

In the increasingly dynamic and competitive world of jewellery manufacturing, it is extremely important to be updated with the current industry trends and emphasize a policy of continuous improvement to be able to consistently improve and innovate on the production processes and be competitive on a global stage. The paper aims to increase time efficiency in multiple departments in the company by applying lean manufacturing principles which involves the utilization of innovative industry trends to improve the established manufacturing practices, managerial logistics, and promote better working conditions through higher shop floor to executive integration, streamlined manufacturing processes, and focus on value to customer. This paper aims to address errors and bottlenecks which the company faces during regular operation and suggests solutions for the same. It describes lean principles implementation to decrease tool idle time and improve working practices, reduced overall non-value-added time by 50 min/worker daily and thereby improving time efficiency. Several tools like Kaizen, Kanban, and 5S were used to optimize value-added time in product manufacturing.

Rishi Dasgupta, Deepak Jain, Dharam Ranka
Productivity Improvement by Applying Lean Tools for Manufacturing of Mechanical Seal

Lean tools aid engineers and organization, to identify problems and various losses, waste and to reduce or eliminate them. Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) is a successful lean tool to increase the productivity of the existing manufacturing process flow in a plant. The placement of various machine equipment, facilities for providing services, and staff amenities within a facility affects how effectively production is carried out. The paper gauges the OEE tool and plant layout to know the availability of the machines for manufacturing the seals, its efficiency, and overall quality of the product.

Aayush Shah, Sanket Sane, Mehul Prajapati
A Conceptual Framework Involving Barriers in the Integration of Additive Manufacturing with Industry 4.0 Practices

Industry 4.0 (I4.0) has drawn a lot of attention internationally over the past several years, because of its potential to boost the manufacturing sector’s sustainability and competitiveness in future. For example, additive manufacturing (AM), advanced robotics, AI and ML, big data analytics, cloud computing, smart sensors, Internet of things, and augmented reality are all examples of advanced technologies that are currently referred to collectively by the term “I4.0”. Transitioning from the current centralized production processes and further toward digital and decentralized one, significantly increases flexibility, quality, productivity, cost, and customer satisfaction. Despite the potential advantages of I4.0, firms are still having trouble embracing new technologies and successfully integrating them into their business strategies. I4.0 is thought to have been significantly influenced by AM, and other cutting-edge technologies are now supporting AM’s productive operations in several industries. And therefore, integrating AM with I4.0 technologies is the need of the hour. Although technically feasible, a number of significant obstacles prevent its execution. Very few publications in the extant literature discuss the barriers in the readiness for the integration of AM and I4.0. In light of the above, this study makes an effort to pinpoint these obstacles and comprehend the impact they have on the advantages brought about by this integration. A literature analysis was done on AM and I4.0, covering the obstacles preventing their integration, in order to develop the conceptual framework, while also presenting the constructs chosen and hypotheses made toward attaining the integration. The study’s objective was to identify the obstacles that must be overcome for AM to successfully integrate with I4.0 technologies. According to the study, it is hypothesized that the barriers and organizational factors negatively moderate the benefits of the integration of AM with I4.0.

Trupti Markose, Hari Vasudevan
A Case Study to Control Welding Defects in Pressure Vessels

Welding is the most critical and important process in the Glass-lined technology as any defect in welding could affect the Glassing process which directly impacts the profit margins. The study was carried out at GMM Pfaudler facility at Karamsad in the district of Anand in Gujarat. GMM Pfaudler is a leading provider of process solutions to the chemical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and other allied industries. The majority of the operations at the Karamsad facility is related to the core Glass-Lined Pressure Vessels (Original Equipment, OE) industry. The aim of the study was to examine the work center productivity and the reduction of welding flaws to make the manufacturing cycle more efficient and leaner. A new kind of weld edge preparation was suggested to control and reduce weld faults. The company’s digital management software was also debugged to remove the inconsistency in the data observed. These modifications helped in monitoring welder wise performance also. This led to the reduction in number of welding defects with improved quality of the job.

Krishnan Kaushik, Turvasu Amin, Meeta Gandhi
Managerial Insights into the GSCM Practices in the Indian SME Manufacturing Firms

This research work involved an extensive study on various green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in the Indian SME manufacturing firms. The research also investigated the impact of GSCM practices on business performance and defined in terms of environmental performance, operational performance, and financial performance. Scope of this study was restricted to the broad domain of Indian manufacturing firms, especially the SMEs in India’s western region. Researchers studied the correlation between GSCM practices and environmental, economic, operational, and overall business performance of Indian manufacturing SMEs and also compared them across the three sectors of SMEs (chemicals, textiles, and rubber/plastics). This research work provides useful insights into the GSCM practices in the Indian SME manufacturing firms, which has not been covered and reported by any of the previous studies. Managerial insights resulting from this research could be potentially used to identify key performance parameters of GSCM practices, particularly in sectors, like textile, chemical, and rubber/plastics covered in the study.

Meeta Gandhi, Hari Vasudevan
Waste Reduction of Molded Plastic Parts by Applying Principles of Six Sigma

Six Sigma is a method that provides organizations tools to improve the capability of their business processes. This increase in performance and decrease in process variation results in defects reduction and improvement in profits, employee morale, and quality of products or services. The main objective of this research is to minimize the non-confirming products that are manufactured using plastic injection molding and reduce the waste using Six Sigma. Using statistical techniques to quantify variation, the Six Sigma Philosophy offers a step-by-step methodology for quality improvement. The study focuses on the application of Six Sigma in plastic injection molding to enhance the quality of the finished products by removing significant flaws that occurred utilizing low-cost techniques. In this case, mostly, the focus was on reducing shrinkage defects, which accounted for almost 39% of the overall non-confirming products manufactured. Another goal was to eliminate the root causes of product rejections, by using Six Sigma’s define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) methodology. To achieve desired results, the proposed Six Sigma approach effectively integrates quantitative and qualitative tools such as control charts (p-chart), Pareto charts, histograms, Ishikawa diagrams, measurement system analysis, and checklists. The results show that by implementing the proposed Six Sigma approach can significantly reduce the rejection rate. It was observed that the final product quality had significantly improved, primarily in terms of defects per million opportunities (DPMO) and sigma level, which increased from 4.60 to 4.74.

Hardik Shah, Sujay Karkera, Sandeep Vaity
Influence of Digitized Transforming Enablers on Manufacturing Performance in the Context of Social Dimension of Sustainability

Every manufacturing revolution has so far been progressively developing toward sustainability goals, considering the environment, social, and economic pillars. Impacted by the new technologies, the manufacturing sector, globally, is on the wheels of Fourth Industrial Revolution “I4.0”. The umbrella keyword “digitized transforming enablers (DTE)” discussed in the study encompasses the digital technologies of the I4.0. To date, research on the impact of DTE on manufacturing performance in the context of the social dimension of sustainability has been scant and scattered, especially in the case of small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs). The discussion available in the literature reflects both positive as well as negative results. Due to the lack of relevant literature and inconsistent results, there has been a demand for further research on the subject. The objective of this study was to synergize the DTE implementation and manufacturing performance through the lens of the social dimension of sustainability within the SMEs segment. The study presents a mediation research model developed with the help of theoretical background, based on descriptive and content analyzes. This was done, while also describing the constructs selected and the hypotheses developed by collaborating DTE implementation, indicators of social sustainability as well as manufacturing performance.

