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About this book

This Proceedings volume gathers outstanding papers submitted to the 19th Asia Pacific Automotive Engineering Conference & 2017 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China – the largest car-maker as well as most dynamic car market in the world. The book covers a wide range of automotive topics, presenting the latest technical advances and approaches to help technicians solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.

Table of Contents


Mechanical Performance Study of Lithium-Ion Battery Module Under Dynamic Impact Test

Vehicle crashes are one of the leading causes of catching fires in electrical vehicle accidents, while the mechanical intrusion caused failure of battery which is the most common cause of these fires. In order to reduce the risk of catching fires in electrical vehicle accidents, the crash failure threshold of battery module, which could be offered as an important design parameter in CAE analysis of battery systems’ safety, is needed to be well studied. So a test program based on drop tower was designed. A series of dynamic impact tests were performed in length direction, width direction, and thickness direction. Punch force, displacement of punch, as well as the voltage of the battery module were measured. Results showed that impact directions have great influences on mechanical characteristics, electric voltage, and crash failure threshold of battery module.

Fangyuan Shi, Huili Yu, Xianqing Chen, Taisong Cui, Hui Zhao, Xiangnan Shi

Combustion System Development of GDI-T Engine for China Stage III Fuel Consumption Regulation

Chinese fuel consumption regulation will be more and more stricter. China will implement Stage III fuel consumption regulation by the end of 2015. First Automobile Works (FAW) has developed a new GDI-T gasoline engine to meet this fuel consumption regulation for A-class car. The rated power of this engine is 100 kW, and maximum torque of this engine is 220 Nm. The BSFC at 2000 r/min-2 bar BMEP reaches 373 g/kWh. The acceleration time from 0 to 90% maximum load at 1500 r/min is less than 1.7 s. Matching with the kerb weight 1265 kg of one A-class car, maximum vehicle speed is 210.5 km/h and acceleration time of 0–100 km/h is 10 s. NEDC-integrated fuel consumption is 5.85 L/100 km, which is 15% lower than Chinese Stage III fuel consumption regulation meanwhile meeting the dynamic performance of the vehicle.

Zhanfeng Wang, Haie Chen

Crash Energy-Absorption Structure Design Based on an Innovated Leightweight Technology

Since lightweight in vehicle design can largely reduce the energy consume and gas emission along with a comprehensive property promotion, experts have denoted great efforts on developing new lightweight technologies. Nevertheless, the ever-existed researches indicate that the lightweight is always started from a macro-view by material replacement or structure optimization. To extend the lightweight study to a micro-view, an innovated lightweight technology based on the negative Poisson’s ratio structure and space truss composite material is introduced herein to redesign a crash box and bumper assembly under the crashworthiness targets. Besides, systematic analysis of its crashworthiness property is carried out. The results show that the potential capability of this new technology in crashworthiness-based structure lightweight design is enormous.

Weizhao Gao, Yiwen Li, Xuewu Zhu, Zhou Yao, Ledan Liu

Research on CFD Steady-State Simulation Analysis and Optimization for Defrosting of Passenger Vehicles

By comparing defrosting CFD steady-state, transient simulation and vehicle climate test results, the method of predicting transient defrosting time by steady-state analysis is proposed, and the structure of defrosting air duct is optimized. The model setting and evaluation method of steady-state defrosting analysis are used to shorten the optimization time and improve the working efficiency. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and can be used to guide the structural optimization in the early stage of the project and greatly shorten the optimization time.

Chengsheng Zhang

A Study on a Carmaker’s Brake Pedal Feel DNA

Analyzed the subjective and objective factors affecting the brake pedal feel and determined the brake DNA metrics. Defined the DNA style and metrics based on benchmarking data and used it to optimize the pedal feel of the vehicles under development. Used VBOX to record and analyze the data, in order to verify whether the DNA metrics are reasonable and practical.

Wenfei Wang, Hua Ai, Guofan Hu, Zhengmin Liu, Hang Zhang, Xiaojun Liu

The Dimensional Tolerance Analysis in Different Assembly Procedures Based on 3DCS

Size deviations during the assembly process are closely related to the assembly process and tolerance design. This work aims to propose a new assembly procedure for automotive B-pillars by tolerance optimization, which reduces the failure rate greatly relative to the traditional method. The Monte Carlo Method (MCM) and the relative Three-Dimensional Control System (3DCS) were adopted to analyze and optimize tolerance. By the tolerance contribution analysis, the most influential tolerances for the designed assembly approach, i.e. sub-assembly procedure, were identified, according to which a more reliable assembly method for B-pillars was proposed to control tolerance weight and thus reduce potential failures. By a series of simulations, crucial tolerance effects were revealed, and the tolerance chains and assembly sequence were optimized. This work significantly contributes to time and cost saving during the assembly procedure of B-pillar parts.

Yufeng Xia, Lai Jiang, Dong Yang, Yuting Zhou

The Research of Cylinder Deactivation Technology on Gasoline Engine

With the development of auto technology, efficiency and environmentally friendly technology is more and more attention by all OEM. This paper has made a brief description about cylinder deactivation (CDA) technology. In the development, it can rapidly design by the CAE simulation and provide the guide of experiment. The cylinder deactivation technology can improve fuel economy at light load. It applies to a four-cylinder engine for fuel economy test of CDA. The cylinder deactivation technology control strategy which should meet the requirements of performance, fuel economy and emission. Meanwhile, it’s sensitivity to NVH that calculating the fuel economy with and without cylinder deactivation in the various operating modes: warm-up after cold start, idle, and low engine speed, All speculations are based on engine dynamometer data and combined with a series of computer simulation of various test cycles.

Mingdong Zhang, Jinqiang Ma, Hang Su, Cancan Xu, Hua Zhang, Jingwen Lu, Lianbao Li, Hong Wei, Shuangqing Li, Jun Li, Ruiping Wang

LP EGR Influence on Performance of Turbocharged Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

Low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the several technologies that are being investigated to deliver future reduction of CO2 and to match legislative emission standards. This paper now presents the influence of low-pressure EGR that is applied to a TDGI engine and the effects of EGR on fuel consumption and emission is studied. By dyno steady-state testing and vehicle simulation, a fuel consumption reduction of 6.18% is achieved under WLTC. The result will interest many professionals working in this field. Stringent legislative measures/national and international legislation/laws are forcing the automotive industry to reduce the fuel consumption and emission. To comply with those regulations and to stay competitive on the global market, it is necessary to adopt new technology. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (CEGR) is an effective way to improve fuel economy and to reduce NOx. LP EGR technology was applied to a 1.5-L three-cylinder TDI engine during this study which is specified below. Design of experiment methods was used to adopt the best combination of CR11, valve timing, modifying piston geometry, and the camshaft. To reduce combustion duration, the ignition coil was upgraded from 75 to 90 MJ. Performed vehicle steady state simulation to realize fuel consumption reduction at WLTC cycle. Engine dyno test under steady state operating condition with CR11, able to achieve fuel consumption reduction of 6.18% at WLTC cycle compared to the base engine. At low-speed and high-load (1920 rpm@18 bar) test, result shows maximum fuel consumption reduction of 16.5%, as EGR lowers the knocking tendency, which enables to advance the ignition timing. Increasing EGR rate reduces NOx, but increases HC.

Hong Wei, Lianbao Li, Lin Yang, Narendra Purania, Xuehai Qin, Huacheng Zhou, Dongya Chen, Xiaoli Tian, Yunlong Kuang, Ruiping Wang

Reconstruction of the Management System of Automobile Manufacturing Enterprise in the Future

The rapid development of information technology has brought great changes to the automobile manufacturing enterprises. The management system of the automobile manufacturing enterprise needs to keep pace with the technological progress. This paper analyzes the impact of the Internet development on the automobile manufacturing enterprises, and analyzes the change of the management system from four aspects: strategy, organization, human resources and process. The development of science and technology, will continue to promote the evolution of the automobile manufacturing enterprise management system.

