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2017 | Book

Proceedings of the 13th International Scientific Conference

Computer Aided Engineering


About this book

These proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Engineering present selected papers from the event, which was held in Polanica Zdrój, Poland, from June 22 to 25, 2016.

The contributions are organized according to thematic sections on the design and manufacture of machines and technical systems; durability prediction; repairs and retrofitting of power equipment; strength and thermodynamic analyses for power equipment; design and calculation of various types of load-carrying structures; numerical methods for dimensioning materials handling; and long-distance transport equipment.

The conference and its proceedings offer a major interdisciplinary forum for researchers and engineers to present the most innovative studies and advances in this dynamic field.

Table of Contents

Dynamic Analysis of Column Stand for Aircraft Multi-barrel Machine Gun with Consideration of Bearing Clearance

To build a machine gun on a helicopter board or on a vehicle, a sufficiently rigid and strong stand is required [2]. The construction of a column stand ensures changing a shot direction in the vertical plane and rotation in the horizontal plate. In a bearing of the column, a clearance can occur. It can cause a change in accuracy of a trajectory angle of the bullet. The paper presents a dynamic analysis of a machine gun taking into account clearance in the bearing. The target of the analysis is to find an impact of clearance on the trajectory angle of the bullet.

Fatigue Life Estimation in Bucket-Wheel Excavators Maintenance

It is obvious, that designing process of bucket-wheel excavators includes not only static resistance, but also fatigue life. Carrying out measurements on machines at being operation, estimating fatigue life and comparing them with mining conditions, gives new information about the way of a structure effort.

Analysis of State of Stress in the Loading Assembly of One-Bucket Wheel Loader Operated in Copper Mine

The paper shows a project of a mining boom of one-bucket wheel loader operated in copper mine with analysis of state of stress. Discussed the basic quarried materials properties specifying the properties of copper ore. Explains the basic issues related to the machines working in surface and underground mining. Specify the initial dimensions of the mining boom of loader, and did the analytical calculations aims to designation of loads that occur during the load operation. In preparing the model for the resistance analysis of finite element method carried out his discretisation and the boundary conditions were imposed. On the basis of the results conducted analysis of the assumptions.

Intelligent 1 kW Vertical Axis Wind Turbine—Simplified Analytical Model

The energy sector is crucial for all the industry. Its condition has a strong influence on all other branches. Regardless of the economic cycle, the world demand for power is growing rapidly. Accordingly, the total installed capacity of world’s power plants also grows.

Application of Contemporary Measurement and Calculation Methods for Structural Analysis and Monitoring of Heritage Buildings

An analysis of the condition of the structure of heritage buildings is a complex and time-consuming process. This is why contemporary numerical, optic or laser technologies are used more and more frequently to prepare detailed inventories, generate models or monitor the condition of such buildings. Computer technologies, enabling development of advanced analysis of complex physical relations in heritage buildings using the FEM, are of particular interest and importance.

Synthesis and Structural Analysis of High Strength Composite Flexible Landing Gear Legs

The problem considered was to develop, synthesize and design a flexible landing gear leg, subject to some restrictions resulting from requested loads and boundary conditions. The problem was already undertaken by many researchers, e.g. in monographs written by Currey (Aircraft Landing Gear Design: Principles and Practices, 2004, 1) and Thuis (The development of composite landing gear components for aerospace applications, 2004, 2) and in journals and conference papers (Ganorkar and Deshbhratar, Design Optimization of landing gear of an aircraft, 2014, 3; Goyal and Laksminarayan, Design, Analysis and Simulation of a composite main landing gear for a light aircraft, 2002, 4; Yu-xiu et al., The dynamics research on the composite undercarriage of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, 2015, 5; Niezgoda et al., Selection of dynamics characteristics for landing gear with the use of numerical model, 2002, 6). It was assumed that two roving “concentrated constant cross-section booms” would be created. FE simulations allowed to determine the flexible leg deformations, stress distribution and Failure Indices (using maximum stress theory) (Spencer, Novel Optimization Strategy for Composite Beam Type Landing Gear for Light Aircraft, 2013, 7). The foam core inset was tested as a means of mass reduction. FE program ANSYS was used for the analysis (Ansys Theory Reference, 2013, 8).

The Influence of the Type of Used Connections on the Results of Analyzes Carried Out in CATIA System

In the paper the existing in CATIA system the types of connections that may occur between the components have been characterized. These connections specify the boundary interaction between bodies and can simulate the real connection behavior. Use in the same place another connection has a significant impact on the results of analyzes. The stress analyses of the excavator jib together with the bucket for the different types of connection properties have been presented as the examples.