Dharam Ranka, Hari Vasudevan
Industry 4.0 Implementation in Indian MSMEs: A Social Perspective

The current status of MSMEs in India suggests that medium-sized businesses have more advanced technology compared to their smaller counterparts. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) cautiously prefer to take baby steps when investing in emerging technologies. Many SMEs are financially constrained and reluctant to implement the digital technologies of Industry 4.0. The organizations need to showcase return on investment before implementing Industry 4.0 technologies. The effect of Industry 4.0 technology on society is a topic of growing interest among researchers. This study aimed to examine these effects using the triple bottom line approach to sustainable development. A model focused on sustainability is offered to assess the impact of Industry 4.0 technology on social sustainability indicators. This study also extends the technical approach that dominates academic literature on Industry 4.0 by identifying the benefits and challenges of its implementation process, assessing the importance of sustainability in Industry 4.0, and analyzing its potential social impact in a developing country like India. This paper considers how sustainable manufacturing research contributes to Industry 4.0 by summarizing present research efforts, highlighting relevant research issues, and evaluating research gaps and future development opportunities.

Pavan Vilas Rayar, K. N. VijayaKumar, Suhasini Vijaykumar
Investigating Critical Process Parameters Using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process in Casting Process Failure

Productivity enhancement of casting process by optimizing the casting process parameters has been a primary focus area of many researchers. It includes optimization of various process parameters in the design phase, through various DOE techniques and simulation software. There have been major shortcomings in these approaches, wherein the data for casting defects in real time were not considered. Real-time investigation of casting failure for several process parameters is a challenge for the foundry industry. Analytical hierarchical process is a decision support technique through which a hierarchical structural model could be generated. There is subjectivity in the retrieval decision because the primary input of the AHP approach was the opinion of industry experts or practitioners. Additionally, this approach considers the validity of the data with constraints on inconsistency. However, there would be an impact on the accuracy of the data and the results if there was a significant amount of uncertainty and doubt, while making a judgement. This has resulted in the development of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach created with fuzzy logic theory. In this context, this study used a hierarchical model that focuses on the casting failure in industries, and accordingly, the model was tested for various process parameters. The outcome of the study provided the priority ranking of the process parameters for various casting failure, in real time through which the critical process parameters were identified in the order.

Amit Chaudhari, Hari Vasudevan
Optimization of EDM Process Parameters Using GRA & Taguchi Method

EDM devices require input for process variables such as current, pulse-on time and pulse-off time while keeping voltage, work time, jump, servo speed and spark gap values constant. According to the fundamental tenets of the grey relational analysis (GRA) approach, the selected alternative should have the “greatest degree of grey relation” to the positive-ideal solution and the “smallest degree of grey relation” to the negative-ideal option. Using a design matrix developed by Dr. Genichi Taguchi, Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design is a sort of general fractional factorial design that enables you to consider a chosen subset of combinations of various factors at various levels. Despite the fractionality of the design, the elements can be assessed independently. This paper discusses applications of GRA and OA, to increase material removal rate and decrease electrode wear rate by optimizing the machining parameters of electro-discharge machining (EDM) using P20 tool steel. The factors selected to decrease time and save money are material removal rate (MRR) and electrode wear rate (EWR), and the machining parameters to achieve the same are current-I, pulse-on time-TON and pulse-off time-TOFF. After using the optimal combination of machining parameters, applying grey relational and Taguchi method, optimal values were determined for improved performance of the machining process.

Divij Shah, Kevin Kamdar, Sandeep Vaity
A Model for Integrating Industry 4.0 and Lean Tools Using Critical Success Factors in Indian Manufacturing Industries

Manufacturing industries in India need to efficiently and rapidly adapt to the changing market conditions, such that it can survive in today’s highly competitive industrial landscape. Industries are gearing up for the transition from the Third to Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0-I4.0). In terms of performance, I4.0 and Lean manufacturing could be a perfect complement to each other. Adopting Industry 4.0 technologies allows for greater cost control, while enhancing product quality. Integrating these technologies into pre-existing production systems and determining, which processes they can assist are still areas of active research. In this regard, a review was done on Lean Manufacturing & I4.0 enablers as well as the critical success factors & absorptive capacity, as the integration approach was carried out to build a conceptual framework. The research aimed to identify the critical success factors required to integrate lean & I4.0 tools. This study also sheds light on the contextual factors, such as absorptive capacity, which are used as mediating variables, so as to integrate lean and I4.0 tools in the Indian manufacturing industries.

Dhaval Birajdar, Hari Vasudevan
A Survey of Existing Maturity Models for Implementation of IoT in SMEs

To fully realize the potential of the Internet of Things (IoT), it will be necessary to overcome the significant obstacle of ensuring the participation of small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) in the implementation of IoT. IoT is critical for ensuring SMEs’ manufacturing competitiveness; however, little is known about the implementation stages for IoT in SMEs, as well as the resources required to reach the next stage. The analysis of readiness factors is essential to encourage IoT adoption in SMEs. Few researchers, however, have proposed a readiness framework that takes into account technological forecasting to assess the rate of IoT adoption and, in turn, lay out a plan for its introduction in SMEs. The purpose of this research was to examine the current Maturity Models (MMs) so that a new MM could be proposed to address their shortcomings.

Sanket D. Parab, Ashish Deshmukh
Sustainability Benefits and Barriers in the Integration of Additive Manufacturing with Industry 4.0 Practices—A Conceptual Framework

The sustainability crisis is a developing problem that all business sectors need to address, if they want to continue to be responsible, relevant and competitive. Manufacturing companies have embraced the idea of sustainable manufacturing to manufacture goods and processes that are more environmentally friendly. Industry 4.0 (I4.0) technologies are currently finding applications in many industrial sectors. I4.0 may be able to reduce excessive manufacturing, material mobility and energy consumption, when supported by intelligent devices. The development of additive manufacturing (AM) technology opens up a number of possibilities that might be very advantageous to designers and accordingly improve the sustainability of products. AM is a key component in the context of I4.0. It has the ability to completely transform the current state of manufacturing and pave the way for the development and widespread implementation of sustainable, circular business models. According to several studies, this technology has the potential to improve material use, produce novel shapes, personalize designs and reduce production times, all of which have the potential to significantly alter some of the current business models. In light of the above discussion, a literature review on AM and I4.0 was conducted in order to develop a conceptual framework, covering the sustainability benefits of AM & I4.0 integration as well as to identify the barriers resulting from their integration. The study's goal was to pinpoint the sustainability benefits derived from integrating AM with I4.0 technologies as well as the challenges that must be overcome. According to the study, the integration of AM with I4.0 is believed to have a positive effect on both the sustainability benefits and the barriers caused by the integration.