Yu Xiang

Development Integrated Roof Rack of Nylon and Continuous Fiber Composite

The new point of view in vehicle of Roof Rack is proposed by Nylon-Continuous Fiber Composites Structure, which is a new development method based on the principle of environment resistance material, plastic injection, new fabric compression, engineering design, test and evaluations. As a result of the application of new roof rack against aluminium roof rack on roof, this paper classifies Increased of environment resistance materials in compressed continuous Fiber fabric and plastic injection, body mountings, Shapes of cross section and internal rib, customers clamping of roof rack, positions of cross bar introduces Reduction of weight, cost and Whistle Noise, improvement of liberty of colors.

Hyun-Kyung Kim, Jeong-Ho Lee, Chun-Ho Park, Jae-Wha Kim

Parameter Sensitivity Analysis and Uncertainty Optimization of Suspension K&C Characteristic Response

Due to the presence of geometric error, installation error, the actual hard point has certain fluctuation and uncertainty which cause the suspension K&C characteristic fluctuation bigger compared with the standard K&C characteristics. For the uncertainty problem, the mathematical model for Macpherson suspension is built using the attitude coordinate transformation based on the rigid body kinematics theory; Sobol method is used to analysis the suspension K&C characteristics sensitivity and find out the hard point of impact; interval analysis method is utilized to optimize parameters of suspension structure which will improve the suspension K&C characteristic robustness and reduce the suspension K&C fluctuation compared with the standard K&C characteristic. The results show that this method has high robustness and practicability.

Chengyuan Ren, Kai Li, Shuangshuang Li, Song Gao

Simulation Study on Engine Cylinder Block Machining Line Based on Plant Simulation

This article introduces the simulation analysis of an automobile enterprise engine cylinder block machining line. Based on the Plant Simulation, the capacity of the production line, the utilization rate of the gantry manipulator, the number of the zero-point clamping, and the number of the dummy head are analyzed. According to the result of the simulation, the capacity of the production line is evaluated, the design scheme of the production line is diagnosed, and the optimization measures are put forward; those provide the decision reference for the production line designing and show the application prospect of the modeling and simulation technology.

Wenbin Tao, Dong Wang, Qijun Hu, Shaochun An, Yunping Zhang, Shuwen Xie

Platform-Based Evolution and Optimization of Vehicle Body in White Using Implicit Modeling Technology

A SUV body in white (BIW) is established using implicit modeling software, i.e., SFE CONCEPT. After that, according to platform-based evolution rules specified by Changan Automobile Co., Ltd, the SUV BIW is evolved into MPV BIW and Sedan BIW, respectively. Then, the evolved BIWs are optimized to have a higher lightweight level comparing with the reference vehicles which have the same geometry dimension. All of these demonstrate that implicit modeling technology has a higher efficiency than traditional way in body platform based development strategy.

Zhongcai Qiu, Bo Liu, Ke Wang, Jinsheng Zhang, Bo Lu, Huili Yu, Bo Dian, Qin Yang, Xiaoqing Li

Preparation Technology of Silicon–Carbon Composite Anode Material Based on Expanded Graphite for Lithium-Ion Battery for Vehicles

By the method of directly inserting the silicon source into the expanded graphite layer, the silicon-rich expanded graphite was obtained. Then, the silicon carbon composite negative electrode material was prepared by ball-milling the silicon-rich expanded graphite and the commercialized graphite material. The result of the physical properties and the electrochemical performance of the material showed that the initial reversible specific capacity reached 761.6 mAh/g at 70 mA/g. After 100 cycles, the capacity retention rate was 90.63%. The expanded graphite was used to buffer the expansion of silicon. The preparation process was simple and suitable for industrial batch production.

Huiming Chen, Tao Jiang, Changru Rong, Dan Wang, Xinyan Mi, Kejin Zhang

Robust Design of Active Vehicle Interior Noise Control System Based on Adaptive Notch Filter

The algorithm of single-channel adaptive notch filter in the active vehicle interior noise control system was deduced, and corresponding evaluating indicator was established. By means of modelling the path of secondary acoustic signal according to a prototype car, the influence of secondary path’s modelling mismatch was investigated. It was found that the system is not robust to the variation of windows’ opening and closing states. Hence, a method of robust design was put forward to optimize the model of secondary path and the convergence coefficient in the adaptive algorithm. The active interior noise control experiment based on rapid control prototype (RCP) indicated that the system after robust design was able to converge quickly and control target noise under different windows’ opening and closing states, which verify the effectiveness of robust design introduced in this paper.

Yinglong Zhao, Lijun Zhang, Dejian Meng, Pinjie Zhang

A Study on the Relationship Among Several Friction-Induced Instability Mechanisms Based on Multi-point Contact Nonlinear Dynamical Friction-Induced Vibration Model

Brake noise is the hotspot in the field of automotive NVH. Till now, four main frictional squeal mechanisms for the generation of brake noise are highlighted; they are mode coupling instability theory, negative friction-velocity slope instability theory, sprag-slip motion theory, and stick-slip motion theory. However, none of them can explain various frictional squeal phenomena fully. So, it is very important to make clear the relationship among various mechanisms. A nonlinear dynamical friction-induced vibration model with two-point contact and three-degree-of-freedoms is established to explore the mechanism of frictional squeal and the relationship between several main mechanisms. Based on this model, bifurcations of friction coefficient for mode coupling are derived under zero, negative and positive friction-velocity slope conditions. According to the bifurcation friction coefficient for mode coupling and the sign of friction-velocity slope, instability characteristics are summarized in four areas. For each area, real part and imaginary part of instable mode and stick-slip motion are investigated via numerical simulation. At the same time, divergence is calculated and the existence of limit cycle is judged based on Bendixson–Dulac criterion. Based on these results, the relationship among the four mechanisms is more clearly understood.

Lijun Zhang, Zhuang Zhang, Dejian Meng

Six-Sigma Robust Optimization on the NVH Performance of the CRFM Based on Isight

This paper presents a six-sigma robust optimization method for the NVH performance of the condenser radiator fan module (CRFM), which involves robust analysis methods, design of experiment (DOE) technology, radial basis function (RBF) metamodel, Monte Carlo simulation, and six-sigma robust analysis methods. The effects of uncertain factors on the product quality characteristics are researched by considering the cooling fan imbalance fluctuation and the steering wheel acceleration response distribution caused by the fluctuation of vibration-isolating pad stiffness. The optimization process is as follows: Detailed CRFM FE model and full noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) model are built, then the cooling fan imbalance is served as the excitation, and the steering wheel acceleration is served as the response. RBF metamodels are built on the samples generated by the orthogonal experimental design, and the distribution of steering wheel acceleration response is simulated using Monte Carlo method by recognizing the distribution of input parameters and choosing the descriptive sampling method. Finally, take the acceleration response on the steering wheel as objective function and complete the six-sigma robust analysis and optimization on the NVH performance of the CRFM.

Lin Liu, Songbo Zhang, Xueliang Li, Bo Zhang

Automobile Corrosion Mechanism and Cases Analysis

This paper mainly details failure causes and characteristics of micro-difference corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, galvanic corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue from the perspective of electrochemical corrosion theory. Furthermore, with reference to exterior environment factor and automobile own factor in combination with actual road intensified corrosion test, corrosion reasons are analyzed in details and corresponding anticorrosion measures are proposed.

Dapeng Zhao, Minglei Liu, Guofeng Li, Chunyan Tan, Bo Feng

Capacity Allocation of Driving System and Braking System for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

To solve the problem that the mainstream capacity allocation method of driving and braking systems for distributed drive electric vehicles adopts uniform distribution among four wheels, a novel capacity allocation method of driving system and braking system is proposed. Among them, the capacity allocation of driving system for power performance is to improve the maximum acceleration, the maximum gradability, and the 0–100 km/h acceleration time; the capacity allocation method of electro-hydraulic braking system for braking performance is to improve the braking distance and the average braking deceleration. The results of the theoretical analysis indicate that the proposed capacity allocation method effectively improves the power performance and braking performance of the vehicle.

Dejian Meng, Zhuoyu Li, Lijun Zhang

The Effect of Driving Cycle and Shifting Pattern on Vehicle Emissions

As the China VI emission regulation for light duty passenger car is officially released, WLTC will take place of NEDC to be the standard cycle for type approval. This paper is based on a series of tests carried out in Dongfeng Motor Corporation Technical Center on a DFMC. China V vehicle with a turbo-charged PFI gasoline engine shows that no significant difference between NEDC and WLTC regarding to THC, NOx and NMHC emissions, while a big influence on the CO emission can be tested. By optimizing the calibration and gear shifting pattern, CO emission can be reduced to the limit of China VI regulation.