Modeling and Stress Analysis of an Industrial CNC Plotter

In the paper a geometrical and computational model as well as results of stress analysis of an industrial CNC plotter have been presented. The research of the designed device have been divided into two parts: the static analysis of a frame with a plotter gate, and the static analysis of an axle assembly Z. The obtained results have been used in the design stage of an industrial plotter for a Polish company producing CNC machines.

Numerical Identification of Effort of Load Carrying Structure of Adjustable Stand

The works is the numerical analysis of the state of stress and deformation of load bearing structure of adjustable stand. Numerical calculations were carried out by finite element method. Obtained distributions of stresses positively verified analyzed load carrying structure. The results of numerical tests showed the possibility of structure optimization, e.g., to reduce weight of the adjustable stand.

Selected Aspects of Technical Condition State Assessment of Spreaders Operating in Lignite Mines

On the basis of spreader A2RsB 15400 the method for technical condition state assessment of machines, after many year of operation, in lignite mines is presented. In purpose to identify the structure hot spots and cracks, both numerical and experimental methods were applied. Additionally, the dynamic behavior of the structure was assessed with use of the experimental methods. The paper presents the meaningful results chosen from the assessment procedure.

The Optimization of Three-Involute Tooth Outline with Taking into Consideration Multi-valued Logic Trees

The paper presents the application of multivalent logic trees with weighting factors in optimizing the three-involute tooth profile. The elaborated concept of the pump of the poly-involute outline sets new directions of development, and thus the applications of gear units. The process of optimization has been carried out with regard to the five basic criteria. Based on our calculations designed a whole range of gear for the involute

Study of the Causes of Boom Elements Cracking of Electric Demolition Machine with Use of Experimental and Numerical Methods

In this study authors present a method which was used to investigate the causes of boom elements cracking on Brokk90 demolition machine. This type of machine is used by ARCAD demolition company from Wrocław, Poland. Their specialty are demolition jobs, which require use of wide variety of equipment. In particular they offer demolition with use of small remotely controlled robots. In this case operators of the Brokk90 machine discovered crack growth which appeared on the sections of the arm system, to which a variety of tools can be mounted such as hydraulic breakers, hydraulic cutters, diamond chain saws etc. Crack growth occurred much earlier than time before overhaul designed by the manufacturer. The investigation of the of the arm system was carried out by the authors of this paper. In order to minimize the time during which the machine will not be operational, it has been decided to use noninvasive methods of measuring and recording the movement of the arm system during operation. Techniques used for this study consists of using Phantom high speed camera and Commtest vb7 vibrometer. Clips recorded via the high speed imagining system were processed using state of the art processing software which determined excitation acting on the arm system while in operation. Use of vibrometer allowed to investigate natural frequencies of the assembly, and later on validate built FEA model. Based on recorded data boundary conditions for the simulations were determined and used in the simulation. During the study a fully functional finite element analysis model of the arm system was developed. Study of the model allowed researchers to thoroughly investigate stresses occurring in the elements of the arm sections. Based on the similarity between places of stress concentration on the model and places of crack formation on the arm system, high level of correlation between real life machine and simulation model was established.

Study Optimization of the Design-Construction Process of the Design Element of the Electric Remote Control Demolition Machine Based on the Design Thinking Methodology

All the machines that are used in various sectors of the machine industry are usually the work of the team which consists of many specialized people. Generally the final effect is evaluated which is the physically produced machine that people can see, touch and use. In fact, no one realizes how much effort and work is needed to make the team successfully complete the design of the machine and start the long-awaited final stage which is the manufacturing. Each machine before the start of manufacturing passes through the stages of design and construction. It should be noted that these steps are one of the most important in the whole process of the manufacture of machinery.

The Numerical-Experimental Studies of Demolition Machine Operator Work

A demolition robot is a multi-functional, remote-controlled machine, which is designed to be operated in severe work conditions such as high temperature, dust, radiation or noise. The publication presents the approach to enhance both the robustness of the machine—through Finite Element optimization—and the ergonomics of machine operator by implementing Human-Machine Interface (HMI). The combination of performed experimental and numerical research provided the information about the unfavorable effort and frequency states of the machine in the various operation processes. The use of advanced numerical simulations in pair with experimental tests were applied to estimate the dangerous states of the structure of the machine, as the designing stage enables to elaborate the HMI warning control system of the machine operation.

The Impact of Cross Beam on Stresses of Girders in Low Water Bridges

Low water bridges are classified to a group of military bridges, most frequently made of materials obtained at their construction site (steel sections and wood). They are characterised by similar structural solutions as civilian bridges, commonly called detour or temporary ones. However, low water bridges are structures that are not expected to enable the conduct of shipping and the runoff of ice floes. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of the number of cross beams and their rigidity as well as assembly connections made on the stress distribution in spans of low water bridges. The carried out numerical analyses (FEM) have shown that either the number of girders or the number of cross beams significantly affect the stress distribution in main girders. Moreover, these analyses have proved that the rigidity of cross beams and the manner of assembly connections execution with the sufficiently rigid wood plate have little effect on the stress distribution in the major structural elements of low water bridges. The analyses have shown, however, a very large impact of the way of modelling assembly connections in a steel grate on the stress distribution in the wood plate.