Trupti Markose, Hari Vasudevan
A Socio-Economic Perspective of the Industry 4.0 Implementation in Indian MSMEs

The current statusof the recent developments among India's MSMEs point to the fact that these establishments are more technologically savvy than their smaller competitors. It's understandable that SMEs would rather take it slow when it comes to investing in such technologies. Experts are paying more attention to how Industry 4.0 innovations will affect sustainability in terms of economic, environmental, and social factors. Numerous articles highlight the detrimental effects of not adopting Industry 4.0 on a country's economy. Many SMEs are cash-strapped and require proof of ROI before allowing upper management, customers, or employees to adopt new technologies. Non-empirically valid measurements are those used in investigations that rely on things like literature reviews or case studies. This means there is a substantial information gap when it comes to creating an all-encompassing performance monitoring system for sustainable manufacturing (SM) in the context of Industry 4.0. The impact of Industry 4.0 technologies on sustainability in society and the economy is of growing interest to academics. Using the triple bottom line approach to sustainable development, this study set out to investigate these consequences. To analyse the effect of Industry 4.0 technology on these metrics, a sustainability-oriented model is provided. This study aims to summarise current research efforts, identify key research themes, and identify research gaps and future development prospects to evaluate sustainable manufacturing research's contribution to the advancement of Industry 4.0. By examining the potential socio-economic impact in a developing country like India and identifying the benefits and challenges for its implementation process, this study goes beyond the technical approach that dominates academic literature on Industry 4.0.

Pavan Vilas Rayar, VijayaKumar N. Kottur, Suhasini Vijaykumar, M. S. Rohokale
Application of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving in Value Engineering Methodologies and Its Phases

This study was undertaken in a manufacturing organization to integrate various Theory of Inventive Problem-Solving (TRIZ) tools in implementing value engineering methodologies. The single-pointed focus of TRIZ used in the study was to find an inventive solution to a problem, which could be regarded a subset of the wide range acceptability that Value engineering/Value analysis offers. The primary focus was to enhance the function under observation, from whatever stand (technical, financial, and human factors etc.), which was most crucial to the job at hand. A case study was carried out, using TRIZ tools in solving the engine size issue of Boeing 737 aircraft, without compromising on the ground clearance. As part of the study, the volume of air was considered as an improvement parameter and length of engine case was considered as the worsening parameter. The problem at hand was solved using the contradiction matrix of TRIZ.

Rajat Deshpande, Hari Vasudevan, Rajendra Khavekar
Understanding the Drivers and Barriers in the Implementation of IoT in SMEs

Internet of Things (IoT) is important and contribute to the manufacturing competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses (SMEs). However, not much is known as to how IoT is used in SMEs. Drivers steer the implementation of IoT in SMEs and barriers create hurdles in the implementation of the same. To realize the potential of the IoT, it will be necessary for SMEs to overcome the barriers by implementing the corresponding driver ensuring the implementation of IoT. The purpose of this paper was to study the existing literature and narrow down the most significant drivers and barriers, which will be the first step in creating a framework for IoT implementation in SMEs.

Sanket D. Parab, Ashish Deshmukh, Hari Vasudevan
Study on Evolution of Hydrogen Gas Bubble on the Performance of the µ-ECDM Process

The evolution and breakdown of hydrogen gas bubbles at the tool electrode contribute to material removal in ECDM process. Gas film behavior in ECDM process is a very complex phenomenon. The film characteristics depend on several electrochemical and physical parameters, which are interconnected. Controlling the H2 gas bubble evolution influences the response parameters like material removal rate (MRR), hole overcut (HOC), depth of penetration (DOP), heat-affected zone (HAZ), and surface roughness (SR). The present study gauges the evolution of hydrogen gas by controlling the inter-electrode gap (IEG), current density, with or without separator, system temperature, inclination angle, and surface wettability of electrodes.

Mehul Prajapati, Devdas Lalwani
Machine Learning to Estimate Gross Loss of Jewelry for Wax Patterns

In mass manufacturing of jewelry, the gross loss is estimated before manufacturing to calculate the wax weight of the pattern that would be investment casted to make multiple identical pieces of jewelry. Machine learning is a technology that is a part of AI which helps to create a model with decision-making capabilities based on a large set of user-defined data. In this paper, the authors found a way to use machine learning in the jewelry industry to estimate this crucial gross loss. Choosing a small data set of manufactured rings and via regression analysis, it was found out that there is a potential of reducing the error in estimation from ±2–3 to ±0.5 using ML algorithms from historic data and attributes collected from the CAD file during the design phase itself. To evaluate the approach’s viability, additional study must be undertaken with a larger data set.

Mihir Jain, Kashish Jain, Sandip Mane
Influence of Digitized Transforming Enablers on Manufacturing Performance in the Context of Economic Dimension of Sustainability

Throughout the history, every industrial revolution has advanced in the direction of sustainability by balancing the needs of the profit generation, welfare of people, and the planet sustenance. The global manufacturing sector is currently riding on the waves of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, also known as “I4.0,” which has been triggered by the emergence of new technologies. The umbrella keyword “Digitized Transforming Enablers (DTE),” discussed in this study encompasses the digital technologies of the I4.0. To date, research on the impact of DTE on manufacturing performance in the context of the economic dimension of sustainability has been relatively scarce and sparsely distributed, especially in the case of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The extant literature available in the research reflects both positive as well as negative results. Due to the dearth of appropriate literature and varying findings, there has been a demand for further research on the subject. The objective of this study, therefore, was to synergize the DTE implementation and manufacturing performance through the lens of the economic dimension of sustainability, within the SMEs segment. The study presents a mediation research model developed with the help of theoretical background, based on descriptive and content analyses. This was done, while also describing the constructs selected and the hypotheses developed by collaborating on the DTE implementation, indicators of economic sustainability, and manufacturing performance.

Dharam Ranka, Hari Vasudevan


Automation on Industrial Monitoring System for Salt Spray Test

Automation is crucial to any given industry because it simplifies routine tasks and reduces stress for operators. The salt water test typically takes 1000 h, or 42 days, which is a long time to keep an eye on, but with the help of automation, the testing phase can be finished in that time. A low-cost, real-time automated monitoring system for salt spray testing equipment is presented in this paper. Electrochemical sensors, solenoid valves, float switches, and contactors make up the bulk of the system's hardware. The effectiveness of the automated system, as well as its ability to withstand a severe saline environment, its energy needs, and its air supply, were all assessed. The experiments showed that automation can be useful and implemented even in companies with limited funds for purchasing new automation equipment.

Nirvi Shah, Sanket Parab
Enhancing Productivity of a Photometer Using Automation and Regression Analysis

A photometer is one of the main parts in a bio-medical equipment. This study was conducted to enhance the productivity of a photometer used in one such equipment, using regression analysis and automation. Installation of automated tools was carried out to reduce the wastage of time across the production line. As a result, the overall cycle time was decreased from 52 h per machine to 44.3 h per machine. A saving of $300 per machine was also achieved.