Ni Zhang, Linyun Wei, Xing Wang, Yongsheng Long

A New Fuel Pump Driver Using ePower

A rotator position sensor is required for brush-less direct current motor (BLDCM). The sensor reduces the system reliability and makes it expensive. For fuel pump motor, there is nearly no space to install the position sensor and it is very difficult and costly to do this work. Therefore, a sensor-less control method is required in fuel pump application. This paper introduces a new fuel pump driver using Infineon Embedded Power ICs (ePower). It integrates a back electromotive force (BEMF) comparator, and it can provide the rotator position information. The test result shows that ePower is a very smart powerful IC, and the driver based on it can fully handle the fuel pump perfectly.

Shinian Li, Zuoyun Huang, Kilian Martin

Road Noise Prediction Based on FRF-Based Substructuring Method

The method of FRF-based system synthesis (FBS) mentioned in this paper is introduced to predict the road-induced noise before prototype vehicles are produced. With its help, the development cycle and cost of cars are greatly reduced. The full vehicle frequency response functions can be obtained by test method as well as CAE method, which avoid the establishment of trimmed body model. Besides, it could improve the efficiency and the computational accuracy at the same time. The end result was verified to be reliable after comparing calculated data with measured data.

Jingchao Xu, Chao Ren, Ran Xie, Jianfeng Huang

The Analysis of a Sound-Generating Mechanism for Tire Pattern Groove Air Pumping by CFD

The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of pattern groove air-pumping noise; the tire model of 205/55 R16 was chosen as the research object for this paper. By using a rolling analysis of the 205/55 R16 passenger car tire and extracting the volume change of the pattern groove produced as the tire roll across the road, a model of the air-pumping noise was established using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and apply the groove volume change information as the noise compute boundary condition. The noise spectrum comparison between the simulation and measured results was used to validate the proposed analysis method and model. Through analysis of the effects of tire load, rolling speed, and inflation pressure on the air-pumping noise, and obtaining a measurement of the air flow field and variation characteristics inside the tire footprint domain. The results show that dynamic pressure, which results from unsteady air flow, acting on the groove surface, is the main generate source of the noise that air-pumping noise.

Haichao Zhou, Zhen Jiang, Guolin Wang, Hao Qian, Lei Qiao

Study of Intake Charge Control Method on TGDI Engine with CVVL System

Intake air mass charge for TGDI engine with continuously variable valve lift system (CVVL system) can be controlled through CVVL system, or a combination in addition to conventional throttle valve and turbocharger. This paper presents the optimal charge control method and the application boundary conditions at different operating points by engine bench test on a TGDI engine with CVVL system. Test results show that lowest fuel consumption, relatively optimal emissions, and best performance can be realized simultaneously at best intake manifold pressure, which can be achieved via combination of different control methods: combination of intake valve lift and throttle valve at low to middle loads; only throttle valve at higher loads after maximum valve lift is reached; combination of turbocharger and throttle valve at high loads when intake pressure ratio, a dimensionless pressure ratio after and before throttle valve, lies between 0.95 and 1; only turbocharger after intake pressure ratio reaches 1.

Benzhong Han, Liguang Li, Ning Liu, Lihua Zhang

Analysis and Detection Methodology of Knock Phenomenon in Gasoline Engines Based on Cylinder Pressure Sensors

Accurate detection of knock phenomenon is difficult but important to researchers during the development process of gasoline engines. In this paper, the analysis about the cylinder pressure signal was conducted. Furthermore, the optimized knock window was selected. And the frequency of knocking signal was determined. Besides, evaluation methodology of knock intensity was investigated and confirmed. The optimized pre-ignition and knock window should be selected and confirmed separately. The knock window of 20°CA after the start of knock combustion is recommended based on the investigation results. The frequency of knocking signal was analyzed by power spectral density and fast Fourier transform (FFT) method and estimated by the Bessel function. The methodologies of evaluating knocking intensity are different due to the different engine operating conditions. Having eliminating the influence of background noise, the knocking intensity (KI) is defined based on different sampling resolutions, operating conditions of various ignition timings, and Lambda values.

Wentao Zhang, Tong Wu, Lidong Dong, Wei Hao

Fuel Consumption Contribution Research on Map-Controlled VDOP and PCJ by Simulation

Map-controlled variable displacement oil pump (VDOP) and map-controlled piston cooling jets (PCJ) are two kinds of technologies to reduce the fuel consumption. In order to assess the fuel consumption contribution due to the two technologies, a lubrication circuit CAE models have been built up and three steps were done. First to confirm the maximum displacement of VDOP, and then to determine the oil pressure control strategy of map-controlled VDOP. And final fuel consumption contribution of two technologies is simulated according to the oil pressure control strategy. It is showed that the hydraulic power saving on certain condition which the engine often work at is up to 73–85% at low speeds, and it saves 20% when high speeds with high loads.

Lifen Wu, Huibin Qing, Qingqiang Zeng, Kun Yang, Xiaodong Chen

The Development and Application of the Front Axle Assembly Line

This assembly line is based on a Dongfeng model of the front axle assembly structure (independent suspension) designed, which can meet Dongfeng passenger car assembly shop 33 V/H production capacity. The front axle assembly line consists of front shock absorber subassembly unit, the production line of lower half bridge and the main dock of upper and lower half bridge, to coordinate the beat differences of each station assembly work. To ensure the critical torque, this line is used for electric servo-tightening equipment. By designing the electric servo-tightening automatic movement and the half bridge assembly automatic feeding mechanism according to the structure of the front axle assembly, the production efficiency is greatly enhanced. At the same time, operators identify the vehicle and equipment parameters automatically through the intelligent system display, to ensure the quality of the assembly traceability. The assembly line also can widely apply to models of front axle assembly through simple transformation, which will greatly reduce the equipment investment on the subsequent models.

Yi Zhang, Jun Qian, Hongying Qin, Peng Teng, Zhu Li, Yongchao Wu

Prediction of Vehicle Population of Wuhan Based on Model of Econometrics

According to the statistics of Wuhan, the prediction model of vehicle population based on econometrics is established, the vehicle population of last year is especially considered in this model as a variable of representation of consumer psychology, therewith regression coefficients and related statistic parameters are calculated through MATLAB in this paper, and solid tests on the model are conducted as well. After model adjusted, the vehicle population of Wuhan in 2016 is eventually calculated. The result is comparatively accurate, indicating it is a technically feasible method. The vehicle population of Wuhan in 2017 is predicted in this paper as well.

Mingrui Wang, Li Fu, Qiguang Xie, Yabo Du, Fan Dong

Establishment and Application of Dynamic Characteristics Prediction Model for Variable Valve Timing System

To predict the dynamic characteristics of variable valve timing system at early stage of engine development, the cam phaser working process has been analyzed and a model which is used to predict system dynamic characteristics has been established by software AMESim in this paper. Using this model, we can calculate system response speed and phase precision under different engine speed, oil temperature, and oil pressure, as well as the effects of different structures and operating parameters. The conclusions are 1. system response speed and phase precision are affected significantly by the characteristics of coil spring, structural parameters, and air content in oil. 2. Within a certain range of leakage clearance, the influence of oil leakage on dynamic characteristics can be neglected. 3. Simulation data are verified by measured results. The prediction model is effective to develop and optimize the variable valve timing systems for various engines.

Cheng Liu, Mingxi Liang, Junjun Wang, Cheng Meng, Fei Lin, Pucheng Pei

Steering Mode Switch Control of Four-Wheel-Independent-Steering Electric Vehicle

A novel structure of a four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) electric vehicle (EV) with steer-by-wire (SbW) system is proposed. To solve the problem of dynamic steering mode switch, the models of the 4WIS EV and its SbW system are built. Steering mode switch control algorithms are designed based on the restrictions, and the controller of SbW system is designed using sliding mode control theory. Two typical steering mode switch conditions are selected and simulated, i.e., from front-wheel steering (FWS) to rear-wheel steering (RWS) and from FWS to four-wheel steering (4WS). The simulation results show that the feasibility of the steering mode switch control algorithms and the accuracy of the steering angle tracking control of the sliding mode controller are verified. Furthermore, real vehicle tests also indicate that the designed control algorithms can make the prototype realize various steering mode switches effectively via data acquisition and analysis.