Analysis of the Test Rig Conception for the Drilling-Bolting Systems Testing

The paper presents preliminary design and analysis of the drilling-bolting rig, designed for testing the underground mining machines. Examination at the depth of 1000 m and deeper are almost impossible to perform due to the prevailing conditions. The authors designed the structure of the testing stand and carried out a strength analysis of the conceptual model of the rig. It resulted in a complete project of the test stand for drilling and bolting systems.

Verification of the Theory of Construction Similarities in the Connectors

Theory of construction similarity allows creating ordered construction families (series of types, modular construction systems). On the basis of the specific conditions of construction similarity and values of model characteristics, the parameter and dimension values have been determined. For the purpose of practical verification of the conditions of construction similarity the strength verification with MES and practical verification with a ripper have been performed. An attempt at practical verification of the construction similarity has been also performed using the ripper. The tests have been carried out with the use of threaded and welded joints and grippers. For that purpose, on the basis of conditions of construction similarity and dimensions of model construction, the construction series of types has been created.

The Process of Parameterization and Creating Reference Construction

In the process of creating a series of types of construction, it is important to develop a reference construction that best meets the principles of construction and right of existence of technical product [1–3]. Construction of reference in the family construction can be selected from among existing structures or designed from the ground up as shown this publication. This is a construction practically verified in terms of its function (CAD simulation) and subject to optimization (particularly CAE strength optimization) that was verified due to the production (technology was developed in CAM) and the obtained product was subject to experimental verification (prototype tests).

Simulations of Air Flow Around the Blades of a Wind Turbine Rotor Using CFD Methods

In this paper were described series of simulations of flow of air around the operating wind turbine blade performed using the methods Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Simulations allowed to determine the zero angle at which the turbine should not rotate and projected possible to obtain power of wind turbine in the assumed geometry of the rotor.

The Analysis of the Stress Distribution in Contact Pairs Ball-Wire and Wire-Ring in Wire Raceway Slewing Bearing

In the current study the distribution of stresses for four-point contact wire race ball bearing is analyzed. The results for bearings of different geometrical parametric are presented. The study has also estimated the distribution of internal pressure for particular elements.

Investigation of Titanium Dioxide Effectiveness of BTX Photocatalytic Oxidation for Automotive Applications Using Advanced Optimisation Algorithms

This paper constitutes the approach of determination the benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) oxidation properties of titanium dioxide at condition simulating the passenger compartment. Here the oxidation properties of the catalytic agent are considered as its effectiveness. The factors which were under investigation was the temperature, UV light length and the time of pollutant exposition to the catalytic agent. In order to investigate full range of possible solution, the level of variance of all input factors was chosen to be in the maximal possible value which can occur inside a passenger car. Furthermore the experiment was performed according to static, three—dimensional full factorial plan which allowed to developed models of the catalytic agent BTX removal properties. In order to unify the investigation the results were presented as a percentage change of benzene toluene and xylene with respect to the first—reference sample. In consequence the models of titanium dioxide effectiveness are expressed as a second degree polynomial predicting the percentage change of BTX with respect to temperature, UV light length and the time of pollutant exposition. Those models were farther multi objectively optimized in the Pareto sense which allowed to determine optimal condition for the catalytic agent effectiveness within the assumed range of input factors. The complexity of the research and results analyses required usability a variety of computer software starting form constructional software—Autodesk Inventor ending on advanced mathematical environment in which the results were optimised—Matlab optimisation toolbox.

Analysis of Construction and Internal Load of the Powertrain of the Prototypical Four-Wheeled Mobile Platform

The designed solution of the powertrain of four-wheeled mobile platform have been developed. Identification of the internal loads has been carried out by using the finite element method. The two analyses based on the internal load of these elements have been performed. The first analysis gave an information about the reduced stress of the driver and a sleeve for the powertrain model, loaded by torque and forces of gravity. The second analysis was performed only for the system loaded by the forces of gravity. The results are presented on the graphs.

CFD Model of an External Gear Pump

The paper presents a CFD model of an external gear pump. To investigate the fluid flow phenomena that occur in external gear pumps, one of the commercial CFD software packages was selected. The immersed solid method was used to simulate the flows induced by the rotation of gears. The article presents results of simulation studies carried out for various operating parameters of a chosen external gear pump. Prepared 2D CFD model was used to consider the influence of rotational speed and the pressure in the outlet channel on the cavitation intensity. Furthermore, the 3D simulation model was prepared to verify the pressure relief groves impact on the pressure distribution and velocity contours in the area of gears engagement, as well as mass flow rate and pressure pulsation on the outlet.