Aayush Shah, Hari Vasudevan, Rajendra Khavekar
Development of IOT-Based Hybrid Helium Drone for Flight Time Enhancement

Drones, also called as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) which are more popular in a various industries. It is growing continually in all round the world. Today, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology is in high demand across a range of industries, from the military and the government to the private sector and the media (like tracking, monitor, surveying, watching, testing, observing, sampling, controlling, guarding, search, checking, rescue, monitoring, environmental surveillance, and entertainment). This study proposes the use of a newly developed design for a hybrid helium drone based on the Internet of Things in order to increase the drone's flying duration. The goal of this article is to use cutting-edge technology to demonstrate the viability and use of drones. In the first place, there is the present drone literature, from which we may learn about the capabilities and limitations of the technology as it is. The paper's most crucial section focuses on the drone's design, electrical system, and IoT technologies. The drone's Internet connection opens up a world of IoT possibilities. An updated design concept for a helium-assisted compound drone is proposed to extend the duration the drone can stay in the air and allow it to fly at high speeds in both the vertical and horizontal planes. The compound drone's principal design goal is to be inexpensive for the end user, and its many advantages among them ease of production and relative cheapness compared to other kinds of drones make this possible. To authenticate the effectiveness of the present design, practical experiments were conducted.

S. N. Waghmare, S. D. Shelare, N. P. Mungle, K. R. Aglawe
Operational Logic for Electronic Continuously Variable Transmission Using PID Control

In order to abstain from expensive and complicated conventional transmission devices and to reduce mechanical inefficiencies and energy losses, while still improving the performance further, an electronic continuously variable transmission is seen as an alternative solution. The actuation logic for such a transmission device is discussed in this study. Force analysis of the custom CVT model has been discussed in depth, and further equations were derived as part of the study. The logic made use of custom-derived CVT equations, coupled with a PID controller. A code has been developed for the same through testing, which could be used to realize the actuation in a physical setup. Based on the results, it was evident that the results obtained align with the expected results, thus tuning the CVT optimally throughout the lifecycle.

Prathamesh Mehta, Rishit Gandhi, Sadique Selia, Yash Thakkar, Ramesh Rajguru, Hari Vasudevan
Smart Social Distancing Robot for COVID Safety

Social distancing plays an indispensable part during the ongoing pandemic. In this period, maintaining social distancing standards between people has turned into essential insurance to dial back the spreading of COVID-19. We present an original technique to recognize matches consequently of people in a jam-packed situation individuals do not maintain the social distance restriction, which calls for about 3 ft of space between them. This project assists in restricting the spread of the coronavirus by noticing the distance between disease-spreading people. Presently, it is absurd to expect to station an individual 24 × 7 at each line to screen social separating distance violations. For instance—banks, public offices, malls, schools, theatres, and so forth typically see long lines for hours consistently. To ensure social distancing in lines, this robot aids in monitoring the social distancing. Accordingly, this robot aids in maintaining the social distance between the crowd in a public environment to assist and forestall the spread of the virus. This robot serves to be an economical solution in public places where the gathering of people is significantly high. With appropriate obstacle detection, and crowd monitoring the official are also kept updated due to the Wi-Fi and IoT technology incorporated into a robot. This robot is expected to serve as a good solution in this pandemic time.

S. G. Rahul, Velicheti Sravan Kumar, D. Subitha, Seeram Sai Sudheer, Amruthavalli Archakam, M. Nikhileswara Sri Venkat
Simulation of Hybrid Energy Systems Using Historical Meteorological Data of Location

The renewable energy forms the alternate option to conventional power generation based on fossil fuels owing to limitations in availability and polluting nature. This study on hybrid energy generation strategy with solar and wind energy highlights on functional aspects of site/device selection, operational feature of MPPT to improve efficiency that reduces energy costs. The hybrid renewable system though less efficient than conventional system offers advantages of zero fuel cost and environmental benign nature. The hybrid model developed in MATLAB/Simulink takes input in form of climate and load parameters to develop strategies that maximize net energy gain. The solar irradiance, daylight hours, temperature, wind speed and geographical parameters constitute inputs to evolve operating strategies for hybrid system. The results obtained from the model deceits the effectiveness of the model. Weather prediction is done using genetic algorithm to predict cloud coverage of Hubballi location. The dataset is selected for 6 months and fitness of the model is found up to 85%.

Zebaafreen Dadapeer Sirmulla, Veeresh G. Balikai, M. B. Gorawar, P. P. Revankar, Rakesh P. Tapaskar, Vinayak H. Khatwate
Design and Prototyping of a Trekking Smart Backpack

This project aims at designing and prototyping of a trekking smart backpack for the trekkers to provide solutions to all the basic needs and requirements of an individual during trekking in a cost-effective way. Smart backpacks are like any ordinary backpacks, but integral with some smart features. Smart backpacks combine everything under the fabric sack. It is made to adapt to the lifestyle of the modern user. During designing, various factors such as weight distribution, force applied, etc., were taken into consideration. The calculations and analysis were done manually using various engineering techniques and software. Designing was done in accordance with the values obtained by various calculations and considering all practical scenarios that can affect the backpack performance. Prototype modelling was done for the parts which were designed for optimizing the performance and accordingly the required OEM parts were selected. After the completion of the modelling, we proceed to test our design so as to check the sustainability and the degree of optimization that we have achieved.

Vrushabh Vora, Kartik Ajugia, Meet Patel, Meet Solanki, Ronak Gohil
Numerical Validation of Thrust Produced by Remotely Operated Vehicle

This paper inspects the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses in order to obtain various hydrodynamic characteristics of an observation class remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). This is accomplished by comparing the thrust generated from CFD analyses with the thrust measured from experimental results. Hence, analyses are conducted using ANSYS FLUENT solver, for steady state linear motion of the ROV at different speeds, while considering the rotational motion of propeller. Subsequently, few of the most commonly used turbulence models and methods for simulating propeller motion are compared. As a result, the k-w (omega) shear stress transport (SST) model for turbulence, with moving reference frame (MRF) approach for propeller motion is used in this study. The paper also goes over a simple and low-cost test Jig that was used to measure the thrust produced. This paper also briefly describes the process of 3D printing the propellers used in this study.

Aditya Date, Amey Parab, Burhanuddin Telwala, Meet Rathod, Vinayak H. Khatawate, Prasad Shirodkar
Design of Gripper Arm for a Robot Trolley

The current COVID-19 pandemic situation necessitates the need for a prompt, safe and a contactless method for the dispatch of basic items and other essentials in various domains such as hospitals, manufacturing industries and warehouses. Contemporary robot technology can help build robots that can handle objects safely and replace and/or assist humans in such domains. Robots with soft grippers can be used in hospitals where lightweight items like bottles, medicines and tablets can be handed over to patients. They can be used in warehouses to lift objects of varying topology. This paper discusses the design of the gripper arm for a robotic trolley that can be used to pick and place objects. The gripper arm was modelled on Autodesk Fusion360, and the analysis was done on Ansys. The arm and the gripper were manufactured using ABS plastic and a composite material consisting of elastosil silicone rubber, respectively.

