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About this book

This book gathers the proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Measurement and Quality Control – Cyber Physical Issues (IMEKO TC 14 2019), held in Belgrade, Serbia, on 4–7 June 2019. The event marks the latest in a series of high-level conferences that bring together experts from academia and industry to exchange knowledge, ideas, experiences, research findings, and information in the field of measurement of geometrical quantities. The book addresses a wide range of topics, including: 3D measurement of GPS characteristics, measurement of gears and threads, measurement of roughness, micro- and nano-metrology, laser metrology for precision measurements, cyber physical metrology, optical measurement techniques, industrial computed tomography, multisensor techniques, intelligent measurement systems, evaluating measurement uncertainty, dimensional management in industry, product quality assurance methods, and big data analytics. By providing updates on key issues and highlighting recent advances in measurement and quality control, the book supports the transfer of vital knowledge to the next generation of academics and practitioners.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Advanced Manufacturing Metrology in Context of Industry 4.0 Model

Abstract
The Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Metrology Systems (CPM2Ss) are based on integration of the Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) and connection between Internet of Things (IoTs) and Cloud technology (CT). These are high-level methodologies for development of new generation manufacturing metrology systems, which are more intelligent, flexible and self-adaptable. CPM2Ss generates Big Data, horizontally by integration (network of machines/CMMs, processes and sensors) and vertically by control (usually defined over five levels) which should be analytically processed and managed by the Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Metrology (CPM2). In this paper was given, a detailed analysis of the current framework of development the Industry 4.0 model, with a special place and role of CPM2 in current model. A brief overview of the concept CPM2 research, particularly in Serbia is given as well.
Vidosav D. Majstorovic, Numan Durakbasa, Yasuhiro Takaya, Slavenko Stojadinovic

System Development for Microsphere Measurement Based on Whispering Gallery Mode Resonance

Abstract
A sphere is frequently used as a reference for calibration of 3-dimensional measurement instruments because of its isotropic shape. Assuring an accuracy of the reference sphere is responsible for measurement uncertainty. Therefore, sphericity and diameter of the reference sphere need to be guaranteed with high accuracy. For micro-scale 3-dimentional metrology, size of the reference sphere is also micro-scale from several millimeters to a few tens of micrometers. These spheres have to be measured with accuracy of better than 10 nm. We have proposed the new measurement method of a microsphere based on whispering gallery mode resonances. One of the key points to the proposed method is to measure the whispering gallery mode resonant wavelength accurately. In this paper, the measurement instruments of whispering gallery mode resonances in the microsphere was developed.
Masaki Michihata, Yumeki Kobayashi, Bohuai Chu, Kiyoshi Takamasu, Satoru Takahashi

Verification of the CMM Measuring Path Based on the Modified Hammersly’s Algorithm

Abstract
This paper presents a CAI verification of the measuring path for inspection of prismatic measuring parts (PMP) which consists of the basic geometric features. The aim of the verification is to visualize collision check between the measuring sensor and the workpiece. The simulation of the measuring path was realized on the configured virtual CMM in the CAD environment. The generated measuring path for inspection planning at the CMM consists of three sets of points. The first set of points, measuring points, is generated based on the modified Hammersly’s algorithm for distribution of measuring points by the features from which the workpiece consists. The other two sets, nodal points, are collision fee points, which are generated on the basis of the developed model that analyze accessibility to features at the level of one feature and based on the principle of collision avoidance when pass from one feature to another (requirement of tolerance). On the basis of these three sets of points, the total measuring path without collision is generated. The measuring path generated in this way is verified by simulations on a configured virtual CMM through several examples of standard forms of tolerance.
Slavenko Stojadinovic, Sasa Zivanovic, Nikola Slavkovic

Validation of Virtual CMM-Based Method for Uncertainty Estimation of Measurements Performed on Five-Axis Coordinate Measuring Machines

Abstract
According to guidelines of international standards it is necessary that all methods used in calibration and test laboratories for determination of measurement result and uncertainty should be validated. It is important especially in case of methods that are newly developed to fit some purpose. One of such methods is a virtual CMM-based method that was designed for uncertainty estimation of measurements performed using five-axis coordinate measuring machines. Different methodologies were chosen for validation of this approach. Theoretical aspects of them like basic rules of their implementation and selection of validation criterions were presented in this paper along with description of validation experiments and their results. The main finding of this research is that Virtual CMM prepared for five-axis coordinate measuring machines passed the validation carried out using all mentioned methodologies.
Adam Gąska, Wiktor Harmatys, Piotr Gąska, Maciej Gruza, Jerzy Sładek