Preliminary CFD Analysis of the Influence of the Geometry of the Selected Element on the Fluid Flow in the Tank of the Hydraulic System

The article analyses the influence of the geometry of the downflow and suction lines and perforated baffle on the even flow of the working fluid in the tank of the hydraulic system. During the tests, more attention was paid to identifying the influence of the shape of wires on the phenomena connected with the flow of the fluid in the tank. We considered typical, and recommended by producers of the elements and hydraulic systems, construction forms of pipes introduced vertically into the tank, and comparing them to the pipes cut at a right angle. Since for simulation testing only one construction form was adopted, in this respect the results are only basic. Analyzing the results of simulation, it has been observed that the evenly perforated baffle does not bear significant influence on the equal distribution of fluid flow in the tank.

A Review of Fused Deposition Modeling Process Models

Recently, a large growth may be observed in the field of additive manufacturing. This technology allows for fabrication of geometrically complex functional parts directly from CAD models, without the necessity to use any tooling. The most common additive manufacturing methods utilized by the industry are based on extrusion of thermoplastic polymers (FDM—fused deposition modeling), however in present commercial applications the ability to control such processes is limited. In order to increase the capabilities of the FDM technology, it is crucial to develop accurate models of the key elements of the system and comprise them in process planning and monitoring/control algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate FDM process models proposed in literature.

Method for Determining Bucket Chain Drive Loads During Excavation of the Bucket Chain Excavator

In the paper method for measuring loads acting on excavation unit of bucket wheel and bucket chain excavators is presented. Measurements were performed with the use of strain gauges located on the torque beam of the drive. Analytical and experimental methods were adopted for determination of the torque beam behavior. This method is used for long-term measurements of loads in order to assess remaining life of long term operating excavators.

Design by Analogy: Synectics and Knowledge Acquisition Network

Truly successful engineers and inventors not only use their domain-specific knowledge; they also utilize knowledge from other domains as well as the large body of heuristics and metaheuristics. They are holistic thinkers using both their deductive (rational) and abductive (creative) capabilities. Present computing education mostly emphasizes the utilization of knowledge in the context of analysis. Unfortunately, this limited focus has a negative impact on engineering students as it severely limits their ability to become inventors. In computer-aided design, models utilize attributes only from the used representation space. Therefore, the nature of such space is decisive where innovation of results is concerned. How to build a representation space for the problem-specific knowledge but allowing exploration leading to innovation is a challenge within the intersection of engineering and computer science. This paper proposes a method for building a design representation space capturing domain knowledge and at the same time creating an opportunity to acquire knowledge outside the problem domain. This dual emphasis increases the potential for producing novel designs. The method combines the advantages of heuristic thinking based on Synectics with traditional systematic and analytical thinking and is intended mostly for use in conceptual design. It will allow designers to develop a fundamental understanding how to acquire knowledge necessary for conceptual design while preserving their ability to explore various domains and to expand a representation space.

Correlation of Gears Strength and Methods of Determining the Coefficient of Load Distribution Along the Tooth Width

The analysis of the impact of the method of determining the coefficient of load distribution across the width of the tooth K on its value and the value of safety factors on pitting SH and tooth fracture at the base of SF were presented. Three methods were analyzed. Described important differences in the methods adopted for analysis. Comparisons analyzed methods made on the example of the calculation of two-stage bevel-helical gear ratio of i = 4.10 and transferring the power of 580 kW. The results of analysis are shown graphically in two drawings and given appropriate proposals.

The Design and Field Tests of a Box for “Erg” Electric Blasting Caps

The paper presents strength analysis and experimental tests aimed at the selection of the optimal geometric and strength parameters of an explosion-containment case used for transporting “ERG”-type electric blasting caps. This box is mainly to be used by the soldiers during mining and demolition operations. Under the technical assumptions, the box is to withstand detonation initiated within and it is also to be resistant to perforation with bullets, hence the two kinds of tests which have been conducted.

Airless Tire Conceptions Modeling and Simulations

In this paper a modeling methodology and results of Finite Element Method simulations for selected non-pneumatic tires are presented. Additionally, a new conception of airless tire was proposed by the authors. To describe mechanical properties for components of tires a popular hyperplastic rubber constitutive model was implemented. Static radial deflection test was performed and the influence of internal structure geometry was investigated in terms of vertical displacement of rim, deformation shape and contact pressure. Obtained results from all tested tires were compared. For all tested conceptions stress distribution within the area of internal tire structures were analyses. All simulations were performed using explicit LS-Dyna commercial code.