Bhagyesh Agresar, Gaurav Dalvi, Harsh Mehta, Amaan Rajpuriya, Greegory Mathew


Experimental Investigation of Sound Absorbing Materials

Noise has become one of the four major pollution types in the world. Constant exposure to noises can cause all kinds of health problems such as hearing loss, cardiovascular disease and sleep disorder. Following paper investigates the ability of porous and solid materials to absorb the generated sound for different geometries. Many natural and synthetic material have been developed and tested for acoustic applications. Impedance tube is used to find absorption coefficient of specimen is tested experimentally and the research shows the peak of absorption coefficient changes with porosity and peak value affected with various geometrical shapes in specimens. Finally, we get the peak absorption coefficient in porous material than the solid geometry of same material. In this research, we study the different sound absorbing materials with different geometry and comparative study between the materials. A thorough analysis of the research on the future scope of work, issue statements and goals connected to converting two-wheelers with IC engines into electric two-wheelers. In accordance with our practical analysis, our bike come in second position in overall championship, it is found that motor of electric vehicle generates high frequency sound. The intensity of research and the development in manufacturing processes, we anticipate that the range of new sound absorbing materials will expand to manufacture the casing of motor over the next few years.

Vishakha V. Mankar, Sandeep Thorat, Sachin Pawar, Khushal Mulik
Improvement of Quality in Adhesive Mass Coating Process Using Statistical Process Control

This study was conducted in production firm to enhance the process capability of adhesive mass coating process to reduce rejections of adhesive coats due to their out specifications. Statistical tools were integrated for analysis. The causes for deviation were identified and using controls, the process was made capable. The process performance level was brought to the desired range of Ppk > 1.33. As a result of the study, the number of rejections was decreased and a saving of approximately $10,000/annum was achieved in the firm.

Aanchal Gandhi, Hari Vasudevan, Rajendra Khavekar
Study of Properties of Aluminium Composites Reinforced with Triple Reinforcements

Aluminium metal matrix composites have widely replaced aluminium alloys as the preferred material for the fabrication of components and products. Researchers have fabricated these composites by reinforcing aluminium alloys with ceramic reinforcements of various sizes and types. Some researchers have also experimented by reinforcing aluminium alloys simultaneously with three different reinforcements. This paper specifically reviews the work done by such researchers and the overall effect of triple reinforcements on the mechanical and physical properties is summarized.

Greegory Mathew, K. N. Vijaya Kumar, Suhasini Vijaykumar
Optimization of Machining Parameters for Surface Roughness in the End Milling of Hybrid Composite Using Response Surface Methodology

A certain degree of machining must be done on hybrid composites (glass and carbon fibres), created by basic manufacturing procedures, so as to achieve close fits and tolerances. End milling is a common method for finishing machined flat plate hybrid composite products, having aerospace, automobile, wind turbine blade and prosthetic applications. This study was performed using, PVD TiAlN coated carbide tools, under dry conditions. Three input parameters, namely nose radius, having two levels, cutting speed and feed rate, having three levels each were considered. Surface roughness parameter Ra was considered as the output performance measure. Taguchi L18 orthogonal array (OA) was applied for the design of experiments. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the input performance parameters. A response surface was generated to investigate the effect of input variables and their interactions on the response. From the analysis of the mean effect plot, it was observed that the most significant input parameter on surface roughness was the feed rate. Optimization results revealed that the best surface roughness was observed at a combination of A1B2C1, i.e. nose radius of 1 mm, cutting speed of 94.69 m/min and feed rate of 300 mm/min.

Shreejeet Sharma, Hari Vasudevan, Ramesh Rajguru, Shreyash More, Nimish Mayekar
Effect of Agro Waste Reinforcements on the Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Composites

Research on the development of cost-effective aluminium composites have led researchers to explore agricultural waste materials as potential reinforcements. Aluminium composites with such agro waste reinforcements have been reported to possess properties that are comparable to those with purely ceramic reinforcements. This paper specifically reviews the work done by these researchers and summarizes their fabrication details and the effect of agro waste reinforcements on the mechanical properties of aluminium composites. The corresponding improvement/reduction in their properties as compared to the base aluminium alloy has been tabulated.

Greegory Mathew, K. N. Vijaya Kumar, Suhasini Vijaykumar
Fabrication of Fibre-Reinforced Composites Using Vacuum Infusion Process and Testing

Nowadays, industrial requirements for lighter components with high mechanical resistance have motivated research studies on alternative materials along with their appropriate forming processes. To meet the demands of the industry, fibre-reinforced composites have shown to be an appropriate solution as can be seen, especially in the increment in aircraft components manufacturing. Though, research on composites is reasonably at an advance stage now, it still faces many limitations to be covered, like temperature resistance, fabrication, and also sometimes the strength. In the context of this, two types of fibre-reinforced composites were fabricated using the vacuum infusion process with polymer, such as epoxy and polyester and reinforcement as fibre, such as woven fabric and chopped fibre along with different types of filler materials. Fabricated fibre-reinforced composite was tested for mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and flexural strength. A combination of three woven mats impregnated with epoxy resin with mica filler gave the highest tensile strength of 183.67 N/mm2. Whereas, composites with epoxy and silica filler gave the highest flexural strength of 127.811 N/mm2.

Nimit Merchant, Hari Vasudevan, Ramesh Rajguru
Optimization of Process Parameters in CNC Turning of Hastelloy C276 Through Taguchi Method

The current work focusses on an experimental investigation to determine how tool geometry and machining process parameters affect the surface irregularities and rate of material removal during CNC turning of Hastelloy C276. Feed rate, cutting speed, depth of cut and nose radius were the selected parameters. The experiments were designed and conducted using Taguchi method. Statistical tool—Minitab was used to compute the S/N ratios and the mean values to determine the optimum values of the process parameters. The results indicate that nose radius and cutting speed significantly affect the quality of the machined surface and the rate of material removal.

Mahir Mistry, Greegory Mathew
Experimental Investigation, Modeling, and Optimization of Cutting Forces in Dry Hard Turning

The capacity of hard turning to replace traditional grinding operations is attracting the interest of automobile and allied industries today. In this context, the thermal modeling and tool life estimation depend on a precise understanding of cutting forces, under different cutting conditions. Cutting force is a critical technological parameter that must be controlled continuously by selecting the appropriate cutting parameters during the machining process. Given the background, this study used response surface methodology to model and optimize radial cutting force (Fr) during dry hard turning of AISI 52100 alloy steel. The influence of cutting parameters on the individual components of the cutting force was investigated using ‘analysis of variance’ (ANOVA). The depth of cut (d) was shown to be the most important cutting parameter, whereas the feed rate (f) and cutting speed (v) had minimal effect on cutting force components. The cutting parameters were shown to have an effect on the most noticeable radial cutting force component. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to build a cutting force (Fr) model. To establish the validity of the investigation, diagnostic and confirmatory tests were carried out. The model’s cutting force predictions matched the experimental values well.