Xinbo Chen, Fengmei Luo, Peng Hang, Jie Luo

The Innovation and Application for Analysis Measurement in Insurance of Completely Car Quality

Analysis measurement takes the responsibility to find out the root cause of quality issue and offers the optimized solution for production. Using technic innovation to optimize the measurement strategy; analysis the root cause using integral conception; create data link of analysis measurement; improve the measurement efficiency and reliability should be considered. The paper from the view of the completely car quality insurance, the above topics will be discussed.

Pan Liu, Zhang Qiang, Mi Fuzheng, Zhang Shuai

Study on Lightweight Optimization of Low Control Arm for Vehicle Suspension Based on Kinematic Envelope Analysis

Topology and sizing optimization of low control arm (LCA) for multi-link suspension was conducted, based on kinematic envelope analysis and finite element optimization methods. Kinematic envelopes of related components were acquired to determine the original design domain, and then, topology and sizing optimization was comprehensively conducted to obtain the optimal structural scheme. Fatigue analysis and bench tests were performed for structure verification. The structural design and optimization methods proposed in this paper provided a reference for lightweight design of other automotive suspension parts.

Yongzhou Lin, Shaoliang Guo

Effect of Engine Oil on Fuel Consumption and Durability of Heavy-Duty Vehicle

For revealing the effect of engine oil on fuel consumption and durability, two engine oils of different viscosity grade (the candidate oil 5 W-30 diesel engine oil and the reference oil CI-4 15 W-40 diesel engine oil) were chosen to carry out proving ground test and chassis dynamometer test. Due to the differences between existed drive cycles and real conditions in China, a drive cycle of EMS vehicle in Beijing was established that could represent the real driving condition of EMS vehicle in Beijing. The result of the proving ground test using the driving cycle of EMS vehicle in Beijing showed that the candidate oil had a decrease of 1.5–2.5% BSFC compared to the reference oil. The result of chassis dynamometer test showed that the candidate oil had a total of 3.8% less fuel consumed in L/100 km compared to the reference oil. The field test indicated that the low-viscosity engine oil provided durable protection for engines.

Zhuo Wang, Yanan Zhu, Chunsheng Tao, Qingguo Wang, Mo Zhao, Zhenfang Chen

A Simple Theory of Fuel Escape from Combustion Chamber

A simple mathematic model for fuel escape from combustion chamber was built to analyze quantity of fuel mass escape into crankcase in the early phase of engine design and developing. The relevance between fuel mass in blow-by flow and engine stoke, between fuel wetting and lubrication performance change on liner lubricants has proposed in this paper, respectively. Well-known blow-by flow and lubrication models were quoted; fuel mass in blow-by flow and liner oil film was considered as uniform distribution during different engine stoke and crankshaft timing; however, for fast-engineering application, complicated fuel evaporation and thermal variation were beyond this paper. Comparison of calculation and experiment results of one TGDI engine have shown in this paper, which indicated this model is applicable for engineering fuel escape analysis. Finally, suggestions have proposed for reduction of fuel mass escape based on the model and test results.

Xuan Huang, Jianjiao Zhuo, Yongming Zheng, Hongyu Wang, Zhaoshuo Wu

Strategy Research on Key Technologies of Misfire Detection on Gasoline Engine

Misfire seriously impacts on performance, emissions, engine life, etc. When the engine is running at different conditions, causing an unstable behavior of combustion, it will bring challenges to the accuracy and robustness of misfire detection. In this paper, an analysis of misfire detection algorithms based on instantaneous power and instantaneous torque is presented. The instantaneous crankshaft (engine speed) signal has been recorded. The optimal angular position and the selected final algorithm to detect misfire, within the engine cycle, for the combustion time evaluation, and its variation with the engine operating condition have been put forward. Some related factors affecting misfire algorithm detection are finally compensated. During the engine running, roughness threshold self-adapting is realized to improve the detection accuracy. Finally, the misfire detection algorithm is proved in the car, and the test result shows that misfire event and its corresponding misfire cylinder can be precisely detected.

Long Qin, Chunjiao Zhang, Yongyi Huang, Feng Xu, Xue Lei, Liuchun Yang, Kai Wang, Junpeng Wang, Fengmin Tian, Fanwu Zhang

A Study on Finite Element Analysis and Optimization of Rear Bush of Vehicle Lower Control Arm

The rubber bush of the lower control arm has an important effect on the dynamic performance and NVH performance of the vehicle. To ensure that the rubber has an enough life during the period of use, the stress value of the bush should be in the proper range and the stress distribution should be reasonable. The finite element analysis of the bush is carried out by using ABAQUS. Firstly, the stiffness of the bush simulation is evaluated by the stiffness of the bush test. Secondly, based on this, the stress situation of the bush in the common working condition is investigated. Finally, the linear approximation model is established by ISIGHT in order to optimize the angle of the bush opening. And the angle of the bush opening direction at the optimum stress condition is obtained.

Dengmu Yuan, Bin Hu, Yong You, Yonghui Qi

Dimensional Variation Simulation Analysis of Front Wheel Camber for Macpherson Suspension

This paper investigated the dimensional variation problem of high defect rate of front wheel camber for Macpherson suspension, found the factors affecting dimensional deviation, determined the contribution of each factor for the camber by contrasting the 3D tolerance simulation analysis results based on 3DCS with the physical assembly verification results, and then solved the Macpherson suspension camber problem of high defect rate at last by optimizing those components tolerances with greater contributive factors and monitoring dimensional variation of these key factors in production at the same time.

Kun Ju, Jing Ye, Xiaohai Wang

The Real-Time Measurement Function of the Random Measuring Instrument Improves the Manufacturing Quality of the Workpiece Effectively

In this paper, the development of random measuring instruments in modern manufacturing industry, especially in the automobile industry, is briefly reviewed. The significance of them in ensuring the quality of finished parts is emphasized. It is pointed out that with the change of production mode, cylinder, cylinder head, gearbox shell and other complex parts of the box, increasingly equipped with a machining center in automotive industry has become a trend. This article focuses on how to use the real-time measurement function of the random instrument, quality and process quality of the workpiece are improved by detecting and compensating of the tool, workpiece, and fixture, etc. Application examples from a different point of view reflect the effectiveness of this online detection function.

Zhengde Zhu

Research on the Application of Real-Time Monitoring System for Manufacturing Quality of Industrial Production Based on Industrial 4.0

In the past 30 years, as a mature technology, statistical process control (SPC) has been successfully applied in many domestic automobile plants. However, with the implementation of the “4.0 industry” in modern manufacturing industry, in order to meet the demands of fast, small batch, customized production (product of high quality) “intelligent manufacturing, we must use modern information technology to optimize and expand functions of traditional SPC systems. The article gives an example of a domestic engine enterprise “transparent factory” project, and on the basis of the qs-STAT Enterprise Edition statistics “software,” overall plant network production process real-time monitoring system is introduced. In particular, this paper makes a detailed analysis on automatic data input, visualization, statistical analysis, data management and display, automatic selection of data distribution model, evaluation and quality information archiving and so on.

Zhengde Zhu

Development of a Water-Cooled Condenser

With the tightening of regulations on CO2 emission, the development of electric vehicles (EV/PHV) is accelerating globally. Since electric vehicles have no heat source, a heat pump system using a water-cooled condenser (WCDS) to generate hot water by a hot refrigerant is required for efficient cabin heating and long-distance electric driving. This report describes the key features of our water-cooled condenser, including high performance, and small and low pressure drop.For high performance, we designed an optimum core matrix with using offset fins for the refrigerant tube. We also showed that the offset fins have a much higher heat transfer coefficient than straight fins for refrigerant condensation.