Method of Assessment of Energy Consumption of Forklifts in Warehouses with Specific Operating Conditions

This paper presents the method for evaluating energy consumption by a forklift with front forks. The model describing the work takes into account the truck’s acceleration, driving at a constant speed, braking and the processes of raising and lowering the fork. Power consumption was estimated assuming the efficiency of the drive mechanism and the driving efficiency of the system lifting and lowering the fork carriage. A calculation model, in the form of non-linear differential equation, was solved by the approximate finite difference. On the basis of such a formulated model, the case of the truck work cycle VDI2198 was examined.

Modeling and Strength Analysis of the Specialized Car Trailer

The subject of this paper concerns the issue of road transport, often described in literature.

Application of Reverse Engineering Methods in 3D Wide Area Measurements

In recent years we have witnessed a rapid development of Reverse Engineering. It significantly improved the process of machine designing. Its another application is creating three-dimensional models of areas (3D mapping), which provides some necessary information for constructors of machines that are to work in these areas. As far as RE methods of measuring small and big size objects are advanced and their precision known, approach for surveying larger areas is still being developed. This article presents a review of available Reverse Engineering techniques that are potentially applicable for 3D area scanning, as well as an attempt to connect them to a mobile platform. Therefore, advantages and disadvantages of a few such platforms are discussed in the paper. Position and orientation tracking systems of the whole device are also considered. Finally, a comparison of obtainable measurement uncertainty is provided with selection of the best solution for subsequent researches.

Experimental Analysis of the State of Stress of the Axisymetric Perforated Plates Loaded With Hydrostatic Pressure

The subject of the work is the experimental analysis of the state of stress and deflection of a simply supported on the perimeter, the perforated plate rotationally symmetric loaded hydrostatic pressure. For this purpose a special test stand designed and developed research methodology perforated plate. To measure the deformation of plates used strain rosettes. The load plate was determined by bending its center of plate. The research obtained the radial stress, and peripheral to be reduced as a function of the radius of the circle perforation plate and load. The topography of the stress distribution to be reduced disclosure allowed zones of maximal effort perforated plate.

CAD/CAE Applications in Mill’s Design and Investigation

CAD/CAE are crucial in supporting structural design shredders, as well as the management of the acquisition test data. These tools, but also the AI has been used to search for the best solution of shredder. Implementations of this method and verification of shredding on many edges improve operational performance. Selected results and analysis have been verified with the results of the laboratory tests.

The Method of Artificial Organs Fabrication Based on Reverse Engineering in Medicine

The paper presents the concept and implementation of innovative methods of producing artificial organs and prosthesis based on 3D printing technology. These organs possess physical and mechanical properties similar to human organs and bodies part. As a result, using such organs, it is possible to conduct training and workshops, especially in the field of urological surgery, under the conditions close to real operations. Due to the fabrication of 3D models can also lead so-called pre-operations in order to better prepare surgeons to carry out complex operations and post-operation e.g. observers proper operation. The proposed method enables the production of artificial human organs whose consistency, plastic properties, hardness, elasticity are close to the real organ of specific patient, because it can be made on the basis of the data from MRI and CT. The process of preparing 3D geometry is prepared in applications in the field of CAD, but also through advanced applications designed for editing in vector geometry environment.

Image Filtering and Acquisition for Detection Damage of Conveyor Belts

Recently, a large growth may be observed in the field of usage of machine vision in various types of industry. The aim of that article is to show the possibilities of using the machine vision in mining industry for detecting damage in conveyor belt caused by the various types of factors. In the article it is presented the test stand on which the test were conducted, the aim of filtering, selected filtered image, image acquisition and the conclusion.

Analysis of the Blood Flow Through the Centrifugal Pump

Blood flow simulation was conducted for the peripheral centrifugal pump of the artificial heart by use of numerical methods. Flow parameters were examined for the destruction of blood morphological elements, the results were compared with literature data. The learned lessons led to changes of the pump geometry, then further simulations for different constructional variants were carried out. The results of calculations led to choosing the best structural solution for heart pump and follow-on conclusions on what kind of changes may improve the flow parameters and reduce the risk of destruction of blood elements.

Topology Optimization of Structures Subjected to Transient Thermomechanical Loading

A new methodology for layout optimization of structures, which are subjected to transient thermo-mechanical loads, is presented. In the investigation, an evolutionary algorithm of topology optimization is used. For the purpose of the thermomechanical analysis, a new method of cumulative damage summation of the full thermo-mechanical time load history is considered. Moreover, to obtain an easy-to-manufacture shape, a new procedure for the layering reduction of unnecessary material is proposed. The proposed methodology is illustrated in the example of design optimization of a power block device. In the optimization process, the constraints of the maximum total stress in the whole cycle are assumed. As the basis of transient load regime, the TRD 301 regulations are used.