Sandip Mane, Hari Vasudevan
Process Optimization Using Design of Experiments on Rubber–Metal Bonded Products Using Full Factorial Method

The term “design of experiments” (DOE) refers to a subfield of applied statistics that focuses on the planning, conducting, analyzing, and interpreting of controlled experiments to determine the variables that affect the value of a parameter or set of parameters. It is a methodical approach to figure out the connection between the inputs and outputs of a process. The main objective of this research was process optimization of rubber–metal bonded products using DOE by full factorial method. This helps in obtaining the best input parameters for the process resulting in an optimized product and thereby saving time and cost. It’s a method for determining the relationship between factors affecting a process and the process’s output. It allows for the manipulation of multiple input factors in order to determine their impact on a desired output (response).

Latesh Shah, Trupti Markose
Predictive Modelling of Cutting Force in the Machining of Duplex Stainless Steels Using Artificial Neural Network

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method is used in this research study to develop a predictive model for main cutting force, during the turning of Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS). The primary network architecture consisted of three layers, namely input, hidden and output. Input layer consisted of four neurons and output layer consisted of single neuron. Different architectures of ANN were tested by varying the neurons in the hidden layer from three to ten. Three training algorithms, viz. Levenberg–Marquardt (LM), Bayesian regularization (BR) and scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) were applied to train each of the network. Three evaluation metrics, namely R square, Root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), were used to select the best performing models. Finally, the prediction accuracy was calculated for each of the three best performing models by comparing the predicted values with the actual experimental observations. The network having 9 neurons in the hidden layer and trained using Bayesian regularization (BR) displayed the highest prediction accuracy of 99.96%.

Naresh Deshpande, Hari Vasudevan
Impact of Process Parameters on Machining-Induced Micro-Hardness in Dry End Milling of Inconel 625 Using Coated Tool

Super alloys, such as nickel-based alloy Inconel 625, are capable of maintaining their excellent mechanical properties, even after extended contact with high temperatures. The class of super alloys was mainly developed for the components of aircraft turbine engines as well as turbo-superchargers and many other industrial uses, such as oil and petroleum refineries, chemical plants, gas turbines and rocket engines. However, they are difficult to cut during the machining process and induce high micro-hardness on machined surface. Machining-induced micro-hardness has been generally recognized as one of the key factors among all surface integrity parameters. Micro-hardness measurements are considered significant in the determination of wear and corrosion resistance as well as to obtain an in depth understanding of machining-affected region. This study was carried out to investigate the machining-induced micro-hardness of Inconel 625, during the end milling under dry environments with ultra-hard coating. ANOVA in combination with mean effect plot was applied for the analyses of micro-hardness. ANOVA results indicated the R2 value as 98.16%, very close to 1, implying that the model terms are significant. Cutting speed and depth of cut were observed as the prime factors on machining-induced micro-hardness. Minimum micro-hardness (266 HV) was obtained at a higher feed per tooth, lower cutting speed, higher depth of cut and positive radial rake angle.

Ramesh Rajguru, Hari Vasudevan


Design and Development of Vacuum Frying Machine for the Production of High-Quality Fried Products

The advancements in technology today are leading people toward a prosperous future, but the abrupt shift to a busy lifestyle is causing anorexia, and as a result, people are more susceptible to several diseases. Fried meatballs, chicken, chips, beans, and countless more fried foods are famous due to their advertised high nutritional content, mouthwatering flavor, and crunchy texture. However, using such fried products has many health risks that most people are unaware of; instead, consumption is increasing at a high rate per year all over the world. The oil-fried foods are more likely to have high levels of acrylamide, a carcinogen that can cause harmful effects. Vacuum frying is the greatest alternative since it dramatically reduces the amount of this acrylamide substance without significantly altering the nutritional value of the raw product, including food products like potato, carrot, apple, mango chips, etc. It has become essential to keep producing products tailored for the customer’s needs in the constantly developing world of technology, where new products are continually being introduced with a wide range of features. The vacuum frying machine’s design strategy is not well understood due to a lack of data. Therefore, this paper examines the design and development of a vacuum frying machine from its current model to a new, improved model while taking into account customer needs, safety requirements, serviceability, user-friendliness, and the addition of new functions without lowering the machine’s quality or ramping up its cost for small–scale industries.

Amit Choudhari, Pavan Rayar, Sunil Shimpi, Neel Pawar, Satish Ambetkar
Comparison of Methods for Predicting Muscle Activations and Knee Joint Contact Forces During Squatting Using OpenSim

Musculoskeletal modeling and simulation software available give a non-invasive prediction of joint contact forces. However, the results are very sensitive to optimization techniques and model choice. In this study, muscle activations and knee joint contact forces (KJCF) were predicted for squatting using two different optimization techniques along with two musculoskeletal models. OpenSim 4.2 was used to simulate squatting using motion capture data and ground reaction forces. Electromyography (EMG) signals were filtered, rectified, normalized, and compared with predicted muscle activations. Good agreement was observed between predicted muscle activations using OpenSim and the EMG with few exceptions using both models. KJCF showed a significantly large difference using both models and optimization techniques. The study demonstrates the sensitivity of results to optimization techniques and model choice. The study also shows the incapability of musculoskeletal models to predict KJCF during squatting.

Rohan Kothurkar, Ramesh Lekurwale, Mayuri Gad
Seal Face Design of Dry Running Seal Assembly to Reduce Gas Leakage

Mechanical seal designs have always been a challenge, as there are various working conditions related to the seal. Hydrostatic load, mechanical load, surface roughness, seal film thickness, physical and chemical nature of the working fluid have affected the seal design. The paper examines the development of non-contacting dry gas seal face with rotating groove technology that has a longer life span than mechanical seals. The performance of the seal is predicted by comparing the design from the data used to determine the forces that affect gas seals with the experimental data, and the results are discussed.

Samip Purohit, Adeen Shaikh, Mehul Prajapati
Analysis of Railway Box Bridge for the Efficient Movement of Trains and Locomotives

The recent development in the trains and locomotives improve the efficiency of the movement of trains and locomotives. The approach suggested the comparison of the structural analysis of the railway box bridge using the manual method and the Staad Pro. The RCC box type bridge is selected for the analysis which is approached with the design and structural analysis consists of structural elements such as top, bottom, and side wall of slab were designed to withstand the maximum bending moment considering the maximum ultimate load criteria by varying the different loads such as dead load and live load. The analysis results into the time consuming with the quite complex analysis related to complex structure. The result obtain is in good agreement with the computational method.

Sarika Modak, Pramod Belkhode, Prashant Maheswary, Kanchan Borkar
CFD Analysis of Air-Swirl Burner

Computational fluid dynamics has an extended application in the field of fluid flow analysis. This paper encompasses various temperature and pressure profiles which are obtained for understanding the process of combustion in burners. Application of burner is ranged from the domestic to critical aerospace power use. The entire process of combustion has the temperature and pressure as its critical parameters which are obtained in this study. Hence, the simulation is been carried out for air-swirl burner for various fuel–air mixtures, namely stoichiometric, rich, and lean for specific boundary condition to generate their respective temperature and pressure profile. Using these profiles, further instabilities in the combustion process can be identified and worked upon for further analysis.