Metrological Approach for Testing Performance of Optical 3D Measurements Systems

Abstract
For quality control purposes, many manufacturing industries perform dimensional metrology checking processes that often necessitate the use of precision optical 3D measurement instruments, such as fringe projection systems, laser scanners and other similar non–contact systems. The typical measurement accuracies of commercially available instruments are down to few micrometers. In order to assure traceability of measurements to the SI, the meter, these instruments are normally calibrated by using different precision measurement standards, such ball bars and special 3D set-ups. With these optical standards, a range of different kinds of optical measurement instruments, together with their associated internal reference scales and image processing algorithms can be evaluated and then verified.
Recent research work in the field 3D optical artefact calibration is presented in this book. In addition, a tetrahedron ball standard and a method for calibrating 3D optical measurement systems are presented. The outcome of the presented research is a calibration procedure with approved measurement uncertainty that has already been accredited by the national accreditation body.
Bojan Acko, Rok Klobucar

Determination of Resistance Spot Welding Parameters to Guarantee Certain Strength Values Including Regression Analysis

Abstract
In today’s manufacturing world spot welding and its quality control take especially in the sheet metal industry a big place. According to that, a sheet metal part group has been taken from an automotive supplier firm. Several spot welding parameters (force, current and time) have been applied to these parts. The parameter limits have been apartly applied to the certain test parts. After applying the chisel tests, the spot welding region dimensions have been measured. The strengths of these regions can be defined with tensile tests, too. A relationship between these determined nugget diameters, strengths, calculated empirical strength values and welding parameters can be created. Finally, the relationships can be explained with mathematical formulas, too. These examinations have been done to give limit values for a simulation research to find a relationship between distortions after spot welding and spot welding parameters. It has been checked and confirmed on the production line of the supplier firm that these limit parameter values have guaranteed the welding strength. Verbal observations for the relationships and exceptions by those will be achieved, too.
Cem Yurci, Anil Akdogan, M. Numan Durakbasa

Development of a 3-Axis Displacement Measuring Heterodyne Interferometer System Usable with a He-Ne Laser of Either 3.76 MHz or 20 MHz Split Frequency

Abstract
We present a 3-axis displacement measuring heterodyne interferometer system developed for use with a He-Ne laser at the wavelength of 633 nm having a split frequency of either 3.76 MHz or 20 MHz. The system consists of an optical interferometer, a signal processing board, and a software.
The interferometer can simultaneously measure the displacements of three axes, from which the distance, tilt angles of a moving object can be determined in real time. A digital logic circuit which calculates the displacement values from electric signals converted from 3 optical interference signals, was developed. To demonstrate the measured results graphically, we developed a graphical-user-interface software. In addition, a feedback function through a high speed communication bus was added to the system so that it can be applied for motion control of a moving stage requiring scanning and alignment of a thin film coated substrate such as a silicon wafer. The performance of the interferometer was checked by comparing the measurement values of the displacement of a moving stage obtained simultaneously by a commercial laser interferometer and the developed interferometer.
Kyu Sik Yoon, Eun Ji Jeong, Don Young Jeong, Chu-Shik Kang

Hard Gauge Visualization – Effective Tool for MMR Verification Discussion

Abstract
The concept of author’s application Geometrical tolerancing that supports teaching and vocational training on the geometrical product specifications rules and verification methods is briefly presented. The maximum material requirement (MMR) modifier defined in the ISO 2692 changes the classical meaning of the geometrical tolerance symbols. The classical concept of a tolerance zone is replaced by the concept of a gauge. The idea of the maximum material modifier is based on functional requirement – assembleability. The paper contains a few screenshots from the interactive animations that are employed to demonstrate the MMR concept as well as relevant verification method. The sequence of developed scenes effectively help to understand and distinguish the role of the MMR modifier for the tolerance features and the datum features. For the datum features application of the MMR modifier produces an additional mobility for a group of all features considered as a pattern. This extra mobility depends on the datum feature actual mating sizes as well as on the 3D configuration of the datums and their precedence. It is demonstrated that employed animations clearly show that the bonus tolerance when the datum feature deviates from the MMC is virtually allowable rarely – only for specific configurations of a datum features geometry.
Marcin Berta, Zbigniew Humienny