Isao Tamada, Yasuhiro Mizuno, Hiroyasu Shimanuki, Takaki Okochi, Zong Xiumei

Optimization for Qualified Structure Intension of Sliding Door Based on Regulation and a Study About Key and Important Factors Affecting Simulation Accuracy

Based on the GB 15086-2013, the strength of the sliding door retention components is analyzed and optimized on a vehicle by LS-DYNA software, and the results are used for instructing experiment. The simulation accuracy is affected by five key and important factors. It indicated that the result of the simulation is consistent with experimental results. The distinction between the experiment result and the simulation result is within 10%, which satisfies with the national regulations.

Qiuping He, Wufeng Zhou

A Study on Thermal Runaway of Commercial Lithium-Ion Cells: Influence of SOC, Cell Chemistry and Ageing Status on Safety Performance

The safety of lithium-ion batteries has received increasing concerns in recent years. To understand the thermal runaway of lithium-ion cells, we employed the Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to perform external heating test on commercial 18,650-type cells. Onset temperature of thermal runaway (To), a critical parameter for thermal runaway behaviour, was obtained from the tests. In this work, the influence of cell chemistry, state of charge (SOC) and ageing status on safety behaviour was investigated in detail. The parameters and results obtained from this work could be applied to guide modelling for preventing and predicting thermal runaway.

Peng Wu, Jan Romberg, Xiaolu Cheng, Weijian Hao, Huinan Si, Huiyu Li, Xingping Qiu

BCRLS-EKF-Based Parameter Identification and State-of-Charge Estimation Approach of Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery in Electric Vehicles

It is very important for the battery management system (BMS) in electric vehicles to estimate the state of charge (SOC) of lithium-ion battery (LiB) accurately. This paper firstly established the Thevenin battery model, and the parameters of which are determined by off-line identification method. Then, the bias compensation recursive least squares with forgetting factor (BCRLS) method are used to online identify the parameters of the battery, which can effectively reduce the interference of the noise on the estimation results. Finally, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method is used to estimate the SOC, and the results of online identification can update the parameters of EKF, so as to achieve a higher estimated accuracy. The results indicate that the maximum estimation errors of voltage and SOC are less than 30 mV and 1%, respectively.

Zhifu Wang, Zhaojian Liu, Zhi Li

Design of Triaxial Platform Used on Automobile Parts’ Testing

A type of triaxial platform which can apply X, Y, and Z three direction load forces simultaneously to the testing specimen is introduced. It can be used for kinds of automobile parts’ testing, such as intermediate bearing of drive shaft (IBDS), engine suspension cushion, connection rod, and control arm bushing. All these parts have two connection ends, one of which can move in at least three directions relative to the other. The kinematical characteristic and kinetic performance of this platform are analyzed. An example of the triaxial platform used on IBDS is introduced.

Chengcheng Xiao, Tai Liu

Application and Analysis of Laser Brazing in DPCA

Laser brazing is a welding technology of heating the brazing filler metal with laser as heat source. Compared with traditional welding technology, laser brazing has been widely used in automobile manufacturing because of its high efficiency and high quality. The laser brazing technology has more stringent requirements on the geometric accuracy and process of products. In order to avoid the risk of products and processes in the phase of design, we carried out a systematic evaluation and research on the design of five models in DPCA. Finally, we have formed a more scientific and suitable constrains for the product and process of laser brazing.

Wei Wang, Heng Wang, Hongfei Ruan, Peiyong Wang, Tao Ye

Simulate Design and Experimental Analysis of Commercial Vehicle Cab Suspension

Proper simulation design and experimental analysis is an efficient and low-costing way in researching and developing commercial vehicle cab suspension. A dynamic simulation model was established and testified by bench test for the development of one cab suspension, and based on which the performance of vibration isolation was optimized. A finite element model was also built and validated using the boundary condition extracted from the dynamic model. Several limiting conditions were analyzed which giving back necessary information in modifying the structure of the cab suspension. The fatigue characteristics of the cab suspension were also tested by the fatigue tester. The results show that the difficulties encountered in researching and developing the cab suspension can be efficiently solved by the method of simulation design and experimental analysis.

Song Zhang, Kaiqiang Li, Guolin Wang, Xinyu Zhu

Optimization Analysis on Full Vehicle Road Noise Based on Substructure Frequency Response Function

Combining substructure theory, an efficient method for frequency response is formulated. The substructure method is confirmed feasible in a simple vehicle model by comparing with the road noise characteristics of substructure and standard method. And then, substructure models for body and chassis system are established respectively for a kind of actual vehicle with the problem of road noise. Subsequently, substructure method is employed to study road noise characteristics for the full vehicle model. In addition, the noise peaks of common characteristics are determined by comparing with simulation and test results, and the peaks are used as optimization objectives; the optimal Latin hypercube method is used to optimize the peaks until all the noise amplitudes of 40–200 Hz frequency band satisfy the target. Significantly, substructure method dramatically increases the optimization efficiency especially to bushing stiffness optimization schemes, the efficiency increases by 98%.

Yan Zhang, Jun Song, Yanghui Xu

Driving Cycle Construction of Xi’an Bus Line Based on Cluster Analysis

Vehicle driving cycle is widely used in automotive industry to test the performance of vehicles, which is an important reference for the design of vehicles. Based on the line intensity method, the sampling method of urban public transit line is presented; in this paper, a kind of comprehensive stability index is proposed to judge whether the sampled data is saturated or not. Based on the cluster method, a city bus driving cycle in Xi’an was built. According to the error analysis which is calculated by two methods, this paper verifies the effectiveness of the constructed driving cycle, which lays the foundation for the study of the “one line and one standard.”

Yaohua Li, Zhongyu Li, Qizhi Gou, Tianyuan Ren, Pandeng Shao, Peng Liu

Driver Fatigue Detection Based on SVM and Steering Wheel Angle Characteristics

In order to overcome the current driving fatigue method and system limitations, the paper proposes a driving fatigue detection method which is based on steering wheel angle features and support vector machines. This method evaluates the driving fatigue based on steering wheel angle, using AR model to analyze the time sequence and extract parameters from fixed-order model as the input vector, dividing the driving fatigue state into three degrees as output vector by the Stanford sleepiness scale, then using SVM as the classifier model, and optimizing SVM parameters with the method of CV on the basis of supporting vector machine theory. Finally, verified by specific examples, this method can effectively detect driving fatigue with a higher detection rate, so it has certain engineering application value.

Li Zhang, Dongmei Yang, Hongfei Ni, Tao Yu

Study on Multiaxial Loading Fatigue Test of Steering Knuckle Based on Road Load Spectrum

Steering knuckle is the key component of automobile suspension system, and its fatigue performance is very important. In this paper, a fatigue durability test method based on road load spectrum and multiaxial loading is developed. The research contents include the design of scheme and bench, the road load spectrum acquisition, processing and compression, load spectrum getting, iteration tests. This method can be used to reproduce the road test on the test bench economically, quickly, accurately and truly.

Chunpeng Tang, Xianzhen Luo, Yadong Wu

Visual Equity Matrix: A New Perspective of Enterprise Operation in the Automotive Industry

The paper discusses the current development of China’s modern auto industry, explores the necessary of operation management together with talent management, and then proposes the strategy framework of value chain, talent management, BCG matrix, and 4M1E (Man, Machine, Method, Material, Environment), which successful companies have used to create innovative business models, products, and services within their competitive advantage. The paper implements the construction of a visual equity matrix (VEM) in the automotive industry as a new perspective of enterprise operation in the means of talent management for scale and experience on the foundation existed.