Investigation of Influence of Unevenly Spaced Blades onto Working Parameters of Centrifugal Fans Impellers Used in Mine Ventilation

Centrifugal fans are widely used in order to move air or other gases in ducts. As exact as possible manufacturing of fan is required in order to ensure long time of operation and desired flow parameters. In the article evaluation of influence of unevenly spaced blades onto flow parameters of impeller is considered. Thanks to usage of numerical simulation, few different configuration of blades inaccuracies could be compared with basic ideal case. Received results suggests that inaccuracies in circumferential blade spacing influences flow pattern across impeller and changes flow parameters of fan. It is interesting that in few cases efficiency of impeller is higher than in basic solution, but in fact such situation cannot been accepted since in these cases non-uniform fluid force distribution can cause higher vibrations of fan. In general, differences of efficiency are small what suggests that influence of unevenly spaced blades onto flow parameters can be in many cases neglected.

Computer Supporting of Determining Decision Interactive Variables for the Importance Rank of Construction and Exploitation Parameters Illustrated with an Example of a Gear Pump After Tooth Root Undercutting

A gear pump after tooth root undercutting is a device, on the operation of which the following parameters have an influence.

Application of Piezoelectric Films for Measuring Dynamical Response of Freight Wagons During Exploitation

This paper contains a report on the research of possibilities of the use of piezoelectric transducers in the form of composite films Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) to measure the dynamic response of freight wagons type EAOS during operation. The aim of the study is to verify the possibility to develop a system of supervision of the technical condition of freight wagons, based on measurements of their dynamic response to the standard forces generated during their operation. It was assumed that the MFC piezoelectric films, due to a number of advantages can be used as sensors in the proposed measurement system and to verify the effectiveness of their operation the sequence of tests on real objects during observed rides were carried out. The repeatability of received waveforms of electric voltage, generated by the piezoelectric transducers glued on selected items of wagon stand was verified. In addition, a preliminary analysis of the received signals was done in order to determine their usefulness in the system of supervision of the technical condition of freight cars.

FEM (Finite Element Method) Numeric Analyses of the Syrenka S201 Car Model

This presentation demonstrates the results of numerical analyses of the Syrenka S201 vehicle design. The basic strength calculations were conducted using the finite elements method (FEM) within the scope of the linear static procedure.

Numerical Simulations of Composite Frontal Protection System According to EC 78/2009

According to Regulation (EC) 78/2009 currently in force in the European Union the frontal protection system (FPS) is a separate structure, which is intended to protect the external surface of the vehicle, from damage in the event of a collision. The use of FPS was the subject of many discussions. This was mainly due to the increasing popularity of Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV) with non-compliant bull bars fitted by owners. It should be noted that, in most cases, installing an FPS on a SUV is simply a matter of car tuning. The purpose of such modifications is to make the vehicle appear more aggressive and stand out against similar cars. The problem came when frontal protection systems became merely a fashionable decoration of sport utility vehicles in place of their original function. Unfortunately, due to their growing popularity, SUVs are increasingly involved in accidents involving pedestrians. Over the years, vehicles equipped with bull bars have been causing an increasing number of pedestrian deaths and therefore specific requirements were introduced for this component. The paper presents numerical comparison of FPS made of steel and fiberglass according to the current regulations. A notable difference in legform acceleration was noted, which indicates a good potential in fiberglass usage as a base material for FPS.

Computer Simulations for Head Injuries Verification After Impact

The paper describes an experimental and numerical approach to head injury verification occurring in transportation accidents. Current trends in pedestrian, cyclist and motorcyclist safety are presented and some state-of-the-art techniques are included to mitigate injuries, which occur when an external force traumatically damages the brain. Finally, a finite element analysis was conducted to assess the safety performance of a commercial motorcycle helmet.

Analysis of the Use of Biogas as Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

The article presents the opportunity to power internal combustion engine by treated and non-purified biogas. Internal combustion engines may be operated only within a certain range of parameters of fuel due to the design and method of operation. Furthermore, they are sensitive to changes in chemical composition of the fuel. The aim of the work described in the studies was to test the quality of biogas that can be obtained by methane fermentation of the test material. Considering the treatment of biogas as a consumable in vehicles, its physicochemical properties can be very diverse. It is reasonable therefore to analysis biogas composition of samples from various biogas plants, in the context of the possibility of its use in a motor vehicle with an internal combustion engine. The article presents an analysis of the chemical composition of untreated biogas collected from five representative biogas plants. Then it summarizes the data received with the requirements of the standards referred to European countries and set out the possibility of direct use of untreated and untreated biogas during the operation of vehicles with combustion engines.