Research of Traceability of Unit of Length in Metrology System of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Abstract
The actual status of metrology infrastructure of B&H on the state level and possibilities for improvement in future was discussed in this paper. The Institute of Metrology of Bosnia and Herzegovina (IMBiH) is a Government authority on the state level performing the functions of conformity assessment. Institute also has a role in harmonization of B&H legislation with the EC Directives. Since 2009. IMBiH has been full member of the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET). Basic adopted laws in force on metrology in B&H are Law of metrology as well as Law on Measurement Units. The metrology system in B&H is highly decentralized, with a lack of correspondence between different levels of authorities. Accredited laboratories and other laboratories occupied with length measurement make their own traceability chain using laboratories in region and without inclusion of IMBiH. Laboratory for length in IMBiH is responsible for the realization and maintenance of the National Standard for Length and transferring unit of the length to lower rank standards and calibration of measuring instruments. Unit of length, in the Laboratory for length is realized through Iodine stabilized He-Ne laser of wavelength 633 nm. The laser is realized according to the definition of meter, i.e. according to the requirements of the International Recommendation for Practical Realization of the meter (CIMP 1997/2001 ‘Mise en pratique’). This laser can be used for calibration of other lasers with wavelength of 633 nm including laser interferometers for length measurements.
Almira Softić, Hazim Bašić, Samir Lemeš, Nermina Zaimović-Uzunović

Surface Topological Investigation of Seal Bushing by Using Chromium Plating Process

Abstract
According to utilization functions and environments; various plating methods have been applied on metallic manufactured products to improve some properties such as friction, wear resistance and corrosion; besides mechanical properties such as stiffness, ductility, toughness, fatigue strength, etc. The chromium plating has been commonly used plating technology at manufacturing sector providing a coating of wear resistant chromium with a micro-scaled thickness on metal products. The chromium plating is to gain high toughness, resistance of corrosion, low coefficient of friction and improve some properties of material. Chromium acid solutions consisting of one or more catalytic anions are used for chromium plating. The aim of this study is to investigate the surface roughness parameters for coated and uncoated seal bushing surfaces. The material of seal bushing is AISI 420 steel, which is included in martensitic stainless steels and has quite high tensile strength. After the heating process was applied to the seal bushing, chromium plating was implemented with different currents and periods on the surface of the material. The chromium coating was successfully deposited on a seal bushing surfaces. Experimental data was collected from three different types of the bushing surfaces. After coating process, the finishing methods, such as grinding etc. were implemented. The results indicated that coated surfaces had higher surface roughness values than the uncoated surfaces. According to the results of Wilcoxon test, there were a significant difference between Workpieces B (cutting+turning+chromium plating) and C (cutting+turning+chromium plating+grinding); Workpieces A (cutting+turning) and B.
P. Demircioglu, I. Bogrekci, M. N. Durakbasa, N. Demir, U. Kose

A General Concept of Measurements of Form Deviations of 3D Rotary Elements with the Use of the Adaptive Strategy

Abstract
Measurements of form deviations of 3D elements can be conducted with various strategies. Such strategies differ in a number and distribution of sampling points located on an investigated surface. Low number of sampling points can bring about the situation that some surface irregularities cannot detected by a measuring system. An application of higher density of sampling points, in turn, results in significant lengthening of measurement time, which is undesirable. This is why authors propose to develop a novel, adaptive measurement strategy. Proposed adaptive strategy consists of two stages: a preliminary measurement and additional measurements. During the preliminary measurement an investigated area is scanned along a preselected trajectory. If measurement results show that there is a significant change of sensor readings in a certain fragment of an investigated surface, then we conduct additional measurements in the area where the large change of sensor readings occurred. The paper presents the state-of-the-art on contemporary measurement strategies of 3D elements and fundamentals of the adaptive strategy proposed by authors.
Krzysztof Stępień, Dariusz Janecki, Stanisław Adamczak

Re-engineering of Manufacturing Parts by Computed Tomography Data

Abstract
The number of computed tomography (CT) applications today is satisfactorily high and rapidly increasing in many environments. Many manufacturing industries use CT technologies. In order to able to reach very accurate internal dimensions even at complicated workpieces to achieve the internal structure of a manufactured object is one of the main advantages of the system. Its’ non-destructive style, comparison capability with reference models and extremely high attribute imaging are the other issues. In this paper, CT systems, scanning capabilities and technological developments is examined in the frames of the latest technology and future CT technologies. It especially gives the latest information about inspectable materials and application examples of manufacturing industries. Because innovative design and development works of industrial products in manufacturing environments require valuable big data. The conducted experimental CT results were used for re-engineering applications for continuous improvement of the manufacturing process. The results were also valuable for quality control and sustainable quality assurance.
Anil Akdogan, Ali Serdar Vanli, Numan Durakbasa