Xiai Chen, Jixiang Chen

Effect of Cooling Rate on Microstructure Evolution of Hot Forming High Strength Steel Based on Non-Isothermal Constitutive Model

Constitutive equations based on isothermal tensile test were applied when traditional researchers performed numerical analysis for mechanism of high strength hot stamping. However, dramatic thermal exchange occurs because of large contact area between temperature-elevated hot blank and cold die tools, causing it virtually a complicated non-isothermal process. Since the martensitic transformation strongly depends on minimum feasible cooling rate, influence of temperature change needs to be considered and new non-isothermal constitutive equation is necessary for numerical analysis of desired phase transformation. Firstly, using Al–Si coating high strength steel boron steel BR1500HS, non-isothermal uniaxial tensile tests were carried out on a hydraulic servo-simulator Gleeble1500. The quenchable boron steel sample had plastic deformation with different cooling rates beginning from 800 °C and ending at 700, 650, 550, 500, 450 and 400 °C, respectively. Optical microscope was used to study microstructural evolution. Different from conventional isothermal deformation, work-hardening types of high-temperature rheological curve were obtained, and new non-isothermal constitutive relationships were regressed to take into account the thermal–mechanical phase coupling effect. Secondly, numerical modelling of box-shaped parts hot forming was constructed based on the obtained new constitutive equations. The die tool’s cooling water flow rates varied at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s. Their influences on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties were analysed. Finally, experiments of typical box-shaped sheet metal hot stamping were conducted. Deep drawings of these sheets were developed with different cooling rates in order to simulate the actual industrial non-isothermal thermal–mechanical environment. Through comparison of experimental data and numerical results, the non-isothermal constitutive model of high strength steel has been verified. It provides new support for numerical optimization for quality improvement of hot stamping automotive components.

Wenfeng Zhu, Guoliang Wang, Chun Xu, Xiaojuan Li

A Simulation Method for Predicting Connecting Rod Buckling Stress and Fatigue Safety Factor of a Four-Cylinder Small Displacement Engine

It is essential to predict the fatigue safety factor for connecting rod during the concept phase of an engine development as it is an important part to transmit combustion gas pressure to crankshaft. At present, it is still difficult to capture accurate stress results which could be further used for fatigue strength prediction during design phase. In this paper, a new method combining Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Multi-body Dynamics (MBD) to calculate dynamic stress under assembly load case and dynamic firing load at each main key case is described. High cycle fatigue safety factor, connecting rod to cap contact performance, and buckling cover factor are also got through postprocessor. Experiment of the connecting rod is conducted to verify the results of the 3D structural simulation method. Well agreement is shown with simulation result of buckling cover factor and high cycle fatigue safety factor which proved this simulation method predicts connecting rod buckling cover factor and fatigue strength accurately. Also, the development period is shortened effectively.

Yongming Zheng, Hongyu Wang, Zhaoshuo Wu

A Study of Misfire Detection

Misfire detection constitutes an essential ingredient of onboard diagnostics (OBD) of light-duty vehicles, and the crankshaft speed-based misfire detection is the commonly used method. In this study, for misfire detection, experiments are conducted on a vehicle equipped with a three-cylinder 1.0T engine. A combination method to improve the misfire detection is proposed, and a performance measurement algorithm is also introduced for misfire detection performance comparison. Based on the detection performance measurement algorithm, the combination method is discussed, and experiments verify that the combination strategy can strength the detection robustness and improve the detection performance.

Tonghao Song, Tingwei Liu, Song Yan

Preparation and Application of Copper-Based Small-Pore Molecular Catalysts for Diesel Vehicle

To meet more strict international Europe VI emission standard, Cu–Ce/SAPO-34 and Cu–Ce/SSZ-13 were prepared by once ion exchange–impregnation methods for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3, and physicochemical properties as well as its catalytic characteristics had been investigated. Comparing to the Cu–Ce/SAPO-34 catalyst, Cu–Ce/SSZ-13 catalyst showed better low-temperature activity, wider temperature window, excellent resistance to H2O and SO2, good dispersion, low reduce temperature, and the strongest surface acidity. Cu–Ce/SSZ-13 catalyst was a promising technology for De–NOx with NH3 in diesel vehicle.

Lina Yu, Bin Zhang, Long Cui, Kejin Zhang, Jian Han, Xinyan Mi, Zhonghui Su

End-to-End Adaptive Cruise Control Based on Timing Network

In recent years, driverless vehicle technology receives more attention because of its excellent performance on safety and efficiency. On the other hand, driverless vehicle calls for high-precision environmental perception and expert-like control strategies, which needs both lots of costly sensors and complex algorithms, and makes it difficult to achieve. Machine learning provides a new theoretical basis to solve this problem with big data, while most of data has not been calibrated yet. To solve these problems partly, a machine learning model based on a temporal neural network is described in this paper to achieve “end-to-end” self-driving from uncalibrated monocular images to control signals. The proposed approach is designed for adaptive cruise control situation. The approach is implemented in a simulation platform which has the control signal data from “expert.” According to the experiment in simulation platform, it shows that the proposed approach achieves “end-to-end” self-driving and has good performance on the prediction of desired acceleration.

Zhong Cao, Diange Yang, Kun Jiang, Tinghan Wang, Xinyu Jiao, Zhongyang Xiao

Design Optimization of Multi-material Battery Enclosure for Electric Vehicle

The lightweight design of multi-material power battery enclosure for electric vehicle was presented. The sensitivity analysis method was used to determine the contribution value of each component to the optimal target weight and the first-order natural frequency. Depending on the results of sensitivity analysis, CFRP and aluminum alloy were applied to build the structure of battery enclosure. The CFRP was used for the battery case, and aluminum alloy material for the frame structure. The size of the main bearing structures was optimized. The performance indexes under multiple loading cases, such as the strength, stiffness, first-order natural frequency and weight of the battery enclosure prototype and the multi-material battery enclosure, were compared. The results show that, on the premise of ensuring the bearing characteristics of the battery enclosure, the battery enclosure achieved the weight loss of 48.86%; meanwhile, the first-order natural frequency of it increased to 32.03 Hz.

Xiaokai Chen, Mengqiang Li, Siqi Li, Jiawei Jin, Cheng Zhang

Improving the Dynamics of a Vehicular Platooning by Taking Account of Individual Vehicle Dynamics

In this work, to improve the platooning dynamics, a novel platooning control method is proposed which is realized by taking account of the individual vehicle dynamics in the platooning control decision. Wheel dynamics is viewed as an input disturbance to be involved in the platooning controller to compensate the effect of individual vehicle dynamics on the entire platooning dynamics. The proposed control scheme is evaluated by simulations based on a homogeneous platoon comprised of eight identical cars. The dynamics of each car is characterized by a four-degree-of-freedom (4DOF) single-track nonlinear vehicle model. Simulation results revealed that it is important to prevent the individual vehicle losing stability by regulating the wheel rotational dynamics for the platooning stability. Feedforward of wheel speed in the upper platooning controller can remarkably compensate the effect of individual vehicle dynamics, so the propagation of large wheel slip can be well attenuated and thus the entire platooning dynamics is improved.

Xiujian Yang, Yayong Chen

Analysis on Energy Flow of Electric Vehicle

In order to appraise energy consumption and utilization of an electric vehicle, energy flow test method was proposed. The tests were completed in a 4WD chassis dynamometer test cell with a thermal chamber. During the test, high-voltage battery, motor system, DCDC, climate control system, low-voltage accessories were monitored. Then, energy consumption characteristics of each system or component were analyzed, and energy flow was calculated. Based on energy flow graph, evaluation indexes from vehicle level to system or component level that represent energy consumption and utilization were proposed. By changing the test conditions, the impacts of temperature and drive cycles were quantified, and the accuracy of energy flow was further improving. Finally, according to energy flow results at different test conditions, optimized schemes were proposed.

Yanxin Nie, Tian Yang, Dongyue Huang, Tao Li, Peiliang Yu

Gearbox Noise Optimization of Electric Bus Based on Gear Modification

Based on the whine noise problem of the electric bus gearbox, the electric drive system of a certain electric bus was taken as the research object. A rigid flexible coupling dynamic model of the “gearbox-motor rotor” was established. The orthogonal experiment method was used to analyze the influence of the gear modification parameters on the transmission error and studied on the gear modification theoretical principles. The boundary element method was used to establish the prediction model of the radiated noise of the gearbox, and the optimization scheme was evaluated according to the noise simulation results. Finally, the feasibility of the modification scheme was verified by the bench test. The experiment results showed that the gearbox noise problem had been improved significantly, and the optimal design method of the electric bus gearbox low-noise based on the gear modification was established.