Calculations with the Finite Element Method During the Design Ballistic Armour

For protection against projectiles with higher impact speed (up to 1000 m/s) a type of a ballistic sandwich shield can be used—which is a monolithic combination of ballistic laminates with additional materials, typically hard layers made of ceramic in the form of plates or spheres of oxides, carbides and nitrides. The authors of this paper, by using FEM to optimize defined material sets to fire the cartridge 7.62 × 54R mm, give a range of results which are compared with tests of ballistic firing on the shooting range.

Experimental Tests of Pressure Pulsation of Gear Pumps

The paper presents results of experimental tests regarding pressure pulsation of the gear pump with external gear design. A cycle of measurements was carried out in relation to the selected parameters of system’s operation such as temperature of hydraulic fluid (viscosity) and pressure of the pressure line. The obtained results of pulsation measurements were analyzed in terms of time and frequency. The time analysis was carried out in order to determine the peak-to-peak value of pumping pressure that is responsible for generating increased levels of vibration and noise, as well as influences fatigue wear of the hydraulic system elements. The frequency analysis was carried out in order to identify the pressure values not related to periodical changes in pump capacity, which may be used to diagnose the operation condition of the pump. Research has shown that increase of pumping pressure and temperature of the oil causes significant increase of the pressure pulsation amplitude resulting from the eccentricity of gearwheels.

Analysis of Blood Flow Through the Pathologically Changed Main Artery

During the examination a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of blood flow through the physiological and pathologically changed aorta was performed. The model used in the Fluid—Structure Interaction analysis (FSI) has been enriched by a variable thickness of the wall in the section being subject to lesions. The influence of the occurrence of pathological change in the descending section of the thoracic aorta on the nature of blood flow, the value of flow parameters of fluid and endurance parameters of the wall of an arterial vessel, was demonstrated.

Some Aspects of Numerical Calculations of Specialized Vehicle’s Load Carrying Structure for the Transport of Dangerous Materials by the Requirements of the European ADR Agreement

There are being presented the issues of the load carrying structure of specialized vehicle for transport dangerous materials by the requirements of the European ADR agreement. There are shown requirements and researcher’s methodology of design and calculation issue using numerical methods on the example of specialized vehicle used in surface mining. Methodology of complex systems calculation are presented in the paper, in particular joint of main frame and sub-frame with liquid’s tanks. The whole of issue are supported by example of vehicle’s calculations results, deployed into production.

The Numerical and Experimental Vibrations Analysis of WLS Series Fans Designed for the Use in Underground Mines

The modal analysis of technical objects undergoing variable load intensity is an important task, thanks to which the safety in terms of resonance vibration phenomenon can be measured. This paper concerns the aspects of testing the new WLS series fans, used for local mine ventilation, which provide safer underground conditions resulting in more efficient work. The use of numerical methods in the calculations of natural frequencies and the comparison of numerical and experimental results calculated with the use of operational modal analysis have been emphasized.

Computer-Aided Process of Selecting Technological Features for Machine Design Series of Types

The basic concept described in this paper is the application that enables generating technological data for machine design series of types. The data is generated in the traditional form (operation and instruction sheets) and codes for numerically controlled machine tools. The model of transformation is based on the developed theory of technological similarity using relational databases [1, 5]. The method is based on the susceptibility to algorithmic presentation of quantitative construction data. Technological structure for each product in the series remains unchanged (with possible small changes). Only processing parameters are subject to changes. The method enables creating a few variants of technological plans for a given element and the differences between these plans result from the fact of different construction forms of the elements.

The Assessment Method of Operation Fuel Consumption of Underground Machinery

It was presented method of assessing operational fuel consumption of underground machinery. The method is based on the theory of cumulative fuel consumption developed in the Department of Vehicle Engineering Wroclaw University of Technology. It has been given the investigation manner into a mathematical model and a procedure for determining the constants of the model describes consumption. Attention was drawn to the characteristics of the cumulative fuel consumption. Using the operating data e.g. Working time machine moto hours and corresponding to that time fuel consumption, it was possible to develop a curve of the cumulative fuel consumption and intensity of consumption. These curves may be used to evaluate the method of operation of the machine as well as e.g. A prediction fuel consumption. This information could be used to optimize the selection and use of machines to the task [1, 2].

A Comparison Between Two Different Methods of Blast Modelling

This dissertation consists mainly in a comparison of different methods of load modelling relative to the blast wave coming from the detonation of a bursting TNT charge and the impact of this wave on a shield.

Explosive Charge Impact on Dual-Layer Aluminium-Steel Shield

The objective of this paper was to present the results of the calculation of the impact of an air shock wave on an aluminium-steel shield.