Manufacturing Automation for Magnesium Die Casting

Abstract
High pressure die casting (HPDC) of magnesium alloy parts is mostly problematic. Because magnesium alloys oxidize at above 400 ℃. They need to be protected by the proper gas atmospheres during manufacturing. Besides, other components of an integrated HPDC cell such as casting machine, melting-dosing unit, gas mixing system and die heating-cooling device must be carefully designed in order to obtain the desired high quality products. This work guides to design manufacturing automation of HPDC process in order to get succeeded results in product quality. It also details the manufacturing parameters like gate velocity and intensification pressure for better quality parts. The collected big data about manufacturing analyzed as computer aided quality parameters which were used for continuous improvement of the process. The obtained data from the manufacturing process was used to increase the product quality expectations like high density and satisfactory mechanical properties. At the end of the conducted manufacturing experiments at our industrial scale die casting cell the required quality values were obtained.
Ali Serdar Vanli, Anil Akdogan

Multi-material Acceptance Testing for CT-Based Coordinate Measurement Systems

Abstract
This contribution presents a multi-material acceptance test for computed tomography-based coordinate measurement systems (CT-based CMS). The multi-material test requirements and concepts – based on the international reference standard ISO 10360 – are presented. Also, a set of multi-material reference standards for the assessment of the probing error test (P-test) and length measurement error test (E-test) are presented. For the P-test, two half spheres made of different materials are assembled to a sphere. A multi-material hole cube standard is used for the assessment of the E-test. The hole cube consists of two symmetric half cubes made of different materials. For both, multi-material spheres and hole cube standards, the materials were selected to obtain two multi-material scenarios: (1) with high and (2) with at least a medium attenuation ratios. Thus, for the probing test, silicon nitride, aluminium oxide and lead-free glass N-SF6 were used. The hole cubes, however, were made by paring aluminium, a special ceramic material called carbon fibre silicon carbide (Cesic) and titanium. Form error and size measurements were evaluated in the multi-material spheres as well as hole-based centre-to-centre distances were evaluated in the hole cubes. The proposed test and multi-material reference standards were successfully tested, as they appear to be suitable for evaluating the multi-material error characteristic of CT-based CMSs.
Fabricio Borges de Oliveira, Markus Bartscher, Ulrich Neuschaefer-Rube, Rainer Tutsch, Jochen Hiller

Adaptive Calibration for Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine

Abstract
The calibration of the coordinate measuring machines is performed based on the mathematical model of those machine. The feature of the artifact is measured by CMM, the kinematic parameters are determined by comparing the calculated coordinates and the calibrated coordinates. However, it is assumed that the CMM is rigid and stable in any orientations and locations. The actual CMM is not sufficiently rigid and stable. Especially the articulated arm CMM is not. In order to consider the CMMs’ deformation and improve the accuracy of those, it is proposed that the model equation, the kinematic parameters and the estimators are replaced with the neural network. The calibration method using the neural network is called the adaptive calibration. The neural network is trained based on the relationship between the inputs and the coordinates successfully. In this article, the adaptive calibration is applied to the articulated arm coordinate measuring machine.
Ryoshu Furutani

Training in the Aeronautic Industry for Geometrical Quality Control and Large Scale Metrology

Abstract
Advanced manufacturing of aircraft, and the large parts needed in this field, is based on multiple suppliers located in different countries and continents, intensively using automation, data exchange, advanced manufacturing technologies embedded in the digital era. Several national and international initiatives (e.g. Industrie 4.0) are oriented to support this effort and development. New opportunities for advanced manufacturing of aeronautic products are based on measuring technologies for Geometrical Quality Control and Large Scale Metrology. In the Aeronautic Industry they are an essential tool for the implementation of the initiatives in modern product engineering and process control. To operate, programme and manage the most advanced measuring systems, highly competent and skilled personnel is required.
The authors will describe new developments in the framework of the international project “WINGS+”, addressing the training needs of the Aeronautic industry, and suggest innovative training solutions with focus on the competent use of relevant measuring systems.
Luis Rocha, Paul Bills, Michael Marxer, Enrico Savio