Yong Chen, Miao Yu, Hai Liu, Koucheng Zuo, Zhanjiang Li, Yuan Yang, Zhongzhe Li

Lyapunov-Based Feedback Control of Auxiliary Power Unit for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

A model-based controller of auxiliary power unit (APU) which can deal with uncertain model parameters is present. The proposed APU controller takes attention to dynamic behavior of the international combustion engine (ICE) due to its slower response compared to the generator. A mean value engine model is introduced and implemented to design the APU controller. The model parameters are supposed known first, and a basic controller is proposed. Then, considering the model uncertainty, a robust controller is given. The controllers are constructed in such a way that the throttle of ICE and the generator torque are chosen as the control variables. The convergence of the proposed controllers is obtained through the stability analysis based on Lyapunov theory. Simulations are conducted, and the results are shown to demonstrate the controllers.

Munan Hong, Zhenhui Yao, Ling Su, Bo Liu, Wei Liang

Hardware in Loop Simulation Platform for Power Train System in Series Hybrid Electric Tracked Vehicles

Because of limitations of the traditional development of controllers and complication of hybrid electric vehicle power train system, a hardware in loop simulation platform based on real-time simulator, AVL dyno, engine, and VCU is established. A detailed power train model for the hybrid electric vehicle consisting of engine-generator set, battery pack, and vehicle dynamics is built in RT-LAB and the power-followed multi-point speed switching control strategy of the engine is proposed. To verify the control strategy, the electronic throttle and engine speed in loop control system based on cascade PI theory is delivered, and the ‘Engine-VCU’ hardware in loop overall platform test is conducted.

Chao Liu, Yuan Zou, Jinlong Wu, Bing Wu

Study on Control Strategy of Dual-Motor Electric Power Steering System for Commercial Vehicle

A dual-motor electric power steering system suitable for commercial vehicles was designed. Based on ADAMS/Car, the multi-body dynamic model of the vehicle is established, and the basic assist characteristic curve of the commercial vehicle is given. Then, two kinds of electric current distribution and fault-tolerant control strategies of dual-motor EPS system are proposed. Finally, based on MATLAB/Simulink, the control model of EPS is established. The feasibility and fault tolerance of current distribution control strategy proposed in this paper are verified by co-simulation.

Yaohua Li, Qianlong Feng, Yangsen Zhang, Pengfei Ou, Peng Xu

A Study of Calibration Method for Fastener Dynamic Torque in Vehicle Durability Tests

Bolt connections are widely applied in chassis suspension assembly; however, simulation analysis accuracy for bolt connections in vehicle durability tests is limited. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a calibration method for fastener dynamic torque in vehicle durability tests. This paper proposes a method of calibrating the fastening torque of the suspension based on durability, which avoids complex theoretical calculations and a wide variety of bench tests. Firstly, the reliability of the friction coefficient is guaranteed by rewriting the algorithm and designing a calibration test. Then, the stress and demanded tightening moments are calibrated by strain gauges and gantry. Finally, the calibration of the torque within a reasonable range is ensured by a tightening test. The experiment results show that the method can not only guarantee the connected reliability of the suspension system, but also solve the problem of torque attenuation accurately and quantitatively.

Haochong Tang, Yu Wang, Zhuo Cheng, Jiaxing He, Chuanqin Chen

Study of Wheel Vibration Energy Harvesting for Intelligent Tires

A wheel vibration measurement system is set up for measuring the wheel vibration under different speeds. Then, the wheel vibration characteristics are analysed. A prototype of piezoelectric cantilever for intelligent tire is designed and tested. The results indicated that there are two parts of vibration peak in the wheel vibration. The frequency of one of the two parts changes with the speed, and its frequency is lower. The frequency of the other part does not change with the speed, and its frequency is higher. The piezoelectric cantilever is able to harvest vibration energy into electric energy, and the electric energy can be converted into steady DC voltage by LTC3588.

Bing Zhu, Jiayi Han, Jian Zhao

Inter-functional Design and Simulation of Vehicular Electronic Control Units

In this paper, the simulation platform for the inter-functional testing of vehicular Electronic Control Units (ECUs) is built by taking into consideration the characteristics of the diversification of the ECU functions, the complexity of the inter-functional behaviours, the concealment of the design flaws and the severity of the consequence of a failure. Firstly, by adopting the model-based design approach, the vehicular sub-systems are modelled in detail to fully support the design, development, testing and evaluation of the ECUs. Secondly, the simulation program interfaces are designed to achieve high compatibility with the mainstream vehicle simulation programs. Thirdly, the CAN communication architecture is established, whereby the ECUs on each sub-network are developed and integrated. Finally, the simulation experiments are conducted for a certain vehicle, where the multi-system coordination manoeuvres under complex functionalities and the correct responding manoeuvres to abnormal interrupts are set up to validate the rationality of its inter-functional logic. Furthermore, the early testing platform as well as the test cases is ready for preparing the new complex functions for the subsequent upgrade of the vehicle product.

Pan Song, Xingliang Liu, Jingang Dai, Bolin Gao

Study on Engine Control Software Testing Based on Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Platform

Electronic control technology of engine nowadays becomes increasingly widely used, and V-cycle development process has become the important development mode of the engine electronic control system. As engine control software functions become more complicated, software testing, which is a part of verification in the V-cycle development process, has been considered a particularly vital development approach. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system is used for software testing because compared with other testing platforms, it not only gets closer to the real working environment of engine controller, but also can realize the limiting conditions of engine, which contribute to a significant enhancement of test efficiency and a reduction of development expenses. Based on the self-built HIL test platform, an automatic test procedure of an eight-cylinder unit-pump diesel engine control software was proposed with a full consideration of test adequacy and test coverage ratio. The test item extraction and distribution strategy, test case design, and its implementation using automatic test scripts were introduced in detail. Test results show that the extracted test items covered all the function points of the control software and met the test demand; meanwhile, the application of automatic testing could effectively reduce the workload of program testers and greatly improve the test efficiency. Finally, the advantages of HIL-based software testing and software problems that can be solved through this methodology were also briefly summarized.

Wenwen Zeng, Ying Huang, Xuelong Zheng, Wenqiang Zhao

Dynamic Modeling and Coordinate Control for an Engine-Generator Set

The engine-generator set is widely used in extended-range electric vehicles. Dynamic coordinate control of an engine-generator set is very important for its efficient and stable operation. This paper firstly presents an average model of a diesel engine-generator set. Both the engine and generator system model are built in a semi-physical way instead of traditionally map-based. Experimental results show that the model is able to reflect the real system very well in both steady and transient states. Based on the established model, two typical dynamic coordinate control schemes are compared in terms of energy efficiency and dynamic performance. Insights on how to appropriately design a dynamic coordinate controller for the engine-generator set are briefly summarized.

Wei Zhou, Changfu Zou, Junqiu Li, Guangyao Li

Study on High-Cycle Shear Fatigue Behavior of Two Kinds of Spot-Welded 980 Mpa Ultra-High-Strength Steels

DP980 and QP980 steels are chosen to evaluate their properties of welded spot under high-cycle shear fatigue test. Samples are analyzed by OM and SEM after fatigue test. It was observed that QP980 steel has a better performance of anti-high-cycle fatigue fracture at the same welding parameters. Both fatigue cracks of two kinds of welded spot initiate from the end of pre-cracks between two base materials, and better anti-high-cycle fatigue performance of spot-welded QP980 are found due to higher initiation difficulty of fatigue cracks which has some connections with higher hardness of martensite in this area.

Zhang Ding, Yang Bing, X. G. Qin, J. C. Duan, W. C. Huang, Zhang Mao, Qin Liang

Effect of Unbalanced Vertical Force of IWM on Comfort and Stability in Four-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

With the development of electrification and intellectualization in vehicle, In-Wheel-Motor Electric-Vehicles (IWM-EVs), which eliminates mechanical transmission system and integrates fast and accurate multidimensional dynamic control, has brought significant attention in automotive industry. However, special power source arrangement and structure could enlarge vehicle unsprung weight and deteriorate wheel dynamic load. In recent years, switched reluctance (SR) motor gradually turns into a perfect IWM candidate due to high power density and dependable performance; however, tremendous ripple in output torque is directly applied to the wheels, resulting in vertical vibration which affects ride comfort and handling stability in IWM-EVs. In this paper, certain factors behind imbalanced radial force in SRM and vertical vibration of in-wheel drive vehicle are investigated by means of analytical and finite element methods. The effect of unbalanced radial force in SRM on comfort and stability of IWM-EV is analyzed and discussed. It is shown that vertical force could cause tremendous deterioration in wheel dynamic load. Otherwise, it may overlap with the resonance frequencies of vehicle wheels and body. This influences vehicle vibration response at low speed and deteriorates the ride comfort in vehicle. It is also found that the excitation has little effect on vehicle stability at given frequency bands. The negative influence of the electromagnetic excitation on the ride comfort and handling stability should not be ignored.