Rishika Patel, Shital Patel, S. N. Teli
Design of an Electronic Continuously Variable Transmission Actuation Mechanism to Optimize Efficiency

In today’s industry, conventional CVTs are being replaced by E-CVTs due to various advantages, such as high efficiency and ease of tuning. Despite these advantages, actuation in E-CVT has been an area, lacking proper research and development. Thus, the design of a highly performant actuation mechanism was carried out and is presented in this paper. The proposed actuation mechanism involved the use of a power screw coupled stepper motor system. Different methods of force transmission were proposed for both the driving and driven pulley of the E-CVT. Corresponding calculations were done and CAD modeling was performed in Solidworks to conceptualize the design. In addition, FEA was performed on the components in ANYSYS Workbench to verify the viability of the design. As a result, the mechanical losses were seen reduced significantly due to low rotational inertia, low noise and low heat generation. It also resulted in an improved lightweight as well as compact E-CVT, with an increased life cycle over the conventional mechanical CVTs.

Prathamesh Mehta, Rishit Gandhi, Sadique Selia, Yash Thakkar, Ramesh Rajguru, Hari Vasudevan
Design and Development of Electromagnetic Braking System in Automobiles

The disc or drum brakes are used in a conventional braking system. Any vehicle's braking system is required to slow or stop its movement. Brake systems in automobiles were used in response to high comfort and safety standards under various operating conditions. A magnetic braking prototype model is developed and examined in this study to improve the braking system in automobiles. The experimental results observed that increasing the electric current generates an electromagnet which creates drag force and causes the vehicle speed to be slow down. The aim of the electromagnetic braking system is to reduce brake failure and prevent accidents on the road. It also minimizes braking system maintenance. This system has the benefit of being able to be installed in any vehicle with simple transmission and electrical system adjustments.

G. Yedukondalu, A. Srinath, Sivaram Dheeraj Vishnubhotla, Kosana Anjani Lohith, Donepudi Satya Raviteja
Comparative Study of Maldistribution on a AEL Design of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using Conventional and Inline Nozzle Position

Maldistribution is the uneven distribution of the mass flux through the various tubes of a shell and tube heat exchanger. A numerical comparative study between the AEL type of shell and tube heat exchanger (SHTE) with conventional nozzle position and an inline nozzle position has been done at various inlet velocities of 3.31, 5 and 7 m/s. It was concluded that as the inlet velocity increased the maldistribution also increased for both the designs of heat exchanger. Also the maldistribution was always greater for header with inline nozzle than the conventional nozzle position.

Kartik Ajugia, Vinayak H. Khatawate
Design and Analysis of a Compliant Displacement Amplification Mechanism

Compliant mechanisms are a new class of high-performance mechanisms which transmit motion and energy through elastic deformation. Due to its monolithic construction, light weight and precise motion, it is preferred over traditional mechanisms. This paper discusses the design of a compliant displacement amplification mechanism using the parametric model. The mechanism consists of two key sections—the input section and the output section. For the input section, the parallel motion flexure design using semi-circular hinges was used. For the output section, two designs viz. with FLEX-16 hinges and with dyad hinges were considered. Mechanisms with these hinges were nonlinearly analyzed using ANSYS Mechanical APDL. Design with dyad hinges was finalized for the output section based on inferences from the FEA results.

Jay Mistry, Elroy Menezes, Prathamesh Indulkar, Greegory Mathew
Design and Development of an Indexing Drill Jig for Currency Counting Machine

The study involves the designing of a custom drill jig to manufacture a crucial component of currency counting machines. A drill jig is a work-holding device that holds, supports and locates the workpiece and guides the drill bit to perform the drilling operation. The holes to be drilled are equidistantly located along the lateral curved surface of the cylindrical workpiece. Indexing refers to a process of quick and accurate location of a workpiece or fixture in a number of specific positions. An indexing plate type indexing mechanism was developed to drill all five holes without the need of clamping and unclamping the workpiece multiple times. The components were designed, assembled and drafted using Solidworks. Height gauges were used to determine the positioning of the drilled holes with respect to the face of the workpiece. Go/no-go gauge was utilized to verify the diameter of the drilled holes. Implementing indexing drill jigs significantly improved the accuracy of the position at which the holes were being drilled. The consistency of the manufactured components and the rate of production of the housing were also significantly improved.

Parth Masurkar, Vaishavi Narkar, Shubham Phanse, Amit Chaudhari
Performance Testing of Parabolic Dish Type Solar Cooker with Dust Accumulation

The limitations of fossils fuel are well known to all. It is necessary to find an alternative solution for fossil fuels. Renewable energy is always a ray of hope for a researcher as well as humankind. Solar cooking may be a small but very important contribution to saving conventional fuels. There are many solar cookers available in the market. Existing solar cookers have some drawbacks. The main concern of its performance, cost and availability for all time has been the focused points of this research. It has been found from the literature survey that low cost and efficient reflective material is very necessary for solar cookers. The performance of solar cooker is affected due to dust accumulation on reflector surface. In this paper, the parabolic solar cooker is analyzed by applying different reflective materials with the effect of dust. Anodized aluminum sheet, aluminum foil, silver-coated LDPE foil and polished aluminum sheets are used as reflective materials for the solar cookers. All these materials are available in almost all cities of India.

Harshal Patil, Nishikant Kale
Performance Optimization of an Air Heater with Delta Flow Obstructions: A Taguchi Approach

Air heaters are used extensively for space heating and drying agriculture products. Flow obstructions disturb the laminar sublayer formation and thus improve the performance of an air heater at the cost of additional pressure drop. In the present study, the design parameters (angle of attack—α, relative obstruction height—e/H, and relative obstruction width—b/Pt) of the delta flow obstructions were optimized using the Taguchi approach to maximize the thermal performance parameter (Nu) of the air heater with minimum pressure drop. The study reveals that the relative obstruction height (e/H) is the significant factor influencing the performance of the air heater, followed by α and b/Pt. A delta flow obstruction with α = 30°, e/H = 0.25, and b/Pt = 0.25 is found to be the optimum combination of design parameters. Delta flow obstructions with optimum design parameters produce a thermal enhancement factor (TEF) of 1.76 in comparison with a smooth duct.

Bronin Cyriac, Siddappa S. Bhusnoor
Increase in Solar Panel Efficiency by the Use of Easy Mirror and Cooling Gadget

Powered by solar cells, CPV has an advantage over non-concentrated photovoltaics as it requires fewer large solar cells for the same intensity output. Besides the duration and intensity of sunlight, the temperature also affects the overall performance of PV modules. This is because excessive temperatures will significantly reduce the output power. This research paper describes practical ways to improve the overall performance of solar panels using the valuable resource of using mirrors and cooling mechanisms. These reflectors are inexpensive, easy to install, and require no machinery or equipment to install. However, the CPV works effectively in concentrated light as long as the solar cell is kept cool by the heat sink. Experimental results show a significant improvement over the traditional sun panel output.