New Improved Method of Setting the Jaw’s Coordinate System

Abstract
Precise and reproducible alignment of the coordinate system plays a key role in the processes of monitoring geometric parameters. In cases of long-term processes, which are executed in multiple phases, errors in setting the coordinate system can lead to wrong conclusions and mismanagement of these processes. Orthodontic therapy, ie teeth leveling, lasts for one year with controls every month. The geometric parameters (teeth positions) are monitored by the dental arch equations. During each control, the current state is compared with previous control. Conditio sine qua non is precisely and repeatably setting of the jaw’s coordinate system. The ABO method (American Board of Orthodontics; digital model orientation) does not provide repeatability in successive controls. In this study, a new method of setting the coordinate system of the jaw is presented. To ensure as user-friendly procedure as possible a simple algorithm is listed. A case study on digital dental model analyses for dental arch curve mathematical definition is presented at the end of the study. This is an example of the application of engineering methods in non-engineering areas.
Srdjan Živković, Nemanja Majstorović, Branislav Glišić, Davorin Kramar

Determination of the Optimal Regression Model for the Measurement Quality Characteristics of the Micro Cutting Stone-Based Materials

Abstract
Micro cutting represents one modern approach of processing the materials in order to achieve parts that feature high surface quality with low intensity of residual cracks. In the most cases, these parts are small sizes. Mechanisms that occur during micro cutting are not similar to those that occur during macro cutting. Even in the case of micro cutting brittle materials, the micro cutting mechanism becomes much more complex. The possibility of processing brittle materials in a ductile mode allows reduction of the intensity of the residual cracks within the material, since there is no initialization of the cracks within the material in this regime. However, although in this mode part is only plastically deformed, the intensity values of the components of the cutting force can vary considerably, especially if the processing is carried out on stone-based materials that are highly heterogeneous. In order to establish an adequate dependence of the cutting force components of the processing regimes, it is necessary to apply optimal regression model on the experimental results that will optimally cover all existing conditions, which is also the topic of this paper. The material over which micro-cutting experiments were carried out was marble Plavi tok. Experiments were carried out with two different tools whose tip radius value were R0.2 and R0.15 mm, and the value of the micro-cutting speed was vs = 25 m/s.
Miloš Pjevic, Slavenko Stojadinovic, Ljubodrag Tanović, Mihajlo Popović, Goran Mladenović, Radovan Puzović

Assessment of Influence of Scanning Parameters on Uncertainty of Measurements Performed Using Laser Tracking System

Abstract
Laser tracking systems are the basic tool used in large-scale measurements in such fields like aviation or automotive industries. Except to the standard applications like the construction of features from individually measured points, they can be also used in the scanning mode measurement to obtain a trajectory of moving target. Such application can be met for example during the industrial robots accuracy verification. Evaluation of the accuracy of these systems, in particular when they operate in scanning mode, is difficult due to the multiplicity of parameters affecting the measurement uncertainty. Factors that have an impact on accuracy of the Laser Tracker system include user-defined parameters that determine the density of points acquisition during scanning. Authors try to assess the impact of these parameters using a methodology that utilizes coordinate machine with high repeatability. A Spherically Mounted Retroreflector system installed on the coordinate measuring machine quill allows the Laser Tracker system to track the movement of the machine along the programmed path. Coordinate measuring machine performing continuous movement enables scanning measurements of specific features and their evaluations. By repeating measurement procedure for changing scanning mode parameters it is possible to indicate differences in the accuracy of the system. Basing on the obtained differences authors propose the limits for tested parameters which allow to achieve the optimal ratio of point acquisition density and the measurement duration for scanning measurements performed on the laser tracking system.
Maciej Gruza, Piotr Gąska, Wiktor Harmatys, Adam Gąska

On the Association of Datums and Measurements Using Conventional Measuring Devices - Topics Within the GPS Toolbox Project