Zhe Li, Ling Zheng, Yinong Li, Yusheng Li, Zhoubin Xiong

The Load and Centroid Location Estimation of Tractor–Semitrailer

The load and centroid location are among the most important parameters that determine the performance of tractor–semitrailer. In this paper, the tire force was estimated by the wheel model and the tire inverse model; the vehicle load and the centroid location are calculated by combining the two-dimensional longitudinal dynamic model with the tire force estimated. The simulation result proved the load and centroid location estimation to be reliable.

Bing Zhu, Yao Feng, Jian Zhao

Study on Co-simulation of a Dual-Motor EPS for Bus Based on ADAMS and MATLAB

According to the steering system of a commercial vehicle, the overall layout of the dual motor electric power steering system (EPS) is designed, based on the PID control method, the design of power distribution scheme and fault tolerant control algorithm is presented. According to the vehicle parameters, the vehicle dynamics model is built by ADAMS, and the simulation model of dual motor EPS commercial vehicle was established in Matlab/Simulink. The assistant current distribution scheme and power assisted control strategy are studied by the joint simulation. Through the double wire test, it is verified that the designed control strategy has better steering portability.

Yaohua Li, Yangsen Zhang, Qianlong Feng, Pengfei Ou, Peng Xu

Technology of Squeeze Casting for Aluminium Alloy Automobile Triangle Arms

The technology of squeeze casting to make aluminium alloy automobile triangle arms to replace steel triangle arms can reduce 24% weight combined with topology optimization technology. Bench tests and vehicle tests show that the aluminium alloy automobile triangle arms can fulfil the requirements of this product. Valuable experiences for lightweight of automobile chassis are provided.

Juncheng Ren, Zezhong Wang, Liqiong Heng, Xinghong Zhang, Chaoliang Shi, Qiulai Wang, Bing Yang, Wanghong Xia, Chuandong Ren

Application of NX Innovative Design Model in the Fuzzy Front End Period of NEV Development

New energy vehicle (NEV) contributes much to environment protection while bringing new lifestyles to users. In China, the sales volume of NEV is massive; however, the lack of innovation and product capability puts a limit to the growth of NEV industry. Improvement of the both is needed to make the reason for users to buy NEVs is not only for government subsidies. Therefore, in light of the characteristics of vehicle industry, this paper tries to combine the integrated new product development method that emphasizes making product breakthroughs with the design-driven innovation strategy that achieves a breakthrough in the meaning of the product, to form a brand-new NX innovative design model applicable for the fuzzy front end (FFE) period of NEVs’ development, and this NX model has successfully applied on the technical development of an NEV for online car-hailing services.

Ning Xiao, Menghan Tao

Vehicle Fuel Consumption Prediction Based on Least Squares Support Vector Machine Optimized by Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Firstly, this paper summarizes the characteristics of vehicle running characteristics and design parameters, which have influence on vehicle fuel consumption. Secondly, 200 vehicle’s test results are used as training samples, with sensitive features and fuel consumption of type approve test as the input parameters, and the actual vehicle fuel consumption as output parameters. Then, a vehicle fuel consumption prediction model, which is based on least squares support vector machine, is established. Finally, the vehicle fuel consumption prediction model is used to predict the fuel consumption of another 100 vehicles. The results show that the prediction error of the test samples are less than 5%, and the fuel consumption prediction model proposed in this paper has fully considered the impact of vehicle operating characteristics and design parameters on fuel consumption. In addition, the fuel consumption prediction model has high prediction accuracy and reliability than some traditional methods such as backpropagation neural network (BPNN).

Yu Liu, Mengliang Li, Yueyun Xu, Guo Jinwei

Production and Engine Performance and Emission Evaluation of Karanja and Jatropha-Based Biodiesel

Emissions from automotive engines have caused major impact on environment and are disturbing the ecological system. The major motive force behind this research is to find the alternative fuel for the future mobility and more independence from the fossil fuels. Biodiesel fuel produced from non-edible oil like jatropha and karanja could be used to replace at least a portion of the automotive fuel consumed worldwide.This paper will be comprised of three sections. In the first section, oil was extracted from karanja and jatropha feedstocks. Also, the effect of various oil-expelling parameters was observed and optimized. In the second part, transesterification of extracted oil was carried out. For that, titration process was used to find out free fatty acids (FFAs) (percentage of oil. Innovative method has been followed to convert oil into biodiesel without knowing the chemical properties of oil. Single-step transesterification process was used for jatropha oil as FFA percentage of produced Jatropha oil is 1.5% (< 2%). And a two-step transesterification process was used for karanja oil as FFA percentage of karanja oil is 3.7% (>2%). Acid catalyst H2SO4 was used for pre-esterification, and base catalyst KOH was used for transesterification process. Properties of produced biodiesel were tested and found to meet ASTM biodiesel standards. In the third part, produced biodiesel of karanja and jatropha were tested in CI engine with B10 and B20 blends. Results show reduction in CO and HC emissions with BSFC and power values almost equal to diesel run. NOx emission was increased slightly with karanja biodiesel blends and decreased with jatropha biodiesel blends. In the present work, up to B20 blends of biodiesel have been tasted. One can check performance and emission parameters by using up to B100 blends of biodiesel. Also, the effect of variation of injection timing and injection pressure can be study to improve the performance of diesel engine with biodiesel as a fuel.

Patel Akashkumar, Chougule Nagesh, J. M. Babu, Jain Aatmesh, K. C. Vora

Experimental and Simulation Study on Vehicle Ride Comfort and Parameter Optimization

Ride comfort is one of the most important indexes to evaluate the comfort of automobile. But how to improve the ride comfort is the most challenging problem in practical engineering. Adding the three seat system to the two-degree-of-freedom system used as the calculation model of the target vehicle, the calculation formula of vibration response is deduced theoretically by using virtual excitation method and road surface excitation model. Through the test method, the total weighted acceleration root mean square value under different vehicle speed is taken as the index to evaluate the vehicle ride comfort. At the same time, the calculation model is simulated in MATLAB. The simulation results show that the calculation model has sufficient accuracy and can be used to optimize the parameters affecting vehicle ride comfort, such as quality parameters, shock absorber parameters, tires and seat parameters. Finally, a specific optimization design is put forward to improve the ride comfort of the car, considering the design requirements of suspension dynamic deflection and the practical engineering optimization experience.

Junnan Chen, Jiqing Chen, Fengchong Lan, Jun Fang, Dexing Liu

Intelligent Laser Solutions for Automotive Manufacturing

Intelligent manufacturing is the basis of Industry 4.0, which is also the trend of automotive manufacturing. The laser, as a flexible and universal tool, is more and more used in automotive industry, such as laser welding of car body and components, laser cutting of hot-forming and CFRP material. To follow the trend of Industry 4.0, laser manufacturing also becomes more and more intelligent, which includes the laser equipment and laser process. In this paper, as a leading supplier of laser technology, TRUMPF intelligent laser solutions for automotive manufacturing will be described in detail.

Jianghua Ji, Houxue Cui

Noise Detection Technology of Automotive Powertrain and Application

To summarize the principle and method of online detection of vibration and noise of automotive powertrain, and illustrate the main sources of engine and gearbox vibration and noises as well as the methods and means of analysis.

Wei Xia, Xiangjun Cao, Xinyu Duan

The Application of Film Broken Alarm Detection Technology in Polishing Machine

This paper introduces the detection principle of the polishing film broken alarm of various polishing machines used in the axial parts machining powertrain factory and analyzes its advantages and disadvantages, and the using status. It introduces in detail an optimized film broken alarming detection device, which can provide reference for other similar problems.

Xuesong Liu, Rui Chen, Zhiyong Han
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