Vinayak Patil, Sandip Kanase, Shivgond Teli, Jaydeep Patil, Yayati Shinde, Sandhya Jadhav, Amit Kadam
Structural Analysis of Endodontic Restorations

An intraoral prosthetic called a dental prosthetic is used to repair intraoral flaws such as missing teeth, sections of teeth, and missing soft or hard elements in the jaw and palate. The dentistry specialty that focuses on dental prosthetics is called prosthodontics. These prostheses are utilized to restore mastication (chewing), enhance appearance, and facilitate communication. A dental prosthesis can be fixed to teeth or dental implants, suctioned into position, or held passively by the muscles around it. There are many materials which are commonly used for dental restorations, such as porcelain, zirconia, dentin, gold, and amalgam. The objective of this research is to compare prostheses made of ceramics and zirconia to find their breaking stress using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and validate the results of FEA with experimental results.

Raj Barot, Abhishek Mishra, Mihir Balvally, Dipesh Malvia, Vinayak H. Khatawate, Rajnarayan Yadav
Experimental Analysis of Sprayer for Horticulture and Orchards

This research paper intends to provide an analysis of the electric motor-operated heated triple pump (HTP) sprayer for a long range of jet discharge used in horticulture and orchards. The spraying is used to control the weeds, insects, and disorder subjected to crops, such as grass, fruits, and vegetables. This sprayer is assured by the HTP unit, which is driven by an electric motor. The HTP unit consists of three pistons which are referred to as “heated triple pistons” which move in a water suction chamber which sucks water from the formulation tank by the reciprocating motion of a triple piston. These triple pistons are connected together by means of a crankshaft in perfect coordination, and the rotational movement of the crank shaft is achieved by means of a pulley which is mounted on a crankshaft stop which is driven by an electric motor and power is delivered to the pulley by means of a V belt. The electric motor is rotated at 1400 RPM. The electric motor is single-phase operated and requires a 230 V to 240 V electric supply to run the electric motor, which has a frequency of 50 Hz. This HTP sprayer unit is used to achieve a high pressure of 10 bars to 30 bars, and a range of 1 m to 10 m is achieved by using this spring unit. This spraying unit can minimize non-uniform calibration of mist formation.

S. D. Shelare, S. N. Waghmare, M. M. Yenurkar, G. R. Jodh
Computational Estimation of Air Flow Parameters of an Outdoor Air Purifier

Air pollution has become one of the biggest threats to human health. Installation of an outdoor air purifier can be an effective measure to combat air pollution. For designing an efficient air purifier, estimation of air flow parameters and selection of an appropriate axial fan for creating air suction is of utmost importance. In this paper, an analytical method to calculate CFM and computational estimation of static pressure drop across the various filtering components of the purifier is discussed. Details of CFD analyses and the corresponding boundary conditions are also presented.

Dhairya Dipesh Mehta, Dheeraj Harish Jaisingh, Kartikeya Kripal Attavar, Akshay Daxesh Brahmbhatt, Greegory Mathew
Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Delta Wing

The wing area with a triangular planar shape is called delta wings. The supersonic flow is, in many respects, completely different from the subsonic flow. These differences affect the design philosophy of supersonic and subsonic aircraft. This research addresses subsonic flow and design on delta wings. CFD is being used to improve the delta wing’s efficiency in this project. An experiment necessitates the use of a design model, which is more time consuming and expensive than using CFD methods for the same purpose. A computational fluid dynamics model underpins the whole investigation. At different angles of attack of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, the flow over a NACA0012 aerofoil is analysed in two dimensions. This analysis is performed by considering various parameters like temperature, pressure, and velocity using computational fluid dynamics using Software ANSYS2016.

Kapil R. Aglawe, Swagat Giri, Subhash Waghmare
Design of a Passive Assistive Exoskeleton for Improving Overall Worker Productivity in Industries

The purpose of this paper has been to study and implement the design of a passive exoskeleton, specifically developed for industrial use and assess the potential effect of this exoskeleton on the reduction of physical loading on the body. The exoskeleton is a device with a clamp incorporated for mounting and transmission of forces onto the support. The proposed exoskeleton in the study uses only a passive mechanism to assist industrial workers. The unit was designed to assist industrial workers by reducing the carrying load of an object, weighing up to 500 N. This mechanical unit uses a sophisticated spring mechanism to divide the load and transmit it to the waist and within the chassis. The design consisted of a gravity compensation mechanism, i.e. 4-bar mechanism and springs to assist the motion. Exoskeleton designs, excluding hydraulic and electrical systems, use purely mechanical systems. Therefore, the entire system designed is simple, lightweight, inexpensive and easy to assemble. The target users are industrial workers, and hence, cost is the determining factor for this prototype. The material chosen was steel, which saves money, but also increases the effectiveness of the exoskeleton. Analysis was performed using software to ensure durability and functionality of the exoskeleton, and this could be further improved using finite element analysis.

Parth Amal, Nimish Mayekar, Atharva Patil, Shreevardhan Sooryavanshi, Rajguru Ramesh, Hari Vasudevan
Design and Shape Optimization of a NACA0018 Airfoil Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for Highway Applications

In the present work, the Helical Gorlov vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with NACA0018 airfoil is taken for study and optimization. The design, analysis, and optimization for maximum power generation along with taking considerations of the strength are studied. The theoretical calculations for power generated are done and validated using the CFD analysis. The model of the aforementioned VAWT is analyzed for flow and strength requirements using CFD and structural simulations. The VAWT can be implemented for electricity generation along highway medians contributing toward a clean energy environment.

Vedant Kale, Parth Shah, Simran Gupta, Yashashree Prabhune, Vinit Katira
Performance Optimization of Steam Ejector Using CFD Analysis

The simplest devices are jet ejectors between all compressors and vacuum pumps. There are no moving parts, lubricants, or seals and are therefore considered to be the most reliable devices with low supporting costs. Factors affecting the performance of a jet ejector are molecular fluid weight, feed rate, tube length mixing, tube area, throat size, fluid speed, pressure rating, and temperature range. In this work, the optimization of jet ejector using CFD was carried out by creating a model and analyzing the multi-phase flow model of steam and water and the consequence of possible borderline environment on the clone answers using a commercial software of Ansys Academic 2021. The results show a 14.66% increase in the entrainment ratio of the fluids. The CFD results were compared to analytical model, and the deviation was calculated which was in the acceptable range, thus conforming to the reliability of CFD models. Lastly, a two-inlet nozzle was studied which gave an appreciable amount of entrainment ratio.

Abdullah Rumane, Shilpa Mondkar
Proceedings of International Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing and Automation
Hari Vasudevan
Vijaya Kumar N. Kottur
Amool A. Raina
Copyright Year
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

Premium Partner