Abstract
This paper presents the challenges encountered in elaborating two learning modules for the Erasmus+ project 2015-1-PL01-KA202-016875N “GEOMETRICAL PRODUCT SPECIFICATION (GPS) AND VERIFICATION AS TOOLBOX TO MEET UP-TO-DATE TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS”. The ISO GPS standards define the language that allows expressing all requirements for the geometry of a product considering the current possibilities of measurement. GPS specifications are continuously growing, and many additional tools appeared, especially new, so-called modifiers. The authors of this paper developed these courses allowing students to gain enough knowledge on subjects like metrology, measurements, design and technical drawings. The learning module 8 (first topic) includes subchapters that present the symbols, datum indications, figures and examples of 2D and 3D drawing indications of datums (datum feature indicators and identifiers, datum targets, specification of datums and datum systems) according to the latest versions of ISO 5459 and ISO 1101. Learning module 23 (second topic) provides information for reading the indications of three different types of conventional instruments (callipers, micrometers, dial gauges) as well as for choosing the right instrument for the required measurement.
Grigore Marian Pop, Liviu Adrian Crisan, Mihai Tripa, Calin Neamtu, Mihai Dragomir

Practical Aspects in the Application of Geometrical Product Specifications and Verification (GPS) in the Micro and Nano-Scale Manufacturing

Abstract
The exciting task of penetrating into the micro and nano range represents a great challenge for the engineer. In this work we try to get closer to the area by means of the geometrical product specifications and verification (GPS) system. In order to familiarize future engineers with the application in this area, it is necessary to deal with these topics. Generally technologies in that size seeks to explore and exploit the novel and unique properties of materials when their size is reduced to the nanoscale (approximately 1–100 nm). Also the production in reduced scale shows the limits of the manufacturing methods. Materials developed for a particular purpose or function are termed engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to distinguish them from other nanoscale materials, which are produced naturally or an anthropogenic process [1]. ENMs can take various forms and are generally categorized as nanoparticles. The objects produced with the help of electron beam lithography serve on the one hand to get to know the technology and on the other hand to transfer the related experience into the engineering education.
N. M. Durakbasa, G. Poszvek

Profile and Areal Surface Characterization of Additive Manufacturing Polymer and Metal Parts

Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) has great potential on manufacturing both polymer and metal parts as final product. However, optimization of surface texture quality has not been fully achieved yet. AM surfaces present variable textures that differs according to the AM methods and process parameters. Because of their unusual texture, it is important to evaluate surface properties of metal and polymer parts produced by different AM processes. In this study, it is aimed to define 2D and 3D surface texture of poly-lactic acid (PLA) polymer and AlSi10Mg metal parts manufactured by Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) respectively. ISO 4287 Ra, Rq and Rz profile roughness parameters were defined by tactile method while ISO 25178 Sa, Sq and Sz areal parameters were measured by optical method. Measurements were taken from up-skin and down-skin of the samples which were in 30 mm diameter and 4 mm thickness. Results were evaluated within themselves and literature studies. Differences between profile and areal surface characterization and need of new specifications were also discussed.
Binnur Sagbas, Numan M. Durakbasa

Towards Traceable Dimensional Measurements by Micro Computed Tomography

Abstract
Industrial CT equipment are increasingly used to determine the dimensions of geometric features (e.g. diameter, position, cylinder) in the industry. In the course of using this new measurement technology in the field of quality control it has to be verified the measured data. In this article the measurement error and uncertainty of the micro computed tomography are investigated by the performing designed experiments. The setting parameters of the CT are changed systematically (RSM method, CCD design) to determine the distance of two ruby spheres. These spheres are the parts of a calibrated ball bar which is connected to an Al test piece during the experiments. The purpose of this work is to make emphasis of the adjustment of the voxel data in case of dimensional measurements performed by industrial computed tomography.
Ágota Drégelyi-Kiss

Constrained Least-Squares Fitting for Tolerancing and Metrology

Abstract
Recent years have seen a remarkable emergence of a particular type of least-squares fitting, called constrained least-squares fitting, in national and international standards on tolerancing and metrology. Fitting, which is called an association operation in the international standards on tolerancing and related metrological practices, is an optimization process that associates an ideal-form feature to a non-ideal-form feature. Unconstrained least-squares fitting has been a very well-known practice in general metrology for a long time, but it has not been the standardized operation in tolerancing and related metrology standards till recently. Instead, other fitting methods, such as Chebyshev fitting, have dominated the standards thus far. Now constrained least-squares is emerging as an attractive alternative in these standards, especially for the establishment of datums. This paper describes these recent developments, with particular attention to the mathematical and computational aspects of the optimization problem, and their impact on the digitization of industrial metrology.
Craig M. Shakarji, Vijay Srinivasan

Additive Miniaturized-Manufactured Gear Parts Validated by Various Measuring Methods

Abstract
Recently, miniaturization has become an important topic to both scientists and engineers. The manufacturing trends are following the compact size manufactured-components. Miniaturization challenges engineers to obtain smaller size of the components, to reduce their weights & power consumption and to take less space utilization. The functional specifications of the parts must be clarified beforehand, so that the functions are not lost in miniaturization. With consideration of the geometrical product specification (GPS), it is possible to better limit the functional properties and thus succeed in miniaturization. In this work, the problems with the reduction of the gear components are explained and the subsequent assessment are presented with different methods such as contact and noncontact metrology methods. Tactile and optical methods are used to determine the surface structure. Coordinate measuring machines (CMM) are one of the geometry based tactile methods. The optical methods give more information about the geometry and microstructure of technical surfaces by using computed tomography (CT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). According to the measurement results, the measurement data belonging to CMM measurements for the partial circles showed the same results with CT measurements. The surface roughness values were varied from the existed geometry to the miniaturized geometry using CLSM. In porosity measurement with CT, porosity decreased in the micro geometry of the gear components. The miniaturized geometry had less porosity related to the gaps volume, than the normal geometry. The minimum gap volumes depend on the scanning resolution in CT. The gaps in macro geometry were logically more frequent than the micro geometry.
N. M. Durakbasa, P. Demircioglu, J. Bauer, I. Bogrekci, G. Bas, O. Bodur, G. Poszvek

Measuring Quality Orientation in Organisations: A Cognitive-Behavioural Approach

Abstract
This paper explores the application of a cognitive-behavioural approach for measuring quality orientation in organisations. It aims at providing a method for improving the alignment of an organisation’s strategy with its culture. The explored and presented approach is called Situational Judgment Test (SJT) and is based on the Critical Incident Technique (CIT), a method to gather information about reoccurring human-system problems and their causes. Critical incidents allow the systematic identification of behaviour that contribute to success or failure in specific situations. Thereby, they form a solid basis for performance appraisals as well as personnel development and selection procedures. We followed a deductive test development approach and conducted two studies with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) to validate the developed items. The SMEs evaluated 40 situational descriptions with regard to their degree of realism as well as relevance and assigned each situation to one predefined variable related to quality orientation. Analysis of the data led to the exclusion of 14 items. The interrater agreement for the remaining 26 items is considered as fair and reflects the difficulty associated with construct-based SJT development. For future research, the combination of critical incidents with Virtual Reality (VR) as simulation method appears to be promising for increasing fidelity. The presented cognitive-behavioural approach provides a novel method for measuring and strengthening organisation-wide quality initiatives, going beyond the implementation of established quality tools and techniques.
Ina Heine, Robert Schmitt

Cyber-Physical Approach to Coordinate Measurement of Flexible Parts

Abstract
This research implements the Finite Element Analysis of the contact between the flexible part and the CMM touch-probe in order to support the Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Metrology Model and its metrology integration into coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection of flexible parts. Although optical metrology offers a solution for flexible part measurements, because there is no contact between the measurand and the probing system, not all geometrical features are accessible by the optical CMM probe. Therefore, it is important to quantify and to validate the deformation introduced by the contact measuring process. The Cyber-Physical Systems connect the virtual and physical worlds in a way that intelligent objects communicate and interact with each other. This research will connect the physical measurement system consisting of CMM and flexible plastic part with their digital representation, where contact is simulated by means of Finite Element Method.
Samir Lemeš, Nermina Zaimović-Uzunović, Josip Kačmarčik, Almira Softić, Hazim Bašić

In-Liquid Laser Nanomachining by Photonic Nanojet in Optical Tweezers Configuration

Abstract
Parallel direct laser machining in sub-micro scale patterning at a surface of material on a large scale remains a challenging task though the laser machining has been widely applied in various applications. A photonic nanojet comes up as a promising way to solve the problem by involving near-field focusing of light waves below the surface of an introduced microsphere to fabricate structures of micro- and nanometer size. By generating laser power, the workpiece is then modified only locally at the tip of photonic nanojet that has as small as 616 nm width which provide fine machining pattern. In order to control the position of microsphere in nanomachining process, optical tweezers is introduced to the optical system. An in-liquid processing nanomachining by generating photonic nanojet in optical tweezers configuration from a laser beam is then be a subject to study by controlling the parameters investigate the viability of machining process.
Reza Aulia Rahman, Tsutomu Uenohara, Yasuhiro Mizutani, Yasuhiro Takaya

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