The Analysis of Suspension Performance of High Speed Tracked Vehicle

An analysis of data collected during dynamic test of high speed track vehicle is presented in the paper. The vehicle was equipped with rubber tracks. The test was organized according to the NATO standard AVTP 03-170 (Allied Vehicle Testing Publication AVTP 03-170 [1]). The measurement system was used to record signals of accelerations in various points of vehicle [2–5]. To record the way of negotiation the rectangular obstacles a high-speed camera was used. The data was used to assess the performance of suspension of the vehicle.

Numerical Analysis of Guyed Mast for Small Wind Turbine at Normal Operating Conditions

This paper presents numerical model of the guyed mast designed for small wind turbine. The mast structure was designed for 3.5 kW wind turbine. Main assumption during design stage was to minimize manufacturing and installation costs. The Authors present methodology used for evaluation of loads and boundary conditions, constitutive models and solution method. Results are discussed and conclusions are presented. Also suggestions for further study are included.

Designing of Multilayered Protective Panels Against Improvised Debris

This paper presents the design process of multilayered protective panels used to protect people and property from debris resulting from the explosion. A series of numerical analysis were conducted, which allowed to find the number of aluminium sheets to fill the barrier and to determine their shape in order to stop penetration. In this work not only the design process, that employs the most current engineering tools, is presented, but also behaviour of metallic materials under extreme dynamic loading.

Computer Supporting of Determining Decision Conditional Variables for the Importance Rank of Construction and Exploitation Parameters Illustrated with an Example of a Whirl-Propeller Pump

The paper presents the application of multivalent logic trees in optimizing the whirl-propeller pumps. These threes represented a graphic inscription of the optimal sets of parameters of the device according to the importance rank from the most import at the bottom to the least important at the top. Results of a computer process of determining the importance rank of the whirl-propeller pump parameters with decision conditional variables are presented in logical table.

Stability of a Hydraulic Telescopic Cylinder Subjected to Euler’s Load

In this paper the stability of a hydraulic telescopic cylinder subjected to Euler’s load is discussed. The boundary problem of stability has been formulated on the basis of the static stability criterion. The presented results of numerical simulations are related to the piston rod to make the easiest comparison of real life object to the disused one. The results can be used by the designers of the hydraulic telescopic especially in the case when the possibility of the damage due to buckling can be present.

The Influence of Manufacturing Technology on the Mechanical Properties of Fiber Composites

The recent increase in the number of possible applications of composites has resulted in many methods of producing fiber-reinforced composite materials. New methods were introduced to decrease the costs of the production process and to popularize the technology by facilitating manufacturing. Differences in manufacturing processes influence not only the price and ease of manufacturing but also the mechanical properties, which makes each of these methods applicable to a different area. The purpose of this paper is to compare three manufacturing methods which do not require the application of relatively expensive equipment (autoclaves) and are relatively easy to learn. The paper compares the mechanical properties and microstructure of the final composites.

Determining the Response of Piezoelectric Sensors Working as Sensors of Freight Wagon Construction

The presented work is a part of project carried out by the consortium that consists of the scientific entity—the Institute of Engineering Processes Automation and Integrated Manufacturing Systems from the Silesian University of Technology and enterprises—DB Schenker Rail Poland. The aim of this research project is to modernize the analysed wagon during its renovation using new materials (Baier A et al, Experimental synthesis and analysis of geometric and structural properties of chosen elements of railway wagons, 2012, [1]; Płaczek M et al, Computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon, 2015 [11]; Wróbel A et al, Int J Mater Prod Technol, 50/3–4 (2015) 259–275 [14]). The main objective of project is modernize of the wagon during its renovation using new innovative composites in order to protect sheathing of the wagon against corrosion. This paper contains a report on the research of piezoelectric sensor system. The assumption of the study was to prove that it is possible to continuously monitoring the state of the shell of a freight wagon during driving. All project was divided into several stages: the execution of composite panels as plating freight wagon, installation of piezoelectric sensors in the panels and in the supporting structure of the wagon, design telemetric system which allows the location of the car and collects information from the sensors and the analysis of the received data.

Feature Recognition Methods Review

Feature Recognition (FR) technique is a technique for identifying and extracting design features from a geometric CAD model in order to obtain manufacturing and analysis information about a product.

Chaboche Material Model and Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Polymers with Respect to Fatigue

In this paper we want to highlight the chain of linked topics, which are necessary to cover when implementing a fatigue analysis for polymeric materials and/or fibre-reinforced plastics. Starting from experimental observation the time dependency in cyclic loading responses are emphasized by viscoelastic and viscoplastic phenomena in applied material models. Incorporating an efficient failure criteria in this framework is pointed out. Finally, a concept for a thermo-mechanical model is discussed to correlate the temperature field to the fatigue status with the Chaboche model as the core for dissipative quantification